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kaposi's sarcoma

Ryota Nakayama, Yumiko Ueno, Keiji Ueda, Tomoyuki Honda
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a gamma-2 herpesvirus, is the causative agent of KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and a plasma cell variant of multicentric Castleman's disease. Although KSHV latency is detected in KS-related tumors, oncogenic pathways activated by KSHV latent infection are not fully understood. Here, we found that retrotransposition of long interspersed element-1 (L1), a retrotransposon in the human genome, was enhanced in PEL cells. Among the KSHV latent genes, viral FLICE-inhibitory protein (vFLIP) enhanced L1 retrotransposition in an NF-κB-dependent manner...
February 15, 2019: Oncogene
Kelly G Paulson, Miranda Lahman, Aude G Chapuis, Isaac Brownell
Among all tumor types, skin cancers are profoundly sensitive to immunotherapy. Indeed, the recently reported response rates for anti-PD-1 (anti-programmed-death 1) therapy for cutaneous malignant melanomas (MM), Merkel cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and Kaposi sarcomas are all above 40%. This unique immunogenicity renders skin cancers as a paradigm for tumor-immune interactions and is driven by high mutational burdens, overexpressed tumor antigens and/or viral antigens...
February 8, 2019: International Immunology
Daniela Dana Dünn-Kittenplon, Inna Kalt, Jean-Paul Moshe Lellouche, Ronit Sarid
Herpesvirus capsid assembly involves cleavage and packaging of the viral genome. The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) open reading frame 43 (orf43) encodes a putative portal protein. The portal complex functions as a gate through which DNA is packaged into the preformed procapsids, and is injected into the cell nucleus upon infection. The amino acid sequence of the portal proteins is conserved among herpesviruses. Here, we generated an antiserum to ORF43 and determined late expression kinetics of ORF43 along with its nuclear localization...
February 1, 2019: Virology
Ryan P McNamara, Pauline E Chugh, Aubrey Bailey, Lindsey M Costantini, Zhe Ma, Rachele Bigi, Avery Cheves, Anthony B Eason, Justin T Landis, Kurtis M Host, Jie Xiong, Jack D Griffith, Blossom Damania, Dirk P Dittmer
Extracellular signaling is a mechanism that higher eukaryotes have evolved to facilitate organismal homeostasis. Recent years have seen an emerging interest in the role of secreted microvesicles, termed extracellular vesicles (EV) or exosomes in this signaling network. EV contents can be modified by the cell in response to stimuli, allowing them to relay information to neighboring cells, influencing their physiology. Here we show that the tumor virus Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) hijacks this signaling pathway to induce cell proliferation, migration, and transcriptome reprogramming in cells not infected with the virus...
February 2019: PLoS Pathogens
David A Davis, Prabha Shrestha, Ashley I Aisabor, Alexandra Stream, Veronica Galli, Cynthia A Pise-Masison, Takanobu Tagawa, Joseph M Ziegelbauer, Genoveffa Franchini, Robert Yarchoan
Most chronic viruses evade T-cell and natural killer (NK) immunity through downregulation of immune surface markers. Previously we showed that Pomalidomide (Pom) increases surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-infected latent and lytic cells and restores ICAM-1 and B7-2 in latent cells. We explored the ability of Pom to increase immune surface marker expression in cells infected by other chronic viruses, including human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human papilloma virus (HPV), Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCV), and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Aditya S Shah, Omar M Abu Saleh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Guoqiao Zheng, Subhayan Chattopadhyay, Amit Sud, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist, Asta Försti, Richard Houlston, Akseli Hemminki, Kari Hemminki
Improvement of survival in lymphocytic leukaemia has been accompanied by the occurrence of second primary cancer (SPCs). Based on Swedish Family Cancer Database, we applied bi-directional analyses in which relative risks (RRs) were calculated for any SPCs in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) and the risks of these leukaemias as SPCs. After CLL, RRs were significant for 20 SPCs, and high for skin squamous cell cancer (24·58 for in situ and 7·63 for invasive), Merkel cell carcinoma (14·36), Hodgkin lymphoma (7·16) and Kaposi sarcoma (6·76)...
January 31, 2019: British Journal of Haematology
Ethel Cesarman, Blossom Damania, Susan E Krown, Jeffrey Martin, Mark Bower, Denise Whitby
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) gained public attention as an AIDS-defining malignancy; its appearance on the skin was a highly stigmatizing sign of HIV infection during the height of the AIDS epidemic. The widespread introduction of effective antiretrovirals to control HIV by restoring immunocompetence reduced the prevalence of AIDS-related KS, although KS does occur in individuals with well-controlled HIV infection. KS also presents in individuals without HIV infection in older men (classic KS), in sub-Saharan Africa (endemic KS) and in transplant recipients (iatrogenic KS)...
January 31, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Jin Woo Han, Jong Hun Lee, Eun Kyung Kim
Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia or Masson's hemangioma is a rare vascular tumor. The reactive proliferation of endothelial cells in this disease mimics other benign or malignant vascular proliferation such as angiosarcoma or Kaposi's sarcoma. It is important to make an accurate distinction to avoid confusion with these malignant tumors. This would facilitate a proper diagnosis, which is essential so that the patient is not subjected to unnecessarily aggressive or inappropriate treatment.
February 1, 2019: Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
Wan Li, Qingxia Wang, Qi Feng, Fei Wang, Qin Yan, Shou-Jiang Gao, Chun Lu
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a highly disseminated tumor of hyperproliferative spindle endothelial cells, is the most common AIDS-associated malignancy caused by infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV-encoded viral interferon regulatory factor 1 (vIRF1) is a viral oncogene but its role in KSHV-induced tumor invasiveness and motility remains unknown. Here, we report that vIRF1 promotes endothelial cell migration, invasion and proliferation by down-regulating miR-218-5p to relieve its suppression of downstream targets high mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) and cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 1 (CMPK1)...
January 30, 2019: PLoS Pathogens
Sabrina Cohen, Caroline S Pretyman, Renato Sant'Ana, Nakul Singh, Melina Morales, Rubens N Belfort
PURPOSE: To evaluate the first three years of The Amazon Ocular Oncology Center, the first ocular cancer center in the North of Brazil. METHODS: Here, we report patient information including patients' age, gender, diagnosis, treatment, and city of origin. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-one patients were included on this study: 160 (72%) patients came from the city of Manaus, 52 (24%) from other cities in Amazonas, and 9 (4%) from other states...
January 24, 2019: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Alessandra De Leo, Zhong Deng, Olga Vladimirova, Horng-Shen Chen, Jayaraju Dheekollu, Abram Calderon, Kenneth A Myers, James Hayden, Frederick Keeney, Benedikt B Kaufer, Yan Yuan, Erle Robertson, Paul M Lieberman
The molecular basis for the formation of functional, higher-ordered macro-molecular domains is not completely known. The Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) genome forms a super-molecular domain structure during latent infection that is strictly dependent on the DNA binding properties of the viral nuclear antigen LANA to the viral terminal repeats (TR). LANA is known to form oligomeric structures that have been implicated in viral episome maintenance. In this study, we show that the LANA oligomerization interface is required for the formation of higher-order nuclear bodies that partially colocalize with DAXX, EZH2, H3K27me3, and ORC2 but not with PML...
January 25, 2019: PLoS Pathogens
Adair H Lorosa, Claudia M Pereira, Renata P Hussne, Carina M Silva-Boghossian
PURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate the knowledge of the students of dental students regarding patients care towards HIV positive individuals. METHODS: 283 dental students (pre-clinical, n = 45; clinical, n = 238) answered an electronic questionnaire, approaching biosafety procedures, oral manifestations of AIDS, and knowledge of HIV infection. Data were present as an average from findings from students of 9 different semesters, grouping them by pre-clinical (1-4) and clinical (5-9) semesters, from two different university campuses...
January 25, 2019: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
Jae Pil Hwang, Jiyoon Kim, Jung Mi Park
Multicentric Castleman's disease and Kaposi's sarcoma are more frequently observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients; however, 40-50% of the cases are HIV-negative. The present study reports the case of a 61-year-old man who presented with palpable masses in the axillary and right inguinal areas. The blood test results revealed increased serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level, with negative serological markers, including for HIV. The patient was investigated using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and fluorine- 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG PET)/CT; the images revealed multiple enlarged and intensely hypermetabolic lymph nodes in the cervical, thoracic and abdominopelvic areas...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Alexa B Steuer, Jeffrey M Cohen, Mitalee P Christman, Lauren A Penn, Nooshin Brinster, Alisa N Femia
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a vascular neoplasm that is one of the most common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related malignancies. We present the case of a 42-year-old man with a new diagnosis of HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related epidemic KS.
December 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
Sonia Cherian, Onyeka Maureen Umerah, Muhammad Tufail, Rakesh K Panchal
We present a case of a 33-year-old man with a background of HIV and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), who presented with a right sided chylothorax. He was managed with percutaneous chest drainage and talc pleurodesis, in addition to his chemotherapy and antiretroviral therapy for KS and HIV, respectively. Good clinical control of the chylothorax remained 4 months post drainage. This case report summarises the approach to investigating and managing pleural effusion, and in particular chylothorax, in HIV patients.
January 22, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Xiangya Ding, Jingyun Xu, Cong Wang, Qi Feng, Qingxia Wang, Yue Yang, Hongmei Lu, Fei Wang, Kaixiang Zhu, Wan Li, Qin Yan, Shou-Jiang Gao, Chun Lu
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a highly invasive and angiogenic tumor of endothelial spindle-shaped cells, is the most common AIDS-associated cancer caused by KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. KSHV-encoded viral FLICE-inhibitory protein (vFLIP) is a viral oncogenic protein, but its role in the dissemination and angiogenesis of KSHV-induced cancers remains unknown. Here, we report that vFLIP facilitates cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis by downregulating the SAP18-HDAC1 complex. vFLIP degrades SAP18 through a ubiquitin-proteasome pathway by recruiting E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM56...
January 22, 2019: Cell Death and Differentiation
Agnes N Kiragga, Frank Mubiru, Andrew D Kambugu, Moses R Kamya, Barbara Castelnuovo
BACKGROUND: The roll out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Sub-Saharan Africa led to a decrease in mortality. Few studies have documented the causes of deaths among patients on long term antiretroviral therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to describe the causes of death among patients on long term ART in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We used data from a prospective cohort of ART naïve patients receiving care and treatment at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda...
January 21, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Xiaobo Lu, Xuefeng Wan, Xiaoran Li, Kejun Pan, Wubuli Maimaitiaili, Yuexin Zhang
The present study investigated the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and proteins involved in its associated signaling pathways in patients with classic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated KS (AIDS-KS) in Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. A total of 35 patients with KS were enrolled in the present study between May 2011 and July 2013, including 26 cases of AIDS-KS and 9 cases of classic KS. Another 10 healthy subjects of the Uygur ethnic group were included in the normal control group...
January 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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