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TMS and connecticity

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871961/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-modulates-time-varying-electroencephalography-eeg-network-in-primary-insomnia-patients-a-tms-eeg-study
#1
Penghui Song, Hua Lin, Siran Li, Li Wang, Jianghong Liu, Ning Li, Yuping Wang
INTRODUCTION: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive method, and its application in the treatment of primary insomnia (PI) is poorly researched. PI is considered to be a functional disorder with abnormal brain network connections. TMS combined electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable method for directly probing excitability and dynamic connectivity of different regions in the brain. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of rTMS and its impact on brain network connections in PI patients...
January 17, 2019: Sleep Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864866/high-intensity-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-reveals-differential-cortical-contributions-to-prepared-responses
#2
Victoria Smith, Dana Maslovat, Neil M Drummond, Joelle Hajj, Alexandra Leguerrier, Anthony N Carlsen
Corticospinal output pathways have typically been considered to be the primary driver for voluntary movements of the hand/forearm; however, more recently, reticulospinal drive has also been implicated in the production of these movements. While both pathways may play a role, the reticulospinal tract is thought to have stronger connections to flexor muscles than to extensors. Similarly, movements involuntarily triggered via a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) are believed to receive greater reticular input than voluntary movements...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30806664/safety-and-feasibility-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-as-an-exploratory-assessment-of-corticospinal-connectivity-in-infants-after-perinatal-brain-injury-an-observational-study
#3
Samuel T Nemanich, Chao-Ying Chen, Mo Chen, Elizabeth Zorn, Bryon Mueller, Colleen Peyton, Jed T Elison, James Stinear, Raghu Rao, Michael Georgieff, Jeremiah Menk, Kyle Rudser, Bernadette Gillick
BACKGROUND: Perinatal brain injuries often impact the corticospinal system, leading to motor impairment and cerebral palsy (CP). While transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been widely used to study corticospinal connectivity in adults and older children, similar studies of young infants are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to establish the safety and feasibility of advanced TMS assessments of the corticospinal connectivity of young infants with perinatal brain injury...
February 26, 2019: Physical Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30804775/changes-in-interhemispheric-motor-connectivity-across-the-lifespan-a-combined-tms-and-dti-study
#4
Sebastian Strauss, Martin Lotze, Agnes Flöel, Martin Domin, Matthias Grothe
Age-related decline in interhemispheric connectivity between motor areas has been reported with both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements. However, not all studies were able to confirm these findings, and previous studies did not apply structural (DTI) and functional (TMS) measurements within each individual appropriately. Here, we investigated age dependency of the ipsilateral silent period (ISP) and integrity of fibers in the corpus callosum as operationalized by fractional anisotrophy (FA), using TMS and DTI, respectively, in 20 participants between 19 and 72 years of age...
2019: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772238/clinical-utility-and-prospective-of-tms-eeg
#5
REVIEW
Sara Tremblay, Nigel C Rogasch, Isabella Premoli, Daniel M Blumberger, Silvia Casarotto, Robert Chen, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Faranak Farzan, Fabio Ferrarelli, Paul B Fitzgerald, Jeanette Hui, Risto J Ilmoniemi, Vasilios K Kimiskidis, Dimitris Kugiumtzis, Pantelis Lioumis, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Tarek Rajji, Gregor Thut, Reza Zomorrodi, Ulf Ziemann, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) has emerged as a powerful tool to non-invasively probe brain circuits in humans, allowing for the assessment of several cortical properties such as excitability and connectivity. Over the past decade, this technique has been applied to various clinical populations, enabling the characterization and development of potential TMS-EEG predictors and markers of treatments and of the pathophysiology of brain disorders. The objective of this article is to present a comprehensive review of studies that have used TMS-EEG in clinical populations and to discuss potential clinical applications...
January 19, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762729/recovery-of-an-injured-corticospinal-tract-via-an-unusual-pathway-in-a-stroke-patient-case-report
#6
Sung Ho Jang, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung, You Sung Seo
RATIONALE: A few mechanisms of recovery from an injured corticospinal tract (CST) in stroke patients have been reported: recovery of an injured CST through (1) normal CST pathway, (2) peri-lesional reorganization, and (3) shifting of the cortical origin area of an injured CST from the other areas to the primary motor cortex. However, it has not been clearly elucidated so far. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old male patient presented with complete weakness of the right extremities due to an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left basal ganglia...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741546/silylated-ge-9-clusters-as-new-ligands-for-cyclic-alkyl-amino-and-mesoionic-carbene-copper-complexes
#7
Lorenz J Schiegerl, Mohand Melaimi, Daniel R Tolentino, Wilhelm Klein, Guy Bertrand, Thomas F Fässler
The coordination of Ge9 Zintl clusters at (carbene)CuI moieties is explored, and the complexes [(CAAC)Cu]2 [η3 -Ge9 {Si(TMS)3 }2 ] (1), (CAAC)Cu[η3 -Ge9 {Si(TMS)3 }3 ] (2), and (MIC)Cu[η3 -Ge9 {Si(TMS)3 }3 ] (3) are compared with their known N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) derivatives (A and B), where CAAC = cyclic (alkyl)amino carbene, MIC = mesoionic carbene, and TMS = trimethylsilane. In analogy to the NHC derivatives, the synthesis of 1-3 proceeds by single-step reactions of (CAAC)CuCl or (MIC)CuCl with the [Ge9 R2 ]2- and [Ge9 R3 ]- [R = Si(TMS)3 ] cluster ligands, respectively, and yields complexes of (carbene)CuI (carbene = CAAC, MIC) moieties exhibiting η3 -coordination modes of the Ge9 deltahedron to the Cu atom...
February 11, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696271/cerebellar-prefrontal-network-connectivity-and-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#8
Roscoe O Brady, Irene Gonsalvez, Ivy Lee, Dost Öngür, Larry J Seidman, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Shaun M Eack, Matcheri S Keshavan, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Mark A Halko
OBJECTIVE: The interpretability of results in psychiatric neuroimaging is significantly limited by an overreliance on correlational relationships. Purely correlational studies cannot alone determine whether behavior-imaging relationships are causal to illness, functionally compensatory processes, or purely epiphenomena. Negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia, amotivation, and expressive deficits) are refractory to current medications and are among the foremost causes of disability in schizophrenia...
January 30, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30692225/an-essential-role-of-the-intraparietal-sulcus-in-response-inhibition-predicted-by-parcellation-based-network
#9
Takahiro Osada, Shinri Ohta, Akitoshi Ogawa, Masaki Tanaka, Akimitsu Suda, Koji Kamagata, Masaaki Hori, Shigeki Aoki, Yasushi Shimo, Nobutaka Hattori, Takahiro Shimizu, Hiroyuki Enomoto, Ritsuko Hanajima, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Seiki Konishi
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) features close anatomical and functional relationships with the prefrontal cortex. However, the necessity of the PPC in executive functions has been questioned. The present study employed the stop-signal task to examine response inhibition, an executive function that inhibits prepotent response tendency. The brain activity and resting-state functional connectivity were measured to analyze a parcellation-based network that was aimed at identifying a candidate PPC region essential for response inhibition in humans...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666715/neural-function-in-dcc-mutation-carriers-with-and-without-mirror-movements
#10
Daniel E Vosberg, Vincent Beaulé, Angélica Torres-Berrío, Danielle Cooke, Amanda Chalupa, Natalia Jaworska, Sylvia Ml Cox, Kevin Larcher, Yu Zhang, Dominique Allard, France Durand, Alain Dagher, Chawki Benkelfat, Myriam Srour, Donatella Tampieri, Roberta La Piana, Ridha Joober, Franco Lepore, Guy Rouleau, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Michael Fox, Cecilia Flores, Marco Leyton, Hugo Théoret
OBJECTIVE: Recently identified mutations of the axon guidance molecule receptor gene, DCC, present an opportunity to investigate, in living human brain, mechanisms affecting neural connectivity and the basis of mirror movements, involuntary contralateral responses that mirror voluntary unilateral actions. We hypothesized that haploinsufficient DCC+/- mutation carriers with mirror movements would exhibit decreased DCC mRNA expression, a functional ipsilateral corticospinal tract, greater "mirroring" motor representations, and reduced interhemispheric inhibition...
January 21, 2019: Annals of Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30665069/superconditioning-tms-unmasks-latent-voluntary-innervation-in-mnd-a-case-report
#11
Blair Calancie, Eufrosina Young, Natalia Alexeeva
Motor neuron disease (MND) includes both ALS and Progressive Muscular Atrophy (PMA) as variants. Abnormalities in brain excitability and upper motor neuron (UMN) function are characteristic of ALS, but by definition are absent in PMA. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may be useful in demonstrating UMN pathology, but loss of muscle responsiveness with disease progression limits its usefulness in later stages of MND. We have developed a novel form of TMS comprised of 4 stimulating pulses that can enhance MEPs in target muscles already responding to traditional TMS inputs, in some cases even restoring MEPs in target muscles rendered unresponsive by the disease...
January 17, 2019: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30648321/maturation-changes-the-excitability-and-effective-connectivity-of-the-frontal-lobe-a-developmental-tms-eeg-study
#12
Sara Määttä, Laura Säisänen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Timo A Lakka, Niina Lintu, Eero A Haapala, Päivi Koskenkorva, Eini Niskanen, Florinda Ferreri, Mervi Könönen
The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation with simultaneous electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) offers direct neurophysiological insight into excitability and connectivity within neural circuits. However, there have been few developmental TMS-EEG studies to date, and they all have focused on primary motor cortex stimulation. In the present study, we used navigated high-density TMS-EEG to investigate the maturation of the superior frontal cortex (dorsal premotor cortex [PMd]), which is involved in a broad range of motor and cognitive functions known to develop with age...
January 15, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30625001/rubber-hand-illusion-modulates-the-influences-of-somatosensory-and-parietal-inputs-to-the-motor-cortex
#13
Reina Isayama, Michael Vesia, Gaayathiri Jegatheeswaran, Behzad Elahi, Carolyn A Gunraj, Lucilla Cardinali, Alessandro Farnè, Robert Chen
The rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm experimentally produces an illusion of rubber hand ownership and arm shift by simultaneously stroking a rubber hand in view and a participant's visually occluded hand. It involves visual, tactile and proprioceptive multisensory integration and activates multisensory areas in the brain including the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Multisensory inputs are transformed into outputs for motor control in association areas such as PPC. A behavioural study reported decreased motor performance after RHI...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30574093/vestibulospinal-and-corticospinal-modulation-of-lumbosacral-network-excitability-in-human-subjects
#14
Dimitry G Sayenko, Darryn A Atkinson, Amber M Mink, Katelyn M Gurley, V Reggie Edgerton, Susan J Harkema, Yury P Gerasimenko
As part of a project aimed to develop a novel, non-invasive techniques for comprehensive assessment of supraspinal-spinal connectivity in humans, the present study sought to explore the convergence of descending vestibulospinal and corticospinal pathways onto lumbosacral motor pools. Transcutaneous electrical spinal stimulation-evoked motor potentials were recorded from knee and ankle flexors and extensors in resting neurologically intact participants. Descending influences on lumbosacral motor neurons were studied using galvanic vestibular (GVS) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to elicit descending vestibulospinal or corticospinal volleys, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30550864/emergent-neural-turing-machine-and-its-visual-navigation
#15
Zejia Zheng, Xiang Wu, Juyang Weng
Traditional Turing Machines (TMs) are symbolic whose hand-crafted representations are static and limited. Developmental Network 1 (DN-1) uses emergent representation to perform Turing Computation. But DN-1 lacks hierarchy in its internal representations, and is hard to handle the complex visual navigation tasks. In this paper, we improve DN-1 with several new mechanisms and presenta new emergent neural Turing Machine - Developmental Network 2 (DN-2). By neural, we mean that the control of the TM has neurons as basic computing elements...
November 27, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30549127/effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-cortical-excitability-in-humans-a-tms-emg-and-tms-eeg-study
#16
Ghazaleh Darmani, Til O Bergmann, Carl Zipser, David Baur, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Ulf Ziemann
Brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) are emergent noninvasive markers of neuronal excitability and effective connectivity in humans. However, the underlying physiology of these TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) is still heavily underexplored, impeding a broad application of TEPs to study pathology in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we tested the effects of a single oral dose of three antiepileptic drugs with specific modes of action (carbamazepine, a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker; brivaracetam, a ligand to the presynaptic vesicle protein VSA2; tiagabine, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) reuptake inhibitor) on TEP amplitudes in 15 healthy adults in a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled crossover design...
December 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30476712/stuttering-as-a-matter-of-delay-in-neural-activation-a-combined-tms-eeg-study
#17
Pierpaolo Busan, Giovanni Del Ben, Lucia Roberta Russo, Simona Bernardini, Giulia Natarelli, Giorgio Arcara, Paolo Manganotti, Piero Paolo Battaglini
OBJECTIVE: Brain dynamics in developmental stuttering (DS) are not well understood. The supplementary motor area (SMA) plays a crucial role, since it communicates with regions related to planning/execution of movements, and with sub-cortical regions involved in paced/voluntary acts (such as speech). We used TMS combined with EEG to shed light on connections in DS, stimulating the SMA. METHODS: TMS/EEG was recorded in adult DS and fluent speakers (FS), stimulating the SMA during rest...
November 10, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30469123/electrophysiology-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-electroencephalographic-literature
#18
REVIEW
M Prabhavi N Perera, Neil W Bailey, Sally E Herring, Paul B Fitzgerald
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disease that causes significant decline in the quality of life of those affected. Due to our limited understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of OCD, successful treatment remains elusive. Although many have studied the pathophysiology of OCD through electroencephalography (EEG), limited attempts have been made to synthesize and interpret their findings. To bridge this gap, we conducted a comprehensive literature review using Medline/PubMed and considered the 65 most relevant studies published before June 2018...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30439389/assessing-recurrent-interactions-in-cortical-networks-modeling-eeg-response-to-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#19
Jui-Yang Chang, Matteo Fecchio, Andrea Pigorini, Marcello Massimini, Giulio Tononi, Barry D Van Veen
BACKGROUND: The basic mechanisms underlying the electroencephalograpy (EEG) response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human cortex are not well understood. NEW METHOD: A state-space modeling methodology is developed to gain insight into the network nature of the TMS/EEG response. Cortical activity is modeled using a multivariariate autoregressive model with exogenous stimulation parameters representing the effect of TMS. An observation equation models EEG measurement of cortical activity...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30391344/high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-modulates-sensorimotor-cortex-function-in-the-transition-to-sustained-muscle-pain
#20
Enrico De Martino, David A Seminowicz, Siobhan M Schabrun, Laura Petrini, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
Based on reciprocal connections between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and basal-ganglia regions associated with sensorimotor cortical excitability, it was hypothesized that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left DLPFC would modulate sensorimotor cortical excitability induced by muscle pain. Muscle pain was provoked by injections of nerve growth factor (end of Day-0 and Day-2) into the right extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscle in two groups of 15 healthy participants receiving 5 daily sessions (Day-0 to Day-4) of active or sham rTMS...
November 1, 2018: NeuroImage
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