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Silvia Bopp, Ulrich Kellner
Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) allows the treatment of a multitude of vitreoretinal disorders involving the vitreous, the retina or the choroid. There is a multitude of possible surgical sequences: peeling maneuvers, liquid perfluorocarbone, removal of traction and media opacities, retinopexy or destructive photocoagulation, and as ultima ratio, retinotomies and retinectomies. The intravitreal tamponade serves as a substitute in the vitreous cavity, allowing photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to reconnect...
February 18, 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Leon O H Kroczek, Thomas C Gunter, Anna U Rysop, Angela D Friederici, Gesa Hartwigsen
Sentence comprehension requires the rapid analysis of semantic and syntactic information. These processes are supported by a left hemispheric dominant fronto-temporal network, including left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and posterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus (pSTG/STS). Previous electroencephalography (EEG) studies have associated semantic expectancy within a sentence with a modulation of the N400 and syntactic gender violations with increases in the LAN and P600. Here, we combined focal perturbations of neural activity by means of short bursts of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with simultaneous EEG recordings to probe the functional relevance of pIFG and pSTG/STS for sentence comprehension...
January 28, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
D Tolomeo, A Rubegni, M Severino, F Pochiero, C Bruno, D Cassandrini, A Madeo, S Doccini, M Pedemonte, A Rossi, F D'Amore, M A Donati, M Di Rocco, F M Santorelli, C Nesti
Complex I (CI) is the largest component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) and it is made up of 7 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and at least 38 nuclear DNA-encoded subunits. Isolated CI deficiency is the most common single enzyme deficiency in the heterogeneous group of MRC disorders and it is a relatively common etiology of Leigh-like syndrome (LS). With a few exceptions, descriptions of the clinical spectrum of specific mutations in CI are scarce. We here present three unrelated Italian children who harbored the homoplasmic m...
February 6, 2019: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Rebecca Bentley, Emma Baker, Zoe Aitken
This paper describes who is most likely to experience household employment insecurity and housing affordability stress - double precarity - and estimates the degree to which housing affordability mediates the effect of employment insecurity on mental health. We use a cohort of 24,201 participants in 2016 Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey (6.2 repeated measures on average). We estimate the likelihood of onset of household employment insecurity, housing affordability stress and change in housing costs using longitudinal regression analyses for socio-demographic groups...
February 7, 2019: Social Science & Medicine
Keyne C Law, Nicholas P Allan, Kateryna Kolnogorova, Tracy Stecker
This study sought to examine the effect of general PTSD symptoms as well as specific PTSD symptom clusters on suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts. We first compared a correlated factors solution consistent with the DSM-5 symptom clusters for PTSD with a bifactor solution comprising a General PTSD factor and orthogonal specific factors. Using the best fitting model (i.e., bifactor solution), we then investigated the effect of specific PTSD symptom clusters on severity of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts above and beyond the effect of general PTSD symptoms...
February 3, 2019: Psychiatry Research
Burcu Çevik, Öykü Mançe-Çalışır, Eşref Cem Atbaşoğlu, Meram Can Saka, Köksal Alptekin, Alp Üçok, Burcu Sırmatel, Sinan Gülöksüz, Ajlan Tükün, Jim van Os, Güvem Gümüş-Akay
Compared to the general population, individuals diagnosed with Schizophrenia (SCZ) experience a higher frequency and an earlier onset of chronic medical disorders, resulting in a reduction in life expectancy by an average of 15-25 years. Recently, it has been hypothesized that SCZ is a syndrome of accelerated aging. Childhood adversity was also associated with the pathogenesis and course of SCZ. Our hypothesis was that both SCZ patients and their unaffected siblings would have shorter telomere length (TL) compared to of non-clinical controls...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Laura Abraira, Laura Ludovica Gramegna, Manuel Quintana, Estevo Santamarina, Javier Salas-Puig, Silvana Sarria, Alex Rovira, Manuel Toledo
PURPOSE: Late-onset non-lesional focal epilepsy, defined as new-onset seizures in patients older than 60 years, is diagnosed increasingly more often in relation to aging of the population. It has been attributed mainly to occult cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), although high levels of evidence to support this notion are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the burden of leukoaraiosis, a marker of cerebral SVD, and hippocampal atrophy in patients with late-onset epilepsy (LOE). METHODS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were retrospectively analyzed by two blinded radiologists...
February 8, 2019: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Jiaping Wang, Yongxin Wen, Qingping Zhang, Shujie Yu, Yan Chen, Xiru Wu, YueHua Zhang, Xinhua Bao
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the genetic etiology of epilepsy in a cohort of Chinese children. METHODS: Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed for 120 patients with unexplained epilepsy, including 71 patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies, and 16 patients with Dravet syndrome (including three patients with a Dravet-like phenotype) but without SCN1A pathogenic variants. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants of 14 genes were discovered in 22 patients (18%)...
January 28, 2019: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Tom J Barry, Wing Yan Sze, Filip Raes
The tendency to recall events from one's past in a non-specific and overgeneral way has been found to predict the onset and severity of a range of emotional disorders. Memory Specificity Training (MeST) was devised a decade ago in order to target and modify this tendency so as to reduce the symptoms of emotional disorder or to reduce the risk that such disorders might emerge over time. We present a meta-analytical review of research into the effects of MeST on autobiographical memory specificity in the context of emotional disorders (k = 13)...
February 2, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Alkistis Skalkidou, Inger Sundström Poromaa, Stavros I Iliadis, Anja C Huizink, Charlotte Hellgren, Eva Freyhult, Erika Comasco
Individual differences in the response of the stress system to hormonal changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period render some women susceptible to developing depression. The present study sought to investigate peripartum depression and stress hormones in relation to stress-related genotypes. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess peripartum depressive symptoms in a sample of 1629 women, followed from pregnancy week seventeen to six months postpartum. Genotypes of ninety-four haplotype-tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sixteen genes of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis pathway were analyzed and data on psychosocial and demographic factors was collected...
February 7, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Xiaofei Wang, Chao Han, Deguang Xing, Chengwei Wang, Xuan Ding
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of early management for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH; WFNS grade IV and V), and analyze the prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 104 consecutive patients with poor-grade aSAH from the Department of Neurosurgery, the Second Hospital of Shandong University were enrolled between January 2010 and December 2017. All these patients underwent early microsurgical clipping or endovascular coiling within three days after onset...
February 5, 2019: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Tolly G Epstein, Gary M Liss, Karen Murphy Berendts, David I Bernstein
BACKGROUND: SCIT is highly effective but safety risks exist. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to: 1) identify clinical practices that could influence fatal and non-fatal systemic allergic reactions (SRs) to SCIT; and 2) identify SCIT-associated infections. METHODS: From 2008-2016, 27-51% of AAAAI/ACAAI members completed an annual survey of SCIT-related SRs of varying severity. Post-injection local cutaneous and systemic infections were queried for 2014-2016...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Nicolás Molano-González, Juan-Manuel Anaya
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the geoepidemiology of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Latin America. METHODS: This was a three phase study in which original data from a Colombian cohort of patients with SS is presented, followed by a systematic review of Colombian and Latin American studies. Lastly, the geoepidemiology of SS in Latin America was assessed by comparing the clinical characteristics of the region with those of the rest of the world by means of a meta-analysis approach...
February 15, 2019: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
John T Braun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Alexander Levit, Aaron M Regis, Andrew Gibson, Olivia H Hough, Shikhar Maheshwari, Yuksel Agca, Cansu Agca, Vladimir Hachinski, Brian L Allman, Shawn N Whitehead
Executive dysfunction and white matter inflammation continue to be relatively understudied in rodent models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Behavioural inflexibility is an important component of executive dysfunction that can be further categorized as perseverative or regressive, which respectively specify whether maladaptive persistence occurs early or late during a behavioural change. Previous studies of the TgAPP21 rat model of AD (expressing pathogenic hAPP) suggested a potentially spontaneous increase of regressive behavioral inflexibility...
February 15, 2019: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
T M Lancaster, M J Hill, R Sims, J Williams
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is partly explained by a burden of risk alleles (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) with relatively small effects. However, the mechanisms by which these loci cumulatively confer susceptibility remain largely unknown. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between increased AD risk allele burden (measured via a polygenic risk profile score; AD-RPS) with reduced hippocampal volume (HV) across a number of independent cohorts...
February 15, 2019: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Christopher Plata, Miriam Stolz, Tobias Warnecke, Susanne Steinhauser, Jochen Hinkelbein, Wolfgang A Wetsch, Bernd W Böttiger, Oliver Spelten
Using a smartphone application (PocketCPR) to determine cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality in a bystander CPR scenario - a manikin trial Plata C, Stolz M, Warnecke T, Steinhauser S, Hinkelbein J, Wetsch WA, Böttiger BW, Spelten O. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Feedback devices and dispatcher assistance increase CPR quality in bystander resuscitation. Yet, there is no data comparing both approaches with uninstructed CPR. The present prospective, randomized, controlled, manikin trial aims to determine the effects of the use of a smartphone application (PocketCPR) on CPR quality in a bystander CPR scenario compared to dispatcher-assisted telephone CPR and uninstructed CPR...
February 15, 2019: Resuscitation
Aline R Lorenzon-Ojea, Hong Wa Yung, Graham J Burton, Estela Bevilacqua
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when the protein folding machinery in the cell is unable to cope with newly synthesized proteins, which results in an accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. In response, the cell activates a cellular signaling pathway known as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), aiming to restore cellular homeostasis. Activation and exacerbation of the UPR have been described in several human pathologies, including cancer and neurological disorders, and in some gestational diseases such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes...
February 15, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Gustavo Roberto Villas Boas, Roseli Boerngen de Lacerda, Marina Meirelles Paes, Priscila Gubert, Wagner Luis da Cruz Almeida, Vanessa Cristina Rescia, Pablinny Moreira Galdino de Carvalho, Adryano Augustto Valladao de Carvalho, Silvia Aparecida Oesterreich
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known as unipolar depression, is one of the leading causes of disability and disease worldwide. The signs and symptoms are low self‑esteem, anhedonia, feeling of worthlessness, sense of rejection and guilt, suicidal thoughts, among others. This review focuses on studies with molecular-based approaches involving MDD to obtain an integrated, more detailed and comprehensive view of the brain changes produced by this disorder and its treatment and how the Central Nervous System (CNS) produces neuroplasticity to orchestrate adaptive defensive behaviors...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Alessandra V L Quidim, Tatiana Bruno, Paola Caroline Lacerda Leocádio, Itamar S Santos, Jacqueline Isaura Alvarez-Leite, Penélope Lacrísio Dos Reis Menta, Paulo A Lotufo, Isabela M Benseñor, Alessandra C Goulart
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to analyze the association of nitrotyrosine (N-TYR) levels and long-term survival in an ongoing coronary heart disease (CHD) prospective cohort, the Acute Coronary Syndrome Registry Strategy (ERICO study). METHODS: N-TYR levels collected during acute and subacute phase from onset of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) symptoms (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) were evaluated in 342 patients. We calculated case-fatality rates (180-days, 1 year, 2 years and 4 years) and survival analyses up to 4 years using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression with respective cumulative hazard ratios (95% confidence interval; 95%CI), according to N-TYR tertiles up to 4 years of follow-up...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Biochemistry
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