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Thymic tumor

Catherine E Mercado, William F Hartsell, Charles B Simone, Henry K Tsai, Carlos E Vargas, He J Zhu, Randal H Henderson, Jing Zeng, Gary L Larson, Bradford S Hoppe
OBJECTIVE: Thymic malignancies (TM) are rare tumors with long-term survivorship, causing concerns for radiotherapy-related late side effects. Proton therapy (PT) reduces the radiation dose to organs at risk, potentially decreasing long-term toxicities while preserving disease control. We report patterns-of-care and early clinical outcomes after PT for thymoma and thymic carcinoma. METHODS: Between January 2008 and March 2017, 30 patients with TMs enrolled on one of two IRB-approved prospective protocols and received postoperative or definitive PT...
February 20, 2019: Acta Oncologica
Jonathan W Riess, Christina S Kong, Robert B West, Sukhmani K Padda, Joel W Neal, Heather A Wakelee, Quynh-Thu Le
INTRODUCTION: Thymic epithelial tumors (TET) are rare malignancies with a paucity of data on biology and therapeutics. Galectin-1 is a member of the β-galactoside binding protein family and has been shown to mediate tumor growth via modulation of immune cell function. This study examined galectin-1 expression in TET. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A tissue microarray of 68 patients with TET and 8 benign thymus controls were stained for galectin-1 expression and scored by a pathologist blinded to patient clinical and pathologic data...
December 21, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Emanuela Brunetto, Lucia De Monte, Gianpaolo Balzano, Barbara Camisa, Vincenzo Laino, Michela Riba, Silvia Heltai, Marco Bianchi, Claudio Bordignon, Massimo Falconi, Attilio Bondanza, Claudio Doglioni, Maria Pia Protti
BACKGROUND: The thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a key cytokine for development of Th2 immunity, is produced by cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in pancreatic cancer where predominant tumor infiltrating Th2 over Th1 cells correlates with reduced patients' survival. Which cells and molecules are mostly relevant in driving TSLP secretion by CAFs in pancreatic cancer is not defined. METHODS: We performed in vitro, in vivo and ex-vivo analyses. For in vitro studies we used pancreatic cancer cell lines, primary CAFs cultures, and THP1 cells...
February 13, 2019: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Xiu-Long Feng, Xue-Bin Lei, Wen-Ting Dong, Lin-Feng Yan, Yong-Kang Xin, Gang-Feng Li, Yong Jing, Shi-Jun Duan, Jie Zhang, Yu-Chuan Hu, Bo Li, Sha-Sha Zhao, Qian Sun, Jin Zhang, Tao Zhang, Dong-Liang Cheng, Guang-Bin Cui, Wen Wang
Background: Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are the most common primary thymus tumors, but neither the possible ethnical/regional differences in the incidence of TETs nor the inter-relationships among the clinical variables has been revealed in northwest China. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed among pathologically confirmed TET patients from January 2004 to December 2015 in a tertiary general hospital of northwest China and the incidence, clinical features and the inter-relationships among clinical variables were analyzed...
December 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Ayako Fujiwara, Soichiro Funaki, Naoko Ose, Takashi Kanou, Ryu Kanzaki, Masato Minami, Yasushi Shintani
Background: The hemi-clamshell (HCS) approach provides a wide anterior view of the mediastinum as well as outstanding exposure of the pulmonary hilum. Here, we evaluated the utility and outcomes of this approach in cases of advanced thymic malignancy with hilar invasion. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 14 patients with thymic epithelial malignancy surgically resected with an HCS approach. All required lung resection because of suspected pulmonary hilar vessel invasion...
December 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Kiyoshi Sato, Satoshi Fumimoto, Takayuki Kataoka, Yoshio Ichihashi, Kaoru Ochi, Hidetoshi Satomi, Nobuharu Hanaoka, Yoshikatsu Okada, Takahiro Katsumata
Thymomas are tumors originating from the thymus epithelial cells and are the most common tumors of the anterior mediastinum. They have been classified into types A, AB, B1, B2, and B3 by the World Health Organization. Type B3 thymoma is composed of epithelial cell sheets with mild to moderate atypia and scant lymphocytes. An association between thymic carcinoma and neuroendocrine differentiation has been observed by some authors. However, cases of type B3 thymoma with neuroendocrine differentiation are very rarely discussed in the literature...
2019: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Louise V Webb, Alessandro Barbarulo, Jelle Huysentruyt, Tom Vanden Berghe, Nozomi Takahashi, Steven Ley, Peter Vandenabeele, Benedict Seddon
NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signaling is considered critical for single positive (SP) thymocyte development because loss of upstream activators of NF-κB, such as the IKK complex, arrests their development. We found that the compound ablation of RelA, cRel, and p50, required for canonical NF-κB transcription, had no impact upon thymocyte development. While IKK-deficient thymocytes were acutely sensitive to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced cell death, Rel-deficient cells remained resistant, calling into question the importance of NF-κB as the IKK target required for thymocyte survival...
January 23, 2019: Immunity
Danjouma Housmanou Cheufou, Daniel Valdivia, Stephan Puhlvers, Benjamin Fels, Gerhard Weinreich, Christian Taube, Dirk Theegarten, Martin Stuschke, Martin Schuler, Balazs Hegedus, Georgios Stamatis, Clemens Aigner
BACKGROUND: Thymic epithelial and neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare malignancies and only few prognosticators are defined. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment and complete resection contributes to superior outcome. Systematic lymph node dissection is not routinely performed in thymic malignancies. Aim of this study was to assess the impact of histologically confirmed lymph node metastases on the outcome following thymectomy. METHODS: We identified 53 patients with thymic epithelial or neuroendocrine carcinomas who underwent surgical resection at our center between 1999 and 2016...
February 2, 2019: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Takahiko Akiyama, Yuji Miyamoto, Daichi Nomoto, Yuki Kiyozumi, Kojiro Eto, Yukiharu Hiyoshi, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yohei Nagai, Shiro Iwagami, Yoshifumi Baba, Naoya Yoshida, Hideo Baba
Thymic carcinoma, a rare mediastinal neoplasm, is characterized by extensive local invasion and distant metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report demonstrating the efficacy of laparoscopic dissection for pelvic lymph node metastases from thymic carcinoma. A 64-year-old man was found to have a mediastinal mass by CT and underwent radical resection. Six months after resection of his thymic carcinoma, follow-up CT revealed a gluteal tumor and enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The gluteal tumor was resected percutaneously...
February 3, 2019: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
Ellen C Border, Joseph P Sanderson, Thomas Weissensteiner, Andrew B Gerry, Nicholas J Pumphrey
Circulating T-cells that have passed thymic selection generally bear T-cell receptors (TCRs) with sub-optimal affinity for cancer-associated antigens, resulting in a limited ability to detect and eliminate tumor cells. Engineering TCRs to increase their affinity for cancer targets is a promising strategy for generating T-cells with enhanced potency for adoptive immunotherapy in cancer patients. However, this manipulation also risks generating cross-reactivity to antigens expressed by normal tissue, with potentially serious consequences...
2019: Oncoimmunology
R Kouitcheu, R Appay, M Diallo, L Troude, A Melot
Thymic epithelial tumors (TET) are rare lesions. The brain metastases of these tumors are even rarer. We report a case of brain metastases in a known patient with a thymic carcinoma diagnosed in October 2016. She was a 73-year-old woman who presented with headache, nausea, and right hemiplegia. Brain MRI revealed five lesions (1 insular, 1 frontal and 2 left temporal, 1 right parafalcine). These lesions were initially treated using two stereotactic radiosurgery gamma knives. A macroscopically complete excision of the left frontal lesion was subsequently performed without any complications with a good evolution of the neurological symptoms postoperatively...
January 30, 2019: Neuro-Chirurgie
Yuki Tomonari, Junko Sato, Tetsuro Kurotaki, Yumi Wako, Takeshi Kanno, Minoru Tsuchitani
Thymomas occur prevalently in aged Wistar Hannover (WH) rats, along with hyperplastic lesions that cannot be categorized as thymomas. We compared the histological features of hyperplastic lesions and thymomas in WH rats, the incidences of these lesions, and the relationship of these lesions to the degree of thymic involution and also compared these lesions with those of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats in 4-, 13-, 26-, and 104-week studies. There were no morphological differences between hyperplastic cells and benign tumor cells in thymomas...
January 30, 2019: Toxicologic Pathology
K C Lakshmaiah, Tamojit Chaudhuri, Govind K Babu, Lokanatha Dasappa, Linu Abraham Jacob, M C Suresh Babu, A H Rudresha, K N Lokesh, L K Rajeev
BACKGROUND: Thymic epithelial tumors (TET) are the most common tumors of the anterior mediastinum. Patients with advanced/metastatic disease are usually treated with palliative chemotherapy (CT). Unfortunately, even though various palliative CT regimens have been used for long time, there is a real scarcity of published Indian data regarding the experience of palliative CT in metastatic TET (mTET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of mTET patients treated between January 2010 and September 2017...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Cancer
Kei Matsuno, Norihiro Harada, Sonoko Harada, Tomohito Takeshige, Ayako Ishimori, Yukinari Itoigawa, Yoko Katsura, Yuzo Kodama, Fumihiko Makino, Jun Ito, Ryo Atsuta, Hisaya Akiba, Kazuhisa Takahashi
AIM OF THE STUDY: In patients with asthma, chronic inflammatory processes and the subsequent remodeling of the airways contribute to the symptoms and the pathophysiological changes. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to play an important role in tissue remodeling. Previous reports show that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a cytokine of the TNF superfamily, exerts pro-inflammatory effects, and enhances transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells...
January 24, 2019: Experimental Lung Research
Amélie Montel-Hagen, Christopher S Seet, Suwen Li, Brent Chick, Yuhua Zhu, Patrick Chang, Steven Tsai, Victoria Sun, Shawn Lopez, Ho-Chung Chen, Chongbin He, Chee Jia Chin, David Casero, Gay M Crooks
The ability to generate T cells from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has the potential to transform autologous T cell immunotherapy by facilitating universal, off-the-shelf cell products. However, differentiation of human PSCs into mature, conventional T cells has been challenging with existing methods. We report that a continuous 3D organoid system induced an orderly sequence of commitment and differentiation from PSC-derived embryonic mesoderm through hematopoietic specification and efficient terminal differentiation to naive CD3+ CD8αβ+ and CD3+ CD4+ conventional T cells with a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire...
January 4, 2019: Cell Stem Cell
Dasom Son, Hyun-Kyung Kong, Yesol Kim, Min-Ji Song, Hyong Pyo Kim, Han Woong Lee, Jong Hoon Park
Lymphocyte antigen 6 family member K (LY6K) is upregulated in a number of types of cancer and promotes tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. In addition, LY6K is involved in tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. However, the in vivo molecular mechanism of LY6K has not yet been investigated. In the present study, transgenic mice overexpressing human LY6K (hLY6K) were generated using the pMAMneo vector, and the effect of LY6K upregulation in vivo was investigated. A total of 4 transgenic mice were generated, and the gene copy number was examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
January 2019: Oncology Letters
Shuzhong Liu, Xi Zhou, An Song, Zhen Huo, William A Li, Radhika Rastogi, Yipeng Wang, Yong Liu
RATIONALE: Metastatic thymic carcinoma in the spine is a rare disease with no standard curative managements yet. The objective of this study is to report a very rare case of spinal metastases of thymic carcinoma successfully operated by combination of instrumentation and cement augmentation together with adjuvant treatment. The management of these unique cases has yet to be well-documented. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of continuous and progressive back pain...
January 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kyung Hwan Kim, Jinhyun Cho, Bo Mi Ku, Jiae Koh, Jong-Mu Sun, Se-Hoon Lee, Jin Seok Ahn, Jaekyung Cheon, Young Joo Min, Su-Hyung Park, Keunchil Park, Myung-Ju Ahn, Eui-Cheol Shin
Purpose: To investigate blood-based dynamic biomarkers that predict responses to anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy in solid tumors. Experimental Design: Preplanned biomarker analysis was performed as part of a phase II clinical trial (NCT02607631) in patients with metastatic or refractory thymic epithelial tumors (TETs; n = 31) who received pembrolizumab. The biomarker was further tested in an independent cohort of prospectively recruited patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received pembrolizumab or nivolumab (NSCLC cohort 1; n = 33) and validated in an independent cohort of patients with NSCLC (NSCLC cohort 2; n = 46)...
January 15, 2019: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Yanyan Wu, Lu Gao, Xiaopeng Guo, Zihao Wang, Wei Lian, Kan Deng, Lin Lu, Bing Xing, Huijuan Zhu
PURPOSE: To explore the clinical characteristics of pituitary adenomas in patients with MEN1 and to summarize treatment strategies for MEN1 in a Chinese population. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 54 MEN1 patients with pituitary adenomas diagnosed at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from March 2003 to January 2017. Clinical data, laboratory testing results, treatments of involved glands and treatment responses were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age at pituitary adenoma diagnosis was 53...
January 14, 2019: Pituitary
Carolina Lyon de Ana, Ksenia Arakcheeva, Parul Agnihotri, Nicole Derosia, Susan Winandy
CD4 Th cells are organizers of the immune response, directing other immune cells to initiate and maintain effective humoral and cellular immunity. CD4 T cells differentiate into distinct Th effector or regulatory subsets in response to signals delivered to them during the course of infection. Ikaros is a transcription factor that is expressed in blood cells from the level of the hematopoietic stem cell. It is required for normal thymic T cell development and serves as a tumor suppressor, as lack of Ikaros in developing lymphoid cells results in leukemia...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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