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Cholesterol treatment

Yonghae Son, Jeongyoon Choi, Boyoung Kim, Young Chul Park, Seong-Kug Eo, Hyok-Rae Cho, Sun Sik Bae, Chi Dae Kim, Koanhoi Kim
27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol) is a bioactive molecule that induces monocytic cell activation and differentiation and thereby participates in immune responses under hypercholesterolemic condition. However, it is unknown whether cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, affects biological effects of 27OHChol. In this study, we investigated whether CsA alters 27OHChol-induced cellular and molecular responses using the human monocyte/macrophage THP-1 cells. Treatment of the cells with CsA resulted in decreased expression of the mDC-specific markers (CD80, CD83 and CD88) induced by 27OHChol...
February 15, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Menno Hoekstra, Joya E Nahon, Laura M de Jong, Mara J Kröner, Lidewij R de Leeuw, Miranda Van Eck
The nuclear receptor liver X receptor (LXR) impacts on cholesterol metabolism as well as hepatic lipogenesis via transcriptional regulation. It is proposed that inhibition of the protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) uncouples these two transcriptional pathways in vivo by acting as a specific lipogenic coactivator of LXR. Here we validated the hypothesis that treatment with the allosteric PRMT3 inhibitor SGC707 will diminish the hepatic steatosis extent, while leaving global cholesterol metabolism, important in cholesterol-driven pathologies like atherosclerosis, untouched...
February 15, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Kenya Terabe, Nobunori Takahashi, Michelle Cobb, Emily B Askew, Cheryl B Knudson, Warren Knudson
In this study we examined whether the action of simvastatin affects re-differentiation of passaged chondrocytes and if so, whether this was mediated via changes in cholesterol or cholesterol intermediates. Bovine articular chondrocytes, of varying passage number, human knee chondrocytes and rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes were treated with simvastatin and examined for changes in mRNA and protein expression of markers of the chondrocyte phenotype as well as changes in cell shape, proliferation and proteoglycan production...
February 15, 2019: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
S Ashwin Kumar, P V Krishnam Raju, K V T Gopal, T Narayana Rao
Background: Many previous studies have observed an association of lichen planus (LP) with one or two comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction. This study was undertaken to determine the association of LP with common comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, thyroid dysfunction, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Materials and Methods: The study included 75 patients with clinical diagnosis of LP and 75 age- and sex-matched controls...
January 2019: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Naeti Suksomboon, Nalinee Poolsup, Wei Lin
Background: Kiwifruit seems to have beneficial effect on metabolic health because it contains abundant phytochemicals and antioxidants. This study aimed to assess the effect of kiwifruit on metabolic health in participants with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Literature was searched from PubMed, CENTRAL, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Scopus, Proquest, Latin American and Carib-bean Health Sciences Literature, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, https://clinicaltrials...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Xiao-Yang Chu, Wei Huang, Yu-Li Wang, Ling-Wei Meng, Li-Qing Chen, Ming-Ji Jin, Lu Chen, Chun-Hong Gao, Cheng Ge, Zhong-Gao Gao, Chun-Sheng Gao
Background: Intratumoral injection is a palliative treatment that aims at further improvement in the survival and quality of life of patients with advanced or recurrent carcinomas, or cancer patients with severe comorbidities or those with a poor performance status. Methods: In this study, a solvent-injection method was used to prepare paclitaxel-cholesterol complex-loaded lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles (PTX-CH-loaded LCS_NPs) for intratumoral injection therapy, and the physicochemical properties of NPs were well characterized...
2019: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Mamata Joysowal, B N Saikia, Runjun Dowarah, S Tamuly, D Kalita, K B Dev Choudhury
Aim: The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of swine-origin probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici FT28 on growth, nutrient utilization, health status, meat quality and intestinal morphology in growing female pigs. Materials and Methods: Pigs (n=27) were distributed into three groups (3 replicates of 3 each) and supplemented with basal diet either without probiotics (C) or with a probiotic of dairy-based ( Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC-15; TLact ) or swine based ( P...
December 2018: Veterinary World
Tatjana Michel, Antonia Link, Meike-Kristin Abraham, Christian Schlensak, Karlheinz Peter, Hans-Peter Wendel, Xiaowei Wang, Stefanie Krajewski
The development of messenger RNA (mRNA)-based therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases becomes more and more important because of the positive properties of in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA. With the help of IVT mRNA, the de novo synthesis of a desired protein can be induced without changing the physiological state of the target cell. Moreover, protein biosynthesis can be precisely controlled due to the transient effect of IVT mRNA. For the efficient transfection of cells, nanoliposomes (NLps) may represent a safe and efficient delivery vehicle for therapeutic mRNA...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Man-Lan Guo, Mi-Xin Sun, Jin-Zhi Lan, Li-Sha Yan, Jing-Juan Zhang, Xiao-Xia Hu, Shu Xu, Da-Hua Mao, Hai-Song Yang, Ya-Wei Liu, Teng-Xiang Chen
Cancer cell progression and proliferation increase cell density, resulting in changes to the tumour site, including the microenvironment. What is not known is if increased cell density influences the aggressiveness of cancer cells, especially their proliferation, migration, and invasion capabilities. In this study, we found that dense cell culture enhances the aggressiveness of the metastatic cancer cell lines, 4T1 and ZR-75-30, by increasing their proliferation, migration, and invasion capabilities. However, a less metastatic cell line, MCF-7, did not show an increase in aggressiveness, following dense cell culture conditions...
February 18, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Subha Mary Varghese, Jibu Thomas
Mulberry (M. alba L.) has prominent use in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times but its therapeutic properties have not been sufficiently explored in India. Present study was designed to isolate and identify the polyphenolic constituents present in mulberry leaf (M. latifolia) using HPLC and to evaluate its antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipedemic properties in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic wistar rat models. HPLC analysis identified chlorogenic acid (103mg/100gm), caffeic acid (4.3mg/100gm), coumaric acid (11...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Katrine Pilely, Siril S Bakke, Yaseelan Palarasah, Mikkel-Ole Skjoedt, Emil D Bartels, Terje Espevik, Peter Garred
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholesterol crystal (CC)-induced inflammation is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. CCs activate the complement system and induce an inflammatory response resulting in phagocytosis of the CCs, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of cytokines. The cyclodextrin 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin has been found to reduce CC-induced complement activation and induce regression of established atherosclerotic plaques in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, thus inhibition of complement with cyclodextrins is a potential new strategy for treatment of inflammation during atherosclerosis...
February 3, 2019: Atherosclerosis
Ching-Lung Cheung, Kathryn C B Tan, Philip C M Au, Gloria H Y Li, Bernard M Y Cheung
BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a key regulator of body weight in animals by regulating food intake. Its receptor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha-like (GFRAL), was identified recently. Pre-clinical studies showed that it is a promising therapeutic target for cardiometabolic diseases and anorexia/cachexia. Although many pharmaceutical companies are developing drugs targeting GFRAL, whether the findings from animal studies can be extrapolated to man is unknown...
February 13, 2019: EBioMedicine
Hsin-Hung Chen, I-Lin Lu, Te-I Liu, Yuan-Chung Tsai, Wen-Hsuan Chiang, Sung-Chyr Lin, Hsin-Cheng Chiu
To overcome low therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy against multidrug resistance (MDR) breast cancer, a combination therapy system based upon functionalized polymer nanoparticles comprising poly(γ-glutamic acid)-g-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (γ-PGA-g-PLGA) as the major component was developed. The NPs were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and indocyanine green (ICG) for dual modality cancer treatment and coated with cholesterol-PEG (C-PEG) for MDR abrogation in treatment of human MDR breast cancer. The in vitro cellular uptake of the DOX/ICG loaded nanoparticles (DI-NPs) by MDR cancer cells was significantly enhanced owing to effective inhibition of the P-gp activity by C-PEG and γ-PGA receptor-mediated endocytosis...
February 5, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Harshada Sowani, Mohan Kulkarni, Smita Zinjarde
The genus Gordonia includes variedly pigmented aerobic, non-motile, non-sporulating Gram positive (sometimes variable) coccoid forms and rods. Different isolates display distinguishing physiological traits and biochemical properties that are significant in remediation applications. Strains inherently prevalent in soils, seawater, sediments and wastewaters can degrade hydrocarbons. Immobilized cells and microbial consortia containing Gordonia species have been used for in situ applications. Hydrocarbon uptake in this Actinomycete is mediated by attachment to large droplets or by pseudosolubilization of substrates...
February 13, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
Takashi Miki, Toru Miyoshi, Kazuhiko Kotani, Kunihisa Kohno, Hirohiko Asonuma, Satoru Sakuragi, Yasushi Koyama, Kazufumi Nakamura, Hiroshi Ito
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oxidized high-density lipoprotein (oxHDL) is characterized by reduced anti-inflammatory properties compared with HDL. However, the role of oxHDL in the pathogenesis of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the association between the change in oxHDL and progression of CAC in a substudy of a multicenter study. METHODS: In the principal study, patients with a CAC score of 1-999 were treated with pitavastatin with/without eicosapentaenoic acid...
February 1, 2019: Atherosclerosis
S Alves, D R N Sonego, K A Fudimura, M L Hallack, L A Azzalis, V B C Junqueira, K C Rocha, R L A Fonseca, F W S Figueiredo, F L A Fonseca
Cancer is a disease that affects cell metabolism causing an imbalance in the health of the patient. On the other hand, malnutrition, presented by oncological patients, is caused by both the disease and its treatment. Some serum biochemical parameters cannot be determined by the traditional method of laboratory blood analysis (spectrophotometry). Among the various techniques that could be used for blood biochemical analysis, we opted for the Z-Scan technique, due to its sensitivity to the reading of blood components...
February 12, 2019: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Meijiao Wang, Dan Zhao, Liangzhi Xu, Wenjing Guo, Li Nie, Yi Lei, Yun Long, Min Liu, Yichen Wang, Xueqin Zhang, Li Zhang, Hanna Li, Jinhu Zhang, Dongzhi Yuan, Limin Yue
BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin / kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a critical role in the cholesterol metabolism by negatively regulating the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Lipid metabolic and ovarian disorders are the common clinical manifestation of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here, we intended to elucidate the role of PCSK9 in the pathogenesis of PCOS conducted on a human population in case-control design and animal part in an interventional study. METHODS: We firstly investigated the serum levels of PCSK9 in 46 PCOS patients compared with 49 healthy women as controls, and then developed a PCOS mouse model induced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and a high-fat diet (HFD) to determine the role of PCSK9 in abnormal lipid metabolism and ovarian dysfunction of PCOS in four groups (n = 40 per group): control, PCOS mice, PCOS plus alirocumab group, and PCOS plus vehicle group...
February 12, 2019: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Georgina Hazell, George Horn, Stafford L Lightman, Francesca Spiga
We tested the hypothesis that mouse ATC1 and ATC7 cells, the first adrenocortical cell lines to exhibit a complete ZF cell phenotype, respond to dynamic ACTH stimulation in a similar manner as the adrenal gland in vivo. Exploiting our previous in vivo observations that gene transcription within the steroidogenic pathway is dynamically regulated in response to a pulse of ACTH, we exposed ATC1 and ATC7 cells to various patterns of ACTH, including pulsatile and constant, and measured the transcriptional activation of this pathway...
February 15, 2019: Endocrinology
James Gill, Kathrin Kucharski, Barbara Turk, Chunshen Pan, Wenhui Wei
This prospective, randomized, real-world study aimed to examine the impact of electronic health record-based clinical decision support (CDS) tools on the management of diabetes in small- to medium-sized primary care practices participating in Delaware's patient-centered medical home project. Overall, use of CDS systems was associated with greater reductions from baseline in hemoglobin A1c and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and more patients achieving treatment goals. Physicians and staff reported that the CDS toolkit empowered them to be more involved in clinical decision-making, thereby helping to improve diabetes care...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Ambulatory Care Management
Phillipp Hartmann, Huikuan Chu, Yi Duan, Bernd Schnabl
The intestinal microbiome plays an major role in the pathogenesis of liver disease, with a hallmark event being dysbiosis, or an imbalance of pathobionts and beneficial bacteria with the associated deleterious effects on its host. Reducing the number of intestinal bacteria with antibiotic treatment is generally advantageous in experimental liver diseases. Complete absence of intestinal microbiota as in germ-free rodents can be protective in autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatic tumors induced by chemicals; or it can exacerbate disease as in acute toxic liver injury and liver fibrosis/cirrhosis...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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