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Spinal AND Cord AND Injury

Adam J Northcutt, Ryan A Hough, Alexander N Frese, Andrew D McClellan, David J Schulz
The lamprey is a popular animal model for a number of types of neurobiology studies, including organization and operation of locomotor and respiratory systems, behavioral recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI), cellular and synaptic neurophysiology, comparative neuroanatomy, neuropharmacology, and neurodevelopment. Yet relatively little work has been done on the molecular underpinnings of nervous system function in lamprey. This is due in part to a paucity of gene information for some of the most fundamental proteins involved in neural activity: ion channels...
March 13, 2019: Marine Genomics
Roseline Menezes, Sharareh Hashemi, Richard Vincent, George Collins, James Meyer, Marcus Foston, Treena L Arinzeh
Spinal cord injury can lead to severe dysfunction as a result of limited nerve regeneration that is due to an inhibitory environment created at the site of injury. Neural tissue engineering using materials that closely mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) during neural development could enhance neural regeneration. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are sulfated polysaccharides, have been shown to modulate axonal outgrowth in neural tissue depending upon the position and degree of sulfation. Cellulose sulfate (CelS), which is a GAG mimetic, was evaluated for its use in promoting neurite extension...
March 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Bin-Hao Cao, Zhi-Ming Wu, Jian-Wei Liang
BACKGROUND The objective of the study was to identify risk factors for poor prognosis of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) with subaxial cervical fracture-dislocation after surgical treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 60 cervical SCI patients with subaxial cervical fracture-dislocation were primarily included in the study from April 2013 to April 2018. All the enrolled subjects received surgical treatment. The enrolled patients with complete follow-up record were divided into 2 groups based on the neural function prognosis: a non-functional restoration group and a functional restoration group...
March 16, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Miles Wilson, Marc Nickels, Brooke Wadsworth, Peter Kruger, Adam Semciw
PURPOSE: Respiratory complications are the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality in acute cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). The prevalence of extubation failure (EF) and factors associated with it are unclear. This research aimed to systematically synthesise and pool literature describing EF and associated risk factors in acute CSCI. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using medical literature analysis and retrieval system online, cummulative index of nursing and allied health literature, excerpta medica dataBASE, and Cochrane library...
March 12, 2019: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Mirja M Wirtz, Christoph J Griessenauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Michele Scandola, Salvatore Maria Aglioti, Renato Avesani, Gianettore Bertagnoni, Anna Marangoni, Valentina Moro
Embodied Cognition Theories (ECT) postulate that higher-order cognition is heavily influenced by sensorimotor signals. We explored the active role of somatosensory afferents and motor efferents in modulating the perception of actions in people who have suffered a massive body-brain disconnection because of spinal cord injury (SCI), which leads to sensory-motor loss below the lesion. We assessed whether the habitual use of a wheelchair enhances the capacity to anticipate the endings of tool-related actions, with respect to actions that have become impossible...
2019: PloS One
Shanshan Chen, Minchun Yi, Guozhong Zhou, Yuechang Pu, Yi Hu, Mihua Han, Hua Jin
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effects of abdominal aortic transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in a rat model of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (N=160) were divided into five groups: the sham operation group (N-32); the control group (N=32); the BMMSC transplanted group (N=32); the anti-ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-treated BMMSC transplanted group (N=32); and the CNTF small interfering RNA (siRNA)-treated BMMSC transplanted group (N=32)...
March 15, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Christian Reynolds, Donal S O'Leary, Cheng Ly, Scott A Smith, Zeljka Minic
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) often occurs in individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI) and is characterized by uncontrolled hypertension in response to otherwise innocuous stimuli originating below the level of the spinal lesion. Visceral stimulation is a predominate cause of AD in humans, and effectively replicates the phenotype in rodent models of SCI. Direct assessment of sympathetic responses to viscerosensory stimulation in spinalized animals is challenging and requires invasive surgical procedures necessitating the use of anesthesia...
March 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jiahui Wang, Hao Wang, Nitish V Thakor, Chengkuo Lee
Muscle function loss can result from multiple nervous system diseases including spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Electrical muscle stimulation is clinically employed for rehabilitative and therapeutic purpose and typically requires mA-level stimulation current. Here, we report electrical muscle stimulation, which is directly powered by a stacked-layer triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) through a flexible multiple-channel intramuscular electrode. This multiple-channel intramuscular electrode allows mapping of motoneurons that is sparsely distributed in the muscle tissue and thus enables high efficiency TENG muscle stimulation, although the short-circuit current of the TENG is only 35 μA...
March 15, 2019: ACS Nano
Heather Y F Yong, Khalil S Rawji, Samira Ghorbani, Mengzhou Xue, V Wee Yong
Inflammation of the nervous system (neuroinflammation) is now recognized as a hallmark of virtually all neurological disorders. In neuroinflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, there is prominent infiltration and a long-lasting representation of various leukocyte subsets in the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma. Even in classic neurodegenerative disorders, where such immense inflammatory infiltrates are absent, there is still evidence of activated CNS-intrinsic microglia. The consequences of excessive and uncontrolled neuroinflammation are injury and death to neural elements, which manifest as a heterogeneous set of neurological symptoms...
March 15, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
G A Korshunova, A E Shul'ga, V V Zaretskov, A A Smol'kin
AIM: To estimate the character of neurophysiological monitoring in patients with thoracic and lumbar spine injuries at different treatment stages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with non-complicated (22 patients, group 1) and complicated (16 patients, group 2) thoracic and lumbar spine injuries underwent electroneuromyography (ENM) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The examination was performed at early (up to 2 weeks) and later (more than 1 month) post-injury periods, before the operation and on the 10th day after decompressing-stabilizing interventions...
2019: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Qiqi Peng, Yunsheng Ou, Yong Zhu, Zenghui Zhao, Wei Luo, Xing Du, Jianxiao Li
Objective: To explore the feasibility of posterior debridement, decompression, bone grafting, and fixation in treatment of thoracic spinal tuberculosis with myelopathy, and investigate the effects of surgical timing on postoperative outcomes. Methods: The clinical data of 26 patients with thoracic spinal tuberculosis with myelopathy between August 2012 and October 2015 was retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent posterior unilateral transpedicular debridement, decompression, bone grafting, and fixation and were divided into two groups according to surgical timing...
March 1, 2019: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Tao Liu, Shuiqiang Qiu, Zhigang Xu, Jisheng Gu, Qiang Chen, Zhendong Luo, Desheng Wu
Objective: To explore the effect on sagittal spine-pelvis balance of different fusion segments in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods: The clinical data of 326 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, treated by ACDF between January 2010 and December 2016, was retrospectively analysed. There were 175 males and 151 females with an average age of 56 years (range, 34-81 years). Fusion segments included single segment in 69 cases, double segments in 85 cases, three segments in 90 cases, and four segments in 82 cases...
March 1, 2019: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Jian-Zhong Hu, Zi-Jie Rong, Miao Li, Ping Li, Li-Yuan Jiang, Zi-Xiang Luo, Chun-Yue Duan, Yong Cao, Hong-Bin Lu
Neuropathic pain (NP) is among the most intractable comorbidities of spinal cord injury. Dysregulation of non-coding RNAs has also been implicated in the development of neuropathic pain. Here, we identified a novel lncRNA, PKIA-AS1, by using lncRNA array analysis in spinal cord tissue of spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model rats, and investigated the role of PKIA-AS1 in SNL-mediated neuropathic pain. We observed that PKIA-AS1 was significantly upregulated in SNL model rats and that PKIA-AS1 knockdown attenuated neuropathic pain progression...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Wenliang Lei, Wen Li, Longjiao Ge, Gong Chen
Adult neurogenesis has been extensively studied in rodent animals, with distinct niches found in the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ). In non-human primates and human postmortem samples, there has been heated debate regarding adult neurogenesis, but it is largely agreed that the rate of adult neurogenesis is much reduced comparing to rodents. The limited adult neurogenesis may partly explain why human brains do not have self-repair capability after injury or disease. A new technology called " in vivo cell conversion" has been invented to convert brain internal glial cells in the injury areas directly into functional new neurons to replenish the lost neurons...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Joshua D Roth, Joseph J Pariser, John T Stoffel, Sara M Lenherr, Jeremy B Myers, Blayne Welk, Sean P Elliott
STUDY DESIGN: The Neurogenic Bladder Research Group (NBRG) registry is a multicenter prospective observational study. This manuscript is retrospective based on a cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVES: To assess patient subjective assessment of urinary tract infection (UTI) frequency and severity are associated with the degree of use of catheters or incontinence products. SETTING: Multiple hospitals across the United States. METHODS: Eligibility included: age > 18 years and acquired SCI...
March 14, 2019: Spinal Cord
Shala G Berntsson, Helena Gauffin, Atle Melberg, Anders Holtz, Anne Marie Landtblom
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) treatment is considered a powerful tool in the management of severe spasticity in neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and traumatic spinal cord and brain injury. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the ITB in patients with inherited ataxia suffering from severe painful spasms and/or spasticity. METHOD: A total of 5 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia 3 or 7 or Friedreich's ataxia were included in this observational multicenter study...
March 14, 2019: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Michael F La Fountaine, Christopher M Cirnigliaro, Joshua C Hobson, Alexander T Lombard, Adam F Specht, Trevor A Dyson-Hudson, William A Bauman
CONTEXT: Fenofibrate is used to treat elevated serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations (e.g. ≥150 mg/dl). The lipoprotein profile of most individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) would not satisfy conventional criteria to initiate lipid-lowering therapies. Serum TG concentrations of 115 and 137 mg/dl were recently identified as potential intervention thresholds for persons with a SCI proximal to the 4th and below the 5th thoracic vertebrae, respectively. Fenofibrate therapy has not been tested for safety in persons with SCI...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Chary Marquez Batista, Eric Domingos Mariano, Fernando Onuchic, Camila Squarzoni Dale, Gustavo Bispo Dos Santos, Alexandre Fogaça Cristante, Jose Pinhata Otoch, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Matthias Morgalla, Guilherme Lepski
Purpose/aim: Neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) has a tremendous impact on patient's quality of life, and frequently is the most limiting aspect of the disease. In view of the severity of this condition and the absence of effective treatments, the establishment of a reliable animal model that reproduces neuropathic pain after injury is crucial for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Thus, the objective of the present study was to standardize the traumatic SCI model in relation to neuropathic pain...
March 14, 2019: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Brittany DelGrande, Carrin LaCoppola, Gabriele Moriello, Kerrianne Sanicola
PURPOSE: The purpose of this case report was to document outcomes following a rock climbing program for an individual with an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). CASE DESCRIPTION: The participant was a 61 year-old male who sustained a C6 cervical AIS D SCI. Initially, he was only able to climb 30% of the rock wall with assistance and was unable to climb unassisted. INTERVENTION: Outcome measures included muscle strength, arm girth, the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest), distance climbed, climbing performance, and the Quality of Life Profile for Adults with Physical Disabilities...
March 14, 2019: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
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