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Nutrition lipid

Di Shao, Chunxiang Yao, Maya H Kim, Jessica Fry, Richard A Cohen, Catherine E Costello, Reiko Matsui, Francesca Seta, Mark E McComb, Markus M Bachschmid
Sirtuin-1 (SirT1) catalyzes NAD+ -dependent protein lysine deacetylation and is a critical regulator of energy and lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, apoptosis, and senescence. Activation of SirT1 mitigates metabolic perturbations associated with diabetes and obesity. Pharmacologic molecules, cellular redox, and nutritional states can regulate SirT1 activity. Technical barriers against measuring endogenous SirT1 activity have limited characterization of SirT1 in disease and its activation by small molecules...
March 5, 2019: Redox Biology
Rie Oka, Akihiro Nomura, Ayaka Yasugi, Mitsuhiro Kometani, Yuko Gondoh, Kenichi Yoshimura, Takashi Yoneda
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional intervention is effective in improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes but requires large inputs of manpower. Recent improvements in photo analysis technology facilitated by artificial intelligence (AI) and remote communication technologies have enabled automated evaluations of nutrient intakes. AI- and mobile-supported nutritional intervention is expected to be an alternative approach to conventional in-person nutritional intervention, but with less human resources, although supporting evidence is not yet complete...
March 15, 2019: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Catherine J Andersen, Terrence M Vance
Dyslipidemias and leukocytosis are associated with cardiovascular disease and immune disorders. Mechanistic studies have shown lipoprotein metabolism to play a significant role in the regulation of atherosclerosis development and leukocyte activation, whereas lipid-lowering treatments have been shown to exert beneficial anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in clinical trials. However, the relationship between clinical markers of lipid metabolism and leukocyte counts has not been extensively evaluated at the population level...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
J William Allwood, Yun Xu, Pilar Martinez-Martin, Raphaёlle Palau, Alexander Cowan, Royston Goodacre, Athole Marshall, Derek Stewart, Catherine Howarth
INTRODUCTION: Oats (Avena sativa L.) are a whole grain cereal recognised for their health benefits and which are cultivated largely in temperate regions providing both a source of food for humans and animals, as well as being used in cosmetics and as a potential treatment for a number of diseases. Oats are known as being a cereal source high in dietary fibre (e.g. β-glucans), as well as being high in antioxidants, minerals and vitamins. Recently, oats have been gaining increased global attention due to their large number of beneficial health effects...
March 12, 2019: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Brian M Casey, Madeline Murguia Rice, Mark B Landon, Michael W Varner, Uma M Reddy, Ronald J Wapner, Dwight J Rouse, Joseph R Biggio, John M Thorp, Edward K Chien, George R Saade, Alan M Peaceman, Sean C Blackwell, J Peter Van Dorsten
OBJECTIVE:  The main purpose of this article is to evaluate whether identification and treatment of women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy affects subsequent maternal body mass index (BMI), anthropometry, metabolic syndrome, and risk of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN:  This is a follow-up study of women who participated in a randomized controlled treatment trial for mild GDM. Women were enrolled between 5 and 10 years after their index pregnancy...
March 13, 2019: American Journal of Perinatology
Ardythe L Morrow, Adekunle Dawodu
Fatty acids (FAs) and fat-soluble vitamins are vital components of the human milk lipid fraction. About two-thirds of the human milk FA fraction consist of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic FAs, but the precise composition depends on maternal geography, diet, and genetics. Mothers with high fish consumption have more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other ω-3 FAs in their milk, while mothers with high dairy consumption have more branched-chain FAs in their milk. Vitamins A and E are the most common fat-soluble vitamins, but milk concentrations vary, depending on maternal diet and body stores...
2019: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Panos Papandreou, Charalampos Agakidis, Maria Scouroliakou, Thomai Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Adriana Kaliora, Nick Kalogeropoulos, Tania Siahanidou
BACKGROUND: ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are reported to have beneficial effect on bone mineral density. This study aimed to evaluate early changes of bone turnover biomarkers in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates and the effect of 2 parenteral lipid emulsions (PLEs) with different PUFA composition. METHODS: This is a randomized double-blind study with parallel design. VLBW neonates (n = 66) receiving parenteral nutrition (PN)>70% of daily energy requirements for >14 days were assigned into 2 groups that were prescribed soybean oil-based (n = 35) and n-3-enriched PLE (n = 31), respectively...
March 13, 2019: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ralf Uebelhack, Udo Bongartz, Stephanie Seibt, Gordana Bothe, Pee Win Chong, Patricia De Costa, Natalia Wszelaki
Objective: This study was performed to determine the efficacy and tolerability/safety of IQP-AE-103 on body weight reduction in overweight to moderately obese adults. Methods: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial involved one hundred and eight subjects (BMI between 25 and 35 kg/m2 ) that were randomly assigned to either the low-dose or the high-dose IQP-AE-103 group, or the placebo group. Following a 2-week run-in period, subjects received two capsules of investigational product after three daily main meals for 12 weeks...
2019: Journal of Obesity
Peter Deibert, Adhara Lazaro, Denise Schaffner, Aloys Berg, Daniel Koenig, Wolfgang Kreisel, Manfred W Baumstark, Daniel Steinmann, Martin Buechert, Thomas Lange
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become one of the leading causes of liver disease in the western world. In obese patients weight reduction is recommended. Up to now there are no specific guidelines for weight loss in order to reduce hepatic fat content. AIM: To investigate the effects of a 24-wk guided lifestyle intervention program compared to a meal replacement regimen based on soy protein. METHODS: Twenty-six subjects with NASH participated in a randomized single-center study...
March 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Manpreet S Mundi, Aravind R Kuchkuntla, Bradley R Salonen, Sara Bonnes, Ryan T Hurt
BACKGROUND: Although home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is lifesaving for patients with chronic intestinal failure (IF), long-term use can be associated with complications such as infections, metabolic abnormalities, and IF-associated liver disease (IFALD). The key to treatment of many of these complications is prevention. Guidelines recommend avoidance of overfeeding, use of oral/enteral nutrition if possible, cyclic PN, and maintaining dose of soybean oil (SO) intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) <1 g/kg/day as preventive strategies for IFALD...
March 12, 2019: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Federica Tonolo, Laura Moretto, Stefania Ferro, Alessandra Folda, Valeria Scalcon, Michele Sandre, Federico Fiorese, Oriano Marin, Alberto Bindoli, Maria Pia Rigobello
Milk is a nutritionally important source of bioactive peptides with anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. These compounds can be useful as ingredients of functional food. For this reason, in the last decades, bioactive peptides attracted the interest of researchers and food companies. In this work, the results obtained with six milk-derived bioactive peptides (Y-4-R, V-6-R, V-7-K, A-10-F, R-10-M, and H-9-M) synthesized and studied for their antioxidant properties in vitro and in a cellular model, are reported...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Wolfgang Bernhard, Katrin Böckmann, Christoph Maas, Michaela Mathes, Julia Hövelmann, Anna Shunova, Verena Hund, Erwin Schleicher, Christian F Poets, Axel R Franz
OBJECTIVE: Choline and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential nutrients for preterm infant development. They are metabolically linked via phosphatidylcholine (PC), a constitutive plasma membrane lipid and the major transport form of DHA in plasma. Plasma choline and DHA-PC concentrations rapidly decline after preterm birth. To improve preterm infant nutrition, we evaluated combined compared to exclusive choline and DHA supplementation, and standard feeding. DESIGN: Randomized partially blinded single-center trial...
March 11, 2019: European Journal of Nutrition
Sarah J Carlson, Alison A O'Loughlin, Lorenzo Anez-Bustillos, Meredith A Baker, Nicholas A Andrews, Georgia Gunner, Duy T Dao, Amy Pan, Prathima Nandivada, Melissa Chang, Eileen Cowan, Paul D Mitchell, Kathleen M Gura, Michela Fagiolini, Mark Puder
Polyunsaturated fatty acids serve multiple functions in neurodevelopment and neurocognitive function. Intravenous lipid emulsions are administered to children that are dependent on parenteral nutrition to provide the essential fatty acids needed to sustain growth and development. One of these emulsions, derived from fish-oil, is particularly poor in the traditional essential fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids. However, it does contain adequate amounts of its main derivatives, arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Long Chen, David Julian McClements, Haihua Zhang, Zipei Zhang, Zhengyu Jin, Yaoqi Tian
The absorption of oil during frying has important implications for food quality, cost, and nutrition. Maize starches with low (WMS), intermediate (NMS), and high amylose (HAMS) contents were therefore heated in oil to mimic the frying process, and the impact of amylose content on the hierarchical structures and oil absorption of the fried starches was evaluated. Amylose affected the oil absorption by interfering with the structural evolution of the starch or by directly interacting with the lipids during frying...
July 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Muhammad Hafeez, Sisi Liu, Saad Jan, Asim Gulzar, G Mandela Fernández-Grandon, Muhammad Qasim, Khalid Ali Khan, Bahar Ali, Seifu Juneidi Kedir, Muhammad Fahad, Mo Wang
The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly polyphagous pest which causes considerable economic losses to cotton and many vegetable crops. Tannins are among the most important secondary metabolites in cotton plants. We show that tannic acid enhances the toxic effect of chlorantraniliprole on S. exigua when presented in combination. Bioassays using third-instar S. exigua larvae on an artificial diet showed that consumption of tannic acid with chlorantraniliprole at the concentration of (2 mg/g and LC50 0...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hidekatsu Yanai, Hiroshi Yoshida
Circulating adiponectin concentrations are reduced in obese individuals, and this reduction has been proposed to have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. We focus on the effects of adiponectin on glucose and lipid metabolism and on the molecular anti-atherosclerotic properties of adiponectin and also discuss the factors that increase the circulating levels of adiponectin. Adiponectin reduces inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, which leads to an improvement of insulin resistance...
March 8, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Brian Head, Massimo Bionaz, Gita Cherian
Flaxseed is rich in α-linolenic acid and is used in broiler chicken diets to enrich tissues with n-3 fatty acids (FA). However, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in flaxseed decreases nutrient digestibility and limits the availability of n-3 FA. Addition of carbohydrase enzymes to flaxseed-based diets can decrease the anti-nutritive effects of NSP. We hypothesized that flaxseed and enzyme supplementation affect lipid content and alter expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in broiler liver. Five day-old broiler chicks were fed a corn-soybean basal diet with 0% flaxseed, a basal diet with 10% of flaxseed, or 10% flaxseed + 0...
March 8, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Francisco García-Carrizo, Catalina Picó, Ana Maria Rodriguez, Andreu Palou
Detrimental metabolic programming has become a determinant factor in obesity propensity and the development of metabolic disorders, therefore the search of nutritional strategies to reverse it is very relevant. Pectin is a prebiotic with health-promoting effects, such as control of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, although other possible health effects and the prevention of obesity have been poorly studied. We studied the effects of chronic physiological supplementation with high-esterified pectin (HEP) in the reversion of metabolic nutrition-sensitive malprogramming associated to gestational undernutrition...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Wolfgang Maret
After 40 years of significant work, it was generally accepted that chromium in its trivalent valence state, Cr(III), is an essential micronutrient for humans. This view began to be challenged around the turn of the millennium. Some investigators argue that its effects on glucose and lipid metabolism reflect a pharmacological rather than a nutritional mode of action while yet others express concern about the toxicity and safety of supplemental chromium. Understanding the conjectures requires a reflection on the different definitions of "essential" and a perspective on the development of the field, which in itself is a remarkable snippet of science history and education...
January 14, 2019: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
Kantima Janchot, Monrawat Rauytanapanit, Masaki Honda, Takashi Hibino, Sophon Sirisattha, Thanit Praneenararat, Hakuto Kageyama, Rungaroon Waditee-Sirisattha
Microalgae are a diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms that are widely distributed globally. They are prolific sources of highly valuable compounds with fascinating chemical structures. Due to their balanced nutritional compositions and health benefits, they are increasingly being used as functional food ingredients. Carotenoid-based pigments and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are examples of high-value nutrients that can be accumulated abundantly in microalgae. Here, the effects of potassium chloride-induced stress on the productions of lipids and carotenoids in the green microalga of the Chlorococcaceae family were investigated...
March 10, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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