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Climate Change, Weather, Adoption,

Stephanie A Snyder, Michael A Kilgore, Marla R Emery, Marissa Schmitz
Maple syrup is an important non-timber forest product derived from the sap of the sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall). However, maple syrup producers are facing a diversity of challenges, including: potential range shifts in the maple resource; increasing variability in the timing, duration and yield of sap flow and syrup operations; invasive species, pests and diseases; and intergenerational land and business transfer challenges. Members of Maple Syrup Producer Associations in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan were surveyed to learn about their operations, adaptation strategies, concerns, and information needs...
January 28, 2019: Environmental Management
Jiaxin Jin, Ying Wang, Hong Jiang, Xiaofeng Chen
Timely and accurate detection of microclimates is extremely valuable for monitoring and stimulating exchanges of mass and energy in forest ecosystems under climate change. Recently, the rapid growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has provided a new approach for detecting microclimates in a complex environment at multiple temporal and spatial scales. However, applications of wireless sensors in forest microclimate monitoring have rarely been studied, and the corresponding observation accuracy, error sources and correction methods are not well understood...
November 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Abid, Jürgen Scheffran, Uwe A Schneider, Ehsan Elahi
Farmers' willingness and ability to adapt agricultural systems depend on their knowledge about changes in climate and perceived risks of extreme events. Using cross-sectional data of 450 farmers collected from three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan, this study investigates farmer perceptions of climate change and their agreement with observed climatic trends. In addition, this study explores the correlation between different adaptation stages (perceptions, intentions, and adaptation) and their key drivers using a Multivariate Probit Model...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Management
Wei Zhang, Yanhui Lu, Wopke van der Werf, Jikun Huang, Feng Wu, Ke Zhou, Xiangzheng Deng, Yuying Jiang, Kongming Wu, Mark W Rosegrant
Long-term changes in land use, climate, and agricultural technologies may affect pest severity and management. The influences of these major drivers can only be identified by analyzing long-term data. This study examines panel data on land use, adoption of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insect-resistant cotton, weather, pest severity, and insecticide use on three major cotton pests for 51 counties in China during 1991-2015. Bt cotton had pervasive effects on the whole pest complex in cotton and its management...
August 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Minjie Chen, Bruno Wichmann, Marty Luckert, Leigh Winowiecki, Wiebke Förch, Peter Läderach
Smallholder farming systems are vulnerable to a number of challenges, including continued population growth, urbanization, income disparities, land degradation, decreasing farm size and productivity, all of which are compounded by uncertainty of climatic patterns. Understanding determinants of smallholder farming practices is critical for designing and implementing successful interventions, including climate change adaptation programs. We examine two dimensions wherein smallholder farmers may adapt agricultural practices; through intensification (i...
2018: PloS One
Yunquan Zhang, Yong Yu, Minjin Peng, Runtang Meng, Kejia Hu, Chuanhua Yu
BACKGROUND: Sudden temperature change may elevate short-term mortality and remains an important global health threat in the context of climate change. To date, however, little available temperature-mortality evidence has taken into account both intra- and inter-day temperature variability (TV), thus largely limiting the comprehensive understanding of mortality burden due to unstable weather. Moreover, seasonal and temporal patterns in TV-mortality associations were sparsely discussed, nationally and regionally...
June 2018: Environment International
Yuchun Ma, Graeme Schwenke, Liying Sun, De Li Liu, Bin Wang, Bo Yang
Limited information exists on potential impacts of climate change on nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions by including N2 -fixing legumes in crop rotations from rain-fed cropping systems. Data from two 3-yr crop rotations in northern NSW, Australia, viz. chickpea-wheat-barley (CpWB) and canola-wheat-barley (CaWB), were used to gain an insight on the role of legumes in mitigation of N2 O emissions. High-frequency N2 O fluxes measured with an automated system of static chambers were utilized to test the applicability of Denitrification and Decomposition model...
July 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ademir de Oliveira Ferreira, Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado, Charles W Rice, Dorivar A Ruiz Diaz, Clever Briedis, Thiago Massao Inagaki, Daniel Ruiz Potma Gonçalves
In a climate change scenario, it is important to understand the factors that lead to changes in a soil carbon (C) sink. It is recognized that such process is highly dependent on climate, soil properties, topography, and vegetation. However, few studies demonstrate how these mechanisms operate in highly weathered Oxisols. Therefore, this study evaluated the driving factors for C recovery and accumulation and its relations with fertility attributes in the soil profile (0 to 1m depth) in no-till (NT) croplands of south Brazil...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kevin J Wolz, Sarah T Lovell, Bruce E Branham, William C Eddy, Keefe Keeley, Ronald S Revord, Michelle M Wander, Wendy H Yang, Evan H DeLucia
Annual row crops dominate agriculture around the world and have considerable negative environmental impacts, including significant greenhouse gas emissions. Transformative land-use solutions are necessary to mitigate climate change and restore critical ecosystem services. Alley cropping (AC)-the integration of trees with crops-is an agroforestry practice that has been studied as a transformative, multifunctional land-use solution. In the temperate zone, AC has strong potential for climate change mitigation through direct emissions reductions and increases in land-use efficiency via overyielding compared to trees and crops grown separately...
March 2018: Global Change Biology
Jamil A A Anache, Dennis C Flanagan, Anurag Srivastava, Edson C Wendland
Land use and climate change can influence runoff and soil erosion, threatening soil and water conservation in the Cerrado biome in Brazil. The adoption of a process-based model was necessary due to the lack of long-term observed data. Our goals were to calibrate the WEPP (Water Erosion Prediction Project) model for different land uses under subtropical conditions in the Cerrado biome; predict runoff and soil erosion for these different land uses; and simulate runoff and soil erosion considering climate change...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Si-Yu Yang, Yu-Sian Wu, Chung-Tse Chen, Ming-Hsin Lai, Hsing-Mu Yen, Chin-Ying Yang
BACKGROUND: Understanding the responses of rice to environmental stresses such as unscheduled submergence is of pressing important owing to increasing severity of weather thought to arise from global climate change. When rice is completely submerged, different types adopt either a quiescence survival strategy (i.e., minimal shoot elongation) or an escape strategy (i.e., enhanced shoot elongation). Each strategy can prolong survival depending on the circumstances. While submergence responses have been studied in rice typical of lowland and flood-prone areas, few studies have explored the physiological and molecular properties of upland rice under submergence...
August 31, 2017: Rice
Pierre Valois, Denis Talbot, Maxime Caron, Marie-Pier Carrier, Alexandre J S Morin, Jean-Sébastien Renaud, Johann Jacob, Pierre Gosselin
One of the consequences of climate change is the growing number of extreme weather events, including heat waves, which have substantial impacts on the health of populations. From a public health standpoint, it is vital to ensure that people can adapt to high heat, particularly in cities where heat islands abound. Identifying indicators to include in a parsimonious index would help better differentiate individuals who adapt well to heat from those who do not adapt as well. This study aimed at developing and validating a summer heat adaptation index for residents of the 10 largest cities in the province of Québec, Canada...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
David P Edwards, Felix Lim, Rachael H James, Christopher R Pearce, Julie Scholes, Robert P Freckleton, David J Beerling
Restricting future global temperature increase to 2°C or less requires the adoption of negative emissions technologies for carbon capture and storage. We review the potential for deployment of enhanced weathering (EW), via the application of crushed reactive silicate rocks (such as basalt), on over 680 million hectares of tropical agricultural and tree plantations to offset fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Warm tropical climates and productive crops will substantially enhance weathering rates, with potential co-benefits including decreased soil acidification and increased phosphorus supply promoting higher crop yields sparing forest for conservation, and reduced cultural eutrophication...
April 2017: Biology Letters
Daniel K Azongo, Timothy Awine, George Wak, Fred N Binka, Abraham Rexford Oduro
INTRODUCTION: Climate and weather variability can have significant health consequences of increased morbidity and mortality. However, today the impact of climate and weather variability, and consequentially, of climate change on population health in sub-Saharan Africa is not well understood. In this study, we assessed the association of daily temperature and precipitation with daily mortality by age and sex groups in Northern Ghana. METHODS: We analysed daily mortality and weather data from 1995 to 2010...
January 2012: Global Health Action
Lisandro Roco, David Poblete, Francisco Meza, George Kerrigan
Irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas faces tremendous challenges because of its exposure to hydroclimatic variability, increasing competition for water from different sectors, and the possibility of a climatic change. In this context, efficient management of water resources emerges as a critical issue. This requires the adoption of technological innovations, investment in infrastructure, adequate institutional arrangements, and informed decision makers. To understand farmers' perceptions and their implementation of climate change adaptation strategies with regards to water management, primary information was captured in the Limarí and Maule river basins in Chile...
December 2016: Environmental Management
Gwendolyn K L Wong, C Y Jim
Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Spyridon Mourtzinis, James E Specht, Laura E Lindsey, William J Wiebold, Jeremy Ross, Emerson D Nafziger, Herman J Kandel, Nathan Mueller, Philip L Devillez, Francisco J Arriaga, Shawn P Conley
The United States is one of the largest soybean exporters in the world. Production is concentrated in the upper Midwest(1). Much of this region is not irrigated, rendering soybean production systems in the area highly sensitive to in-season variations in weather. Although the influence of in-season weather trends on the yields of crops such as soybean, wheat and maize has been explored in several countries(2-6), the potentially confounding influence of genetic improvements on yields has been overlooked. Here we assess the effect of in-season weather trends on soybean yields in the United States between 1994 and 2013, using field trial data, meteorological data and information on crop management practices, including the adoption of new cultivars...
2015: Nature Plants
Sonia Akter, Timothy J Krupnik, Frederick Rossi, Fahmida Khanam
Theoretically, weather-index insurance is an effective risk reduction option for small-scale farmers in low income countries. Renewed policy and donor emphasis on bridging gender gaps in development also emphasizes the potential social safety net benefits that weather-index insurance could bring to women farmers who are disproportionately vulnerable to climate change risk and have low adaptive capacity. To date, no quantitative studies have experimentally explored weather-index insurance preferences through a gender lens, and little information exists regarding gender-specific preferences for (and constraints to) smallholder investment in agricultural weather-index insurance...
May 2016: Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions
Karen Rial-Lovera, W Paul Davies, Nicola D Cannon
The UK, like the rest of the world, is confronting the impacts of climate change. Further changes are expected and they will have a profound effect on agriculture. Future crop production will take place against increasing CO2 levels and temperatures, decreasing water availability, and increasing frequency of extreme weather events. This review contributes to research on agricultural practices for climate change, but with a more regional perspective. The present study explores climate change impacts on UK agriculture, particularly food crop production, and how to mitigate and build resilience to climate change by adopting and/or changing soil management practices, including fertilisation and tillage systems, new crop adoption and variety choice...
January 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Mariella Siña, Rachel C Wood, Enrique Saldarriaga, Joshua Lawler, Joseph Zunt, Patricia Garcia, César Cárcamo
Climate change poses multiple risks to the population of Lima, the largest city and capital of Peru, located on the Pacific coast in a desert ecosystem. These risks include increased water scarcity, increased heat, and the introduction and emergence of vector-borne and other climate sensitive diseases. To respond to these threats, it is necessary for the government, at every level, to adopt more mitigation and adaptation strategies. Here, focus groups were conducted with representatives from five Lima municipalities to determine priorities, perception of climate change, and decision-making processes for implementing projects within each municipality...
2016: PloS One
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