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Rock slope failure

David Giles, Joel Chidley, Nicola Taylor, Ollie Torr, Josh Hadley, Tom Randall, Simon Fryer
PURPOSE: To determine if the mathematical model used for the estimation of critical force (CF) and the energy store component W' is applicable to intermittent isometric muscle actions of the finger flexors of rock climbers, using a multi-session test. As a secondary aim, the agreement of estimates of CF and W' from a single-session test were also determined. The CF was defined as the slope coefficient and W' the intercept of the linear relationship between total "isometric work" (Wlim ) and time to exhaustion (Tlim )...
January 24, 2019: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Bretwood Higman, Dan H Shugar, Colin P Stark, Göran Ekström, Michele N Koppes, Patrick Lynett, Anja Dufresne, Peter J Haeussler, Marten Geertsema, Sean Gulick, Andrew Mattox, Jeremy G Venditti, Maureen A L Walton, Naoma McCall, Erin Mckittrick, Breanyn MacInnes, Eric L Bilderback, Hui Tang, Michael J Willis, Bruce Richmond, Robert S Reece, Chris Larsen, Bjorn Olson, James Capra, Aykut Ayca, Colin Bloom, Haley Williams, Doug Bonno, Robert Weiss, Adam Keen, Vassilios Skanavis, Michael Loso
Glacial retreat in recent decades has exposed unstable slopes and allowed deep water to extend beneath some of those slopes. Slope failure at the terminus of Tyndall Glacier on 17 October 2015 sent 180 million tons of rock into Taan Fiord, Alaska. The resulting tsunami reached elevations as high as 193 m, one of the highest tsunami runups ever documented worldwide. Precursory deformation began decades before failure, and the event left a distinct sedimentary record, showing that geologic evidence can help understand past occurrences of similar events, and might provide forewarning...
September 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bo Zhao, Yun-Sheng Wang, Yong-Hong Luo, Jia Li, Xin Zhang, Tong Shen
At 21.19 on 8 August 2017, an Ms 7.0 earthquake struck the Jiuzhaigou scenic spot in northwestern Sichuan Province, China. The Jiuzhaigou earthquake is a strike-slip earthquake with a focal depth of 20 km at 33.20° N and 103.82° E, and was caused by two concealed faults. According to emergency investigations and remote sensing interpretations, the Jiuzhaigou earthquake triggered 1780 landslides, damaged one dam (Nuorilang Waterfall) and broke one dam (Huohua Lake). The landslides mainly occurred in the Rize Valley and Shuzheng Valley and in Jiuzhai Paradise...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Bin Yang, Tianhong Yang, Zenghe Xu, Honglei Liu, Wenhao Shi, Xin Yang
Groundwater is an important factor of slope stability, and 90% of slope failures are related to the influence of groundwater. In the past, free surface calculations and the prediction of water inflow were based on Darcy's law. However, Darcy's law for steady fluid flow is a special case of non-Darcy flow, and many types of non-Darcy flows occur in practical engineering applications. In this paper, based on the experimental results of laboratory water seepage tests, the seepage state of each soil layer in the open-pit slope of the Yanshan Iron Mine, China, were determined, and the seepage parameters were obtained...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
JianJun Zhao, JianGuo Xiao, Min Lee Lee, YunTao Ma
Slopes are subjected to stress redistributions during underground mining activities, and this may eventually cause deformation or landslide. This paper takes Madaling landslide in Guizhou Province, China as a case study to investigate the failure mechanism and its run-out behaviours by using discrete element method. Previous qualitative analysis indicated that the slope experienced four stages of failure mechanisms: (1) development of tension cracks, (2) development of stepped-like creep cracks, (3) development of potential rupture surfaces, and (4) occurrence of the landslide...
2016: SpringerPlus
Mette R Rosberg, Susana Alvarez, Dennis Klein, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Rudolf Martini, S Rock Levinson, Christian Krarup, Mihai Moldovan
Mice heterozygously deficient for the myelin protein P0 gene (P0+/-) develop a slowly progressing neuropathy modeling demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1B). The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term progression of motor dysfunction in P0+/- mice at 3, 7, 12 and 20months. By comparison with WT littermates, P0+/- showed a decreasing motor performance with age. This was associated with a progressive reduction in amplitude and increase in latency of the plantar compound muscle action potential (CMAP) evoked by stimulation of the tibial nerve at ankle...
September 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Wei-An Chao, Li Zhao, Su-Chin Chen, Yih-Min Wu, Chi-Hsuan Chen, Hsin-Hua Huang
Flooding resulting from the bursting of dams formed by landquake events such as rock avalanches, landslides and debris flows can lead to serious bank erosion and inundation of populated areas near rivers. Seismic waves can be generated by landquake events which can be described as time-dependent forces (unloading/reloading cycles) acting on the Earth. In this study, we conduct inversions of long-period (LP, period ≥20 s) waveforms for the landquake force histories (LFHs) of ten events, which provide quantitative characterization of the initiation, propagation and termination stages of the slope failures...
2016: Scientific Reports
Irfan Mahmood, Shahid Nadeem Qureshi, Shahina Tariq, Luqman Atique, Muhammad Farooq Iqbal
INTRODUCTION: The October 2005, Kashmir earthquake main event was triggered along the Balakot-Bagh Fault which runs from Bagh to Balakot, and caused more damages in and around these areas. Major landslides were activated during and after the earthquake inflicting large damages in the area, both in terms of infrastructure and casualties. These landslides were mainly attributed to the minimum threshold of the earthquake, geology of the area, climatologic and geomorphologic conditions, mudflows, widening of the roads without stability assessment, and heavy rainfall after the earthquake...
August 26, 2015: PLoS Currents
S Laha, S Natarajan, J Gopalakrishnan, E Morán, R Sáez-Puche, M Á Alario-Franco, A J Dos Santos-Garcia, J C Pérez-Flores, A Kuhn, F García-Alvarado
We describe the synthesis, crystal structure and lithium deinsertion-insertion electrochemistry of two new lithium-rich layered oxides, Li3MRuO5 (M = Mn, Fe), related to rock salt based Li2MnO3 and LiCoO2. The Li3MnRuO5 oxide adopts a structure related to Li2MnO3 (C2/m) where Li and (Li0.2Mn0.4Ru0.4) layers alternate along the c-axis, while the Li3FeRuO5 oxide adopts a near-perfect LiCoO2 (R3[combining macron]m) structure where Li and (Li0.2Fe0.4Ru0.4) layers are stacked alternately. Magnetic measurements indicate for Li3MnRuO5 the presence of Mn(3+) and low spin configuration for Ru(4+) where the itinerant electrons occupy a π*-band...
February 7, 2015: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Marc Ostermann, Diethard Sanders, Susan Ivy-Ochs, Vasily Alfimov, Manfred Rockenschaub, Alexander Römer
In the Obernberg valley, the Eastern Alps, landforms recently interpreted as moraines are re-interpreted as rock avalanche deposits. The catastrophic slope failure involved an initial rock volume of about 45 million m³, with a runout of 7.2 km over a total vertical distance of 1330 m (fahrböschung 10°). (36)Cl surface-exposure dating of boulders of the avalanche mass indicates an event age of 8.6 ± 0.6 ka. A (14)C age of 7785 ± 190 cal yr BP of a palaeosoil within an alluvial fan downlapping the rock avalanche is consistent with the event age...
October 15, 2012: Geomorphology
M Stoffel, D Tiranti, C Huggel
This paper addresses the current knowledge on climate change impacts on mass movement activity in mountain environments by illustrating characteristic cases of debris flows, rock slope failures and landslides from the French, Italian, and Swiss Alps. It is expected that events are likely to occur less frequently during summer, whereas the anticipated increase of rainfall in spring and fall could likely alter debris-flow activity during the shoulder seasons (March, April, November, and December). The magnitude of debris flows could become larger due to larger amounts of sediment delivered to the channels and as a result of the predicted increase in heavy precipitation events...
September 15, 2014: Science of the Total Environment
Jia-wen Zhou, Chong Shi, Fu-gang Xu
Two important features of the high slopes at Gushui Hydropower Station are layered accumulations (rock-soil aggregate) and multilevel toppling failures of plate rock masses; the Gendakan slope is selected for case study in this paper. Geological processes of the layered accumulation of rock and soil particles are carried out by the movement of water flow; the main reasons for the toppling failure of plate rock masses are the increasing weight of the upper rock-soil aggregate and mountain erosion by river water...
2013: TheScientificWorldJournal
D Alexander
This paper examines the hazards, mechanisms and effects of landsliding provoked by the 1980 earthquake in Campania and Basilicata Regions, Southern Italy. The effects of seismically-induced mass-movement are assessed with respect to slope stability and damage to both settlements and roads. Whereas the mechanism of cyclic loading of soils, which can give rise to landslides, is different from the pore-pressure, gravity loading and strength-reduction mechanisms that normally cause slope failure, the morphology of slides is often indistinguishable and this made it difficult to identify which slides were directly caused by the earthquake...
December 1981: Disasters
C Huggel, N Salzmann, S Allen, J Caplan-Auerbach, L Fischer, W Haeberli, C Larsen, D Schneider, R Wessels
The number of large slope failures in some high-mountain regions such as the European Alps has increased during the past two to three decades. There is concern that recent climate change is driving this increase in slope failures, thus possibly further exacerbating the hazard in the future. Although the effects of a gradual temperature rise on glaciers and permafrost have been extensively studied, the impacts of short-term, unusually warm temperature increases on slope stability in high mountains remain largely unexplored...
May 28, 2010: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
George S Xeidakis, P K Delimani, S G Skias
The coastal zone is an area where many human activities are taking place. Erosion of the coast obstructs, in various ways, these activities creating occasionally serious socioeconomic and environmental problems. In this paper the coastal erosion problems encountered in the eastern Greek part of the North Aegean Sea Coast, a stretch of about 51 km long adjacent to the city of Alexandroupolis, are discussed. Given the observed type and location of erosion and other sea-action phenomena, the coast under study is divided in two parts/stretches...
2006: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Aleksandr Chumakov, Rudolf Rüffer, Olaf Leupold, Jean-Philippe Celse, Keith Martel, Michel Rossat, Wah-Keat Lee
The performance of an indirectly cooled cryogenic silicon monochromator under heat loads up to 870 W has been studied. The investigation was performed over numerous parameters and included measurements of total flux, spectral density, rocking curves, angular beam profiles and crystal slope errors. An almost ideal monochromator performance was observed in the 270-570 W range of the heating power. At a heat load of approximately 400 W and under standard operation conditions, the crystal distortions did not exceed 1 micro rad...
March 1, 2004: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
R L Williams, S A Brown, K Merritt
The effect of proteins on corrosion rates of 316L stainless steel, commercially pure titanium and titanium 6-aluminium 4-vanadium was studied in the static and fretting modes. The static mode was studied using cylindrical specimens as per ASTM F-746, and static fracture fixation plates. The fretting mode was studied using a two-hole plate fretting machine which caused a cyclic rocking motion between the plate and the screws, as per ASTM F-897. Electrochemical techniques of polarization resistance and Tafel slope measurements were used to study effects of proteins on the anodic and cathodic corrosion reactions...
March 1988: Biomaterials
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