Read by QxMD icon Read

Rock Engineering

Shukei Sugita, Risa Munechika, Masanori Nakamura
Some cells cultured in vitro have multiple nuclei. Since cultured cells are used in various fields of science, including tissue engineering, the nature of the multinucleated cells must be determined. However, multinucleated cells are not frequently observed. In this study, a method to efficiently obtain multinucleated cells was established and their morphological properties were investigated. Initially, we established conditions to quickly and easily generate multinucleated cells by seeding a Xenopus tadpole epithelium tissue-derived cell line (XTC-YF) on less and more hydrophilic dishes, and incubating the cultures with medium supplemented with or without Y-27632-a ROCK inhibitor-to reduce cell contractility...
February 25, 2019: Micromachines
Qingfa Chen, Tingchang Yin
In rock engineering projects, professionals assess the overall rock mass qualities using a sole value. However, the true qualities of partial rock masses are incompatible with such a value. To address this problem, the idea of regionally classifying rock mass qualities is proposed and the associated procedure presented. To achieve this goal, the probabilistic and deterministic joints within the study area were determined, and a three-dimensional joint network model was created. Then, the three-dimensional joint network model was discretized into interlocking subdomains, and the modified blockiness index ( MBi ) was used to finely identify the homogeneous structural regions, together with the k -means algorithm and the sum of squared errors (SSE)...
January 2019: Royal Society Open Science
Jichao Sun
The fissure patency of a rock mass is an important factor contributing towards the fluid production efficiency. Debris particles generated by the crushing of rock masses or other external forces can cause blockage or promote the smoothness of rock fractures. It is of immense theoretical and engineering value to analyze the mechanics of particles in rock fissures, especially under the compression of rock from both sides. In this study, through static analysis, the resultant force of particles in rock fissures is extruded by rock on both sides...
February 25, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jiangang He, Yi Xia, S Shahab Naghavi, Vidvuds Ozoliņš, Chris Wolverton
High-efficiency thermoelectric materials require simultaneously high power factors and low thermal conductivities. Aligning band extrema to achieve high band degeneracy, as realized in PbTe, is one of the most efficient approaches to enhance power factor. However, this approach usually relies on band structure engineering, e.g., via chemical doping or strain. By employing first-principles methods with explicit computation of phonon and carrier lifetimes, here we show two full-Heusler compounds Li2 TlBi and Li2 InBi have exceptionally high power factors and low lattice thermal conductivities at room temperature...
February 12, 2019: Nature Communications
Catherine Gérard, Céline Hubeau, Oriane Carnet, Marine Bellefroid, Nor Eddine Sounni, Silvia Blacher, Guillaume Bendavid, Markus Moser, Reinhard Fässler, Agnès Noel, Didier Cataldo, Natacha Rocks
Previous studies have linked cancer cell-associated ADAM28 expression with tumor progression and metastatic dissemination. However, the role of host-derived ADAM28 in cancer dissemination processes remains unclear. Genetically engineered-mice fully deficient for ADAM28 unexpectedly display increased lung colonization by pulmonary, melanoma or breast tumor cells. In experimental tumor cell dissemination models, host ADAM28 deficiency is further associated with a decreased lung infiltration by CD8+ T lymphocytes...
December 14, 2018: Oncotarget
Miguel A Vicente, Dorys C González, Jesús Mínguez
Over the past two decades, immense research efforts at a global level have extended CT-Scan technology across several engineering fields. The state-of-the-art of the most relevant research related to the use of CT-Scanning is presented in this paper, which explores microstructural studies of materials used in various fields of engineering, with especial emphasis on concrete technology. Its main aim is to present the range of new applications, in addition to the conventional uses of CT-Scan technology. Based on X-ray absorption, CT generates a visual display of the internal microstructure of a material at micro-range resolutions...
December 12, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Liang Ma, Cheng Huang, Zhong-Sheng Liu, Kevin A Morin, Mike Aziz, Cody Meints
Geochemical reactions taking place at the rock surface and pore water interface, and rapid preferential water flow through waste rock piles are identified as two primary steps for acid rock drainage (ARD) and metal leaching (ML) processes. This paper (Part I) develops a water film model to describe the interactions among sulphide minerals, pore water and oxygen, which considers the reactive surface areas as the primary sites to capture geochemical reactions including sulphide oxidation and neutralization reactions, and also considers acid and metal ion storage in pore water...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Jonathan Barés, Daniel Bonamy
Crack growth is the basic mechanism leading to the failure of brittle materials. Engineering addresses this problem within the framework of continuum mechanics, which links deterministically the crack motion to the applied loading. Such an idealization, however, fails in several situations and in particular cannot capture the highly erratic (earthquake-like) dynamics sometimes observed in slowly fracturing heterogeneous solids. Here, we examine this problem by means of innovative experiments of crack growth in artificial rocks of controlled microstructure...
November 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Hiroyoshi Y Tanaka, Kentaro Kitahara, Naoki Sasaki, Natsumi Nakao, Kae Sato, Hirokazu Narita, Hiroshi Shimoda, Michiya Matsusaki, Hiroshi Nishihara, Atsushi Masamune, Mitsunobu R Kano
Desmoplasia is a hallmark of pancreatic cancer and consists of fibrotic cells and secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Various in vitro three-dimensional (3D) models of desmoplasia have been reported, but little is known about the relevant thickness of the engineered fibrotic tissue. We thus measured the thickness of fibrotic tissue in human pancreatic cancer, as defined by the distance from the blood vessel wall to tumor cells. We then generated a 3D fibrosis model with a thickness reaching the clinically observed range using pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), the main cellular constituent of pancreatic cancer desmoplasia...
November 17, 2018: Biomaterials
Abdulhameed Al-Ghabkari, Lori D Moffat, Michael P Walsh, Justin A MacDonald
Zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) is a Ser/Thr kinase that mediates a variety of cellular functions. Analogue-sensitive kinase technology was applied to the study of ZIPK signaling in coronary artery smooth muscle cells. ZIPK was engineered in the ATP-binding pocket by substitution of a bulky gatekeeper amino acid (Leu93) with glycine. Cell-permeable derivatives of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine provided effective inhibition of L93G-ZIPK (1NM-PP1, IC50 , 1.0 μM; 3MB-PP1, IC50 , 2.0 μM; and 1NA-PP1, IC50 , 8...
November 1, 2018: Proteins
Gavin T Knight, Brady F Lundin, Nisha Iyer, Lydia Mt Ashton, William A Sethares, Rebecca M Willett, Randolph Scott Ashton
Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural organoids display unprecedented emergent properties. Yet in contrast to the singular neuroepithelial tube from which the entire central nervous system (CNS) develops in vivo, current organoid protocols yield tissues with multiple neuroepithelial units, a.k.a. neural rosettes, each acting as independent morphogenesis centers and thereby confounding coordinated, reproducible tissue development. Here, we discover that controlling initial tissue morphology can effectively (>80%) induce single neural rosette emergence within hPSC-derived forebrain and spinal tissues...
October 29, 2018: ELife
Yara A Alzahid, Peyman Mostaghimi, Alireza Gerami, Ankita Singh, Karen Privat, Tammy Amirian, Ryan T Armstrong
Fluid flow in porous rocks is commonly capillary driven and thus, dependent on the surface characteristics of rock grains and in particular the connectivity of corners and crevices in which fluids reside. Traditional microfluidic fabrication techniques do not provide a connected pathway of crevices that are essential to mimic multiphase flow in rocks. Here, geo-material microfluidic devices with connected pathways of corners and crevices were created by functionalising Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with rock minerals...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jeffrey T Wright, Zachary C Holmes, James E Byers
Ecosystem engineers are predicted to have stronger facilitative effects when environmental stress is higher. Here we examined whether facilitation of the invasive porcelain crab Petrolisthes elongatus by the ecosystem engineering serpulid tube worm Galeolaria caespitosa increased with wave exposure. Petrolisthes occurs beneath intertidal boulders which often have a high cover of Galeolaria on their underside. Surveys across nine sites demonstrated Petrolisthes abundance beneath boulders increased with wave exposure and Galeolaria cover, although only when the habitat matrix beneath boulders was rock or mixed rock and sand...
September 28, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Laura Hyväri, Miina Ojansivu, Miia Juntunen, Kimmo Kartasalo, Susanna Miettinen, Sari Vanhatupa
Adipose tissue is an attractive stem cell source for soft and bone tissue engineering applications and stem cell therapies. The adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) have a multilineage differentiation capacity that is regulated through extracellular signals. The cellular events related to cell adhesion and cytoskeleton have been suggested as central regulators of differentiation fate decision. However, the detailed knowledge of these molecular mechanisms in human ASCs remains limited. This study examined the significance of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Rho-Rho-associated protein kinase (Rho-ROCK), and their downstream target extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) on hASCs differentiation towards osteoblasts and adipocytes...
2018: Stem Cells International
Andrew R Davis, Mikel Becerro, Xavier Turon
The distribution of intertidal organisms can depend on processes operating early in their life history. The ascidian Pyura praeputialis, a mid- to low-intertidal habitat-forming ecosystem engineer, was strongly associated with specific types of habitat (biogenic vs. bare rock). We examined field patterns and performed laboratory and field experiments to assess the nature of this association. Recruits were frequently found on the tunics of conspecifics and clumps of turfing coralline algae. Larvae preferred these same habitats in a series of laboratory settlement assays...
September 22, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Yingchao Wang, Fan Geng, Shengqi Yang, Hongwen Jing, Bo Meng
Groundwater inrush through fault fracture zones is caused by small particle migration from fractured rocks of the faults. To investigate particle migration with the water flow, a 3D model was established for the solid-water two-phase flow. First, the simulated crushed sandstone was represented by certain different-sized particles with a novel cohesive force. The discrete element method (DEM) was applied for particles considering the cohesive force, the collisions, the friction, and other conventional forces...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Donglin Li, Pengzhen Cheng, Huijie Jiang, Tianqing Cao, Jimeng Wang, Yi Gao, Yangjing Lin, Chunmei Wang, Shuaishuai Zhang, Junqin Li, Bin Liu, Yue Song, Liu Yang, Guoxian Pei
The prevascularization of tissue-engineered bone grafts (TEBGs) has been shown to accelerate capillary vessel ingrowth in bone defect remodeling and to enhance new bone formation. However, the exact mechanisms behind this positive effect remain unknown. Here, we report that basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2)-Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) signaling functions as a molecular switch to regulate the lineage fate of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and that prevascularization promotes the cell fate switch, which contributes to increased bone regeneration with the use of prevascularized TEBGs compared with control TEBGs...
September 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Y Yang, S Bruns, S L S Stipp, H O Sørensen
The tendency for irreversible processes to generate entropy is the ultimate driving force for structure evolution in nature. In engineering, entropy production is often used as an indicator for loss of usable energy. In this study, we show that the analysis of entropy production patterns can provide insight into the diverse observations from experiments that investigate porous medium dissolution in imposed flow field. We first present a numerical scheme for the analysis of entropy production in dissolving porous media...
2018: PloS One
Grainne El Mountassir, James M Minto, Leon A van Paassen, Emmanuel Salifu, Rebecca J Lunn
Over the last 10-15 years, a new field of "biogeotechnics" has emerged as geotechnical engineers seek to find ground improvement technologies which have the potential to be lower carbon, more ecologically friendly, and more cost-effective than existing practices. This review summarizes the developments which have occurred in this new field, outlining in particular the microbial processes which have been shown to be most promising for altering the hydraulic and mechanical responses of soils and rocks...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Rebecca L Morris, Aline S Martinez, Louise B Firth, Ross A Coleman
The field of eco-engineering has burgeoned in recent years in response to the proliferation of artificial structures. Adding water-retaining features to seawalls has been successful in increasing biodiversity relative to the surrounding structure. Artificial rock pools may not, however, completely mimic natural rock pools. Here, we compared natural colonisation, through dispersal and recruitment, of intertidal mobile species to water-retaining flowerpots on seawalls with that into rock pools. This represents the more usual 'passive' approach to eco-engineering where features are built to enhance biodiversity and are allowed to colonise naturally, as opposed to seeding or transplanting organisms to features...
August 13, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"