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model of type 2 diabetes

Janina Rynarzewski, Lisa Dicks, Benno F Zimmermann, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Norbert Ludwig, Hans-Peter Helfrich, Sabine Ellinger
Randomized controlled trials indicate that flavanol-rich cocoa intake may improve postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), based on studies with meals that impose a strong metabolic load. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether flavanol-rich cocoa powder ingested as part of a diabetic-suitable meal may beneficially affect glucose, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure (BP) in patients with T2D. Twelve adults with T2D, overweight/obesity, and hypertension ingested capsules with 2...
February 16, 2019: Nutrients
Liwen Zhang, Shulan Su, Yue Zhu, Jianming Guo, Sheng Guo, Dawei Qian, Zhen Ouyang, Jin-Ao Duan
Mulberry leaf is one of the commonly used traditional Chinese medicines, has been shown to exert hypoglycemic effects against diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects and mechanism of mulberry leaf flavonoids (MF), polysaccharides (MP) and alkaloids (MA) on diabetic and its liver and kidney injury. The db/db mice was adopted and the results showed that the FBG (fasting blood glucose) of model group continued to increase and associated liver and kidney injury. After the intervention of MP and MA, the value of FBG exhibited the most obvious hypoglycemic effect...
February 16, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ying Xiong, Shuoqi Zhang, Jingjing Shi, Yang Fan, Qiang Zhang, Wenzhen Zhu
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI) is sensitive in detecting white matter changes in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, DTI indices can be affected by either neurite density or spatial variation. A novel diffusion MRI technique, termed neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), can provide distinct indices of fiber density and dispersion. PURPOSE: To characterize brain microstructural alterations in T2DM patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the NODDI model...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Igor Karp, Atul Sivaswamy, Christopher Booth
PURPOSE: Incretin-based medications are a novel class of agents for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The safety profile of these medications is not firmly established, and concerns have been raised about their potential carcinogenicity. The objective of our study was to produce new evidence on the effect of incretin-based medications on cancer risk in patients with DM2. METHODS: We conducted a "retrospective cohort" study with data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and the Hospital Episodes Statistics in the UK...
February 18, 2019: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Hui Shao, Shuang Yang, Vivian Fonseca, Charles Stoecker, Lizheng Shi
OBJECTIVE: Health utility decrements associated with diabetes mellitus complications are essential for calculating quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) in patients for use in economic evaluation of diabetes interventions. Previous studies mostly focused on assessing the impact of complications on health utility at event year based on cross-sectional data. This study aimed to separately estimate health utility decrements associated with current and previous diabetes complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI-3) was used to measure heath utility in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial (N = 8713)...
February 19, 2019: PharmacoEconomics
Ponnie Robertlee Dolo, Yong Shao, Chao Li, Xiaocheng Zhu, Libin Yao, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Gastric bypass with a proximal gastric pouch (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) induces early diabetes remission. The effect of gastric bypass with a distal gastric pouch remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect on glucose tolerance and diabetes remission of gastric bypass with a distal gastric pouch. METHOD: A type 2 diabetes (T2D) model was created in 44 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that randomly underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, n = 8); gastric bypass with duodenal-jejunal transit (GB-DJT, n = 8); distal-pouch gastric bypass with duodenal-jejunal transit (DPGB-DJT, n = 8); distal-pouch gastric bypass with duodenal-jejunal bypass (DPGB-DJB, n = 8); sham (n = 6); and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with esophageal re-anastomosis (RYGB-Er, n = 6) surgery...
February 18, 2019: Obesity Surgery
Christian Herder, Norbert Hermanns
Depression is a frequent comorbidity of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Depression and diabetes are linked by a bidirectional relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Experimental, observational and intervention studies showed that inflammatory processes contribute to the development of depression in animal models and humans. Given the high risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with the double burden of diabetes and depression, this review provides an overview of epidemiological studies that addressed the relationship between biomarkers of inflammation and depressive symptoms or depression in diabetes patients...
February 18, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
Xiaomei Teng, Chen Ji, Huiting Zhong, Dong Zheng, Rui Ni, David J Hill, Sidong Xiong, Guo-Chang Fan, Peter A Greer, Zhenya Shen, Tianqing Peng
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The role of non-cardiomyocytes in diabetic cardiomyopathy has not been fully addressed. This study investigated whether endothelial cell calpain plays a role in myocardial endothelial injury and microvascular rarefaction in diabetes, thereby contributing to diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Endothelial cell-specific Capns1-knockout (KO) mice were generated. Conditions mimicking prediabetes and type 1 and type 2 diabetes were induced in these KO mice and their wild-type littermates...
February 18, 2019: Diabetologia
Lishan Chen, Hang Qian, Zhihuan Luo, Dongfeng Li, Hao Xu, Jishun Chen, Peigen He, Xintao Zhou, Tao Zhang, Jun Chen, Xinwen Min
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most frequent multifactorial disease worldwide and is characterised by endothelial injury, lipid deposition and coronary artery calcification. The purpose of this study was to determine the allelic and genotypic frequencies of two loci (rs2026458 and rs9349379) of phosphatase and actin regulator 1 (PHACTR1) to the risk of developing CAD in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted including 332 patients with CAD and 119 controls...
February 18, 2019: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Xuan Wu, Yunpeng Zhang, Yixiao Xing, Bin Zhao, Cong Zhou, Yong Wen, Xin Xu
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hyperlipidemia are negatively related to bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-fat and high-glucose microenvironment on bone regeneration and to detect the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding domain (TAZ) during this process. METHODS: After establishing a high-fat and high-glucose mouse model, a 1 mm × 1...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Jo-Anne Manski-Nankervis, Sharmala Thuraisingam, Janet K Sluggett, Gary Kilov, John Furler, David O'Neal, Alicia Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in general practice and hospital settings have identified that prescribing of non-insulin diabetes medications may be sub-optimal in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and renal impairment. Since these publications, a number of new medications have become available for the management of T2D. Study aims were to, in a cohort of Australians with T2D and renal impairment attending general practice, (1) investigate whether the prescribing of non-insulin diabetes medications is consistent with dosing adjustments recommended within current Australian Diabetes Society (ADS) guidelines; and (2) identify patient socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with at least one prescription of a non-insulin diabetes medication inconsistent with current ADS guidelines for medication doses...
February 18, 2019: BMC Family Practice
Nomusa Christina Mzimela, Phikelelani Siphosethu Ngubane, Andile Khathi
Pre-diabetes is a long-lasting condition that precedes type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D has been shown to suppress the immune response. However, it remains unclear if immune activation occurs before the onset of T2D during the progression of the pre-diabetic state. This study sought to characterize the changes in general immunity occurring during the progression from pre-diabetes to T2D. Male rats were fed a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet for 20 weeks (pre-diabetes induction period) and kept on the same diet being monitored for a further 12 weeks (experimental period)...
February 18, 2019: Autoimmunity
Guoxiang Chi, Yanfei Qi, Jian Li, Li Wang, Jingjing Hu
Noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus is a serious global disease that is treated by inhibiting α-glucosidase to reduce the glucose content in the blood. Several incompletely satisfactory therapeutic drugs are already on the market. In this report, we showed that polyoxomolybdates based on Keggin-type architecture are promising candidates. Kinetic studies indicate that H3 PMo12 O40 , Na4 PMo11 VO40 , Na6 PMo11 FeO40 and Na7 PMo11 CoO40 strongly inhibit α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 6.14 ± 0.38 μM, 52...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Saeed Kalantari, Alireza Sharafshah, Parvaneh Keshavarz, Arash Davoudi, Razie Habibipour
Prior studies indicated that some of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene variants such as rs7903146, rs12255372 and rs11255372 are constantly associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in various populations and ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between TCF7L2 variants (rs7903146, rs11196205, and rs11255372) and T2DM by TaqMan assay. Statistical analysis was performed through SNPAlyze and SPSS. Significant associations of rs7903146 (P = 1.9 × 10-7), and rs11255372 (P = 2...
February 15, 2019: Gene
Wensong Li, Manli Chang, Mingli Qiu, Yangli Chen, Xiaochen Zhang, Qiang Li, Can Cui
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by progressive decrease of islet cell function. Delaying the process of islet failure remains a challenging goal in diabetes care. Previous studies have confirmed the role of obestatin, a gut peptide that belongs to ghrelin family, in the mediation of glucose metabolism. This study aimed to observe the long term effects of exogenous obestatin on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes rat model. Type 2 diabetic rat model was set up by high-fat diet (60%) followed by a low dose of streptozotocin intra-peritoneal injection...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Satoshi Ida, Ryutaro Kaneko, Kazuya Murata
In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on blood glucose levels, body weight, blood pressure, and hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, and RCTs using CGM in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were then selected. Statistical analysis included calculation of the standardized mean difference (SMD) or risk ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random effects model...
2019: Journal of Diabetes Research
Nasrin Soltani Molayaghobi, Parvaneh Abazari, Fariba Taleghani, Bijan Iraj, Ali Etesampour, Asghar Zarei, Hajar Hashemi, Feridoon Abasi
Background: Reforming the health care system to improve suitable health care model for diabetic patients is essential. This study aimed to implement, identify, and overcome the challenges of implementing the Chronic Care Model in diabetes management in a clinic. Methods: This study is a qualitative technical action research with the Kemmis and McTaggart model including planning, action, reflection, observation, and revision plan which was conducted in the specialized polyclinic from 2015 to 2017 in Isfahan city - Iran...
2019: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Naeti Suksomboon, Nalinee Poolsup, Wei Lin
Background: Kiwifruit seems to have beneficial effect on metabolic health because it contains abundant phytochemicals and antioxidants. This study aimed to assess the effect of kiwifruit on metabolic health in participants with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Literature was searched from PubMed, CENTRAL, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Scopus, Proquest, Latin American and Carib-bean Health Sciences Literature, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, https://clinicaltrials...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Ruey-Hsia Wang, Hui-Chun Hsu, Shi-Yu Chen, Chang-Hsun Hsieh, Yau-Jiunn Lee
OBJECTIVE: To model the pathways of patient empowerment (PE) and health literacy (HL) to glycemic control specific to insulin-treated patients by prospective design. METHODS: Insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (N = 185) were recruited by convenience sampling. Data of personal characteristics, PE, and HL were collected by questionnaires at baseline and 9 months later. The 9-month glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of each participant were collected from medical records...
February 8, 2019: Patient Education and Counseling
Mei Zhou, Shuyi Chen, Peng Peng, Zhongya Gu, Jing Yu, Gang Zhao, Yanqiu Deng
Dulaglutide, a novel long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is an incretin mimetic approved for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is called type 3 diabetes. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of dulaglutide on the learning and memory impairment in AD mice induced by injection of streptozocin (STZ) via intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). 32 male C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group (CON); AD model group (STZ); dulaglutide treated (Dul); dulaglutide and exendin(9-39) (Ex)...
February 14, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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