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diabetes model

Hanne Løvdal Gulseth, Ingrid Merethe Fange Gjelstad, Audrey Tierney, Danielle McCarthy, Julie A Lovegrove, Catherine Defoort, Ellen E Blaak, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Aldona Dembinska-Kiec, Ulf Risérus, Helen M Roche, Christian A Drevon, Kåre I Birkeland
OBJECTIVE: Impaired insulin secretion and action contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Dietary fat modification may improve insulin sensitivity, whereas the effect on insulin secretion is unclear. We investigated the effect of dietary fat modification on insulin secretion in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: In a 12 weeks pan-European parallel, randomized controlled dietary intervention trial (LIPGENE) 486 subjects were assigned to four isoenergetic diets: high fat diets rich in saturated fat (HSFA) or monounsaturated fat (HMUFA); or low-fat, high complex carbohydrate diets with (LFHCC n-3) or without (LFHCC-control) 1...
March 1, 2019: European Journal of Endocrinology
Afroza Shirin, Fabio Della Rossa, Isaac Klickstein, John Russell, Francesco Sorrentino
The Glucose-Insulin-Glucagon nonlinear model accurately describes how the body responds to exogenously supplied insulin and glucagon in patients affected by Type I diabetes. Based on this model, we design infusion rates of either insulin (monotherapy) or insulin and glucagon (dual therapy) that can optimally maintain the blood glucose level within desired limits after consumption of a meal and prevent the onset of both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. This problem is formulated as a nonlinear optimal control problem, which we solve using the numerical optimal control package [Formula: see text]...
2019: PloS One
Kristin E Hirabayashi, Oluwatobi O Idowu, Evan Kalin-Hajdu, Catherine E Oldenburg, Frank L Brodie, Robert C Kersten, M Reza Vagefi
PURPOSE: Invasive fungal sinusitis is a rare but potentially lethal disease that primarily affects immunocompromised patients. The purpose of this study was to review an academic medical center's experience in the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of invasive fungal sinusitis. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed at a single institution over a 17-year period. Medical records, radiographic imaging, and operative reports were analyzed. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to determine factors that affected visual acuity outcomes and mortality...
March 18, 2019: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Adeel Kaiser, Christopher Haskins, Mohummad M Siddiqui, Arif Hussain, Christopher D'Adamo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This overview examines the rationale for dietary interventions for prostate cancer by summarizing the current evidence base and biological mechanisms for the involvement of diet in disease incidence and progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data have further solidified the association between insulin resistance and prostate cancer with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Data also show that periprostatic adipocytes promote extracapsular extension of prostate cancer through chemokines, thereby providing a mechanistic explanation for the association observed between obesity and high-grade cancer...
March 15, 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Sander Kersten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs), consisting of ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, and ANGPTL8, have gained significant interest for their role as inhibitors of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and for their potential as therapeutic targets for correcting dyslipidemia. This review provides an overview of the most relevant new insights on the connection between ANGPTLs, plasma lipids, and coronary artery disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Carriers of loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL3 have a reduced risk of coronary artery disease and reduced plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL-C, while carriers of loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL4 have a reduced risk of coronary artery disease and reduced plasma levels of triglycerides and increased HDL-C...
March 18, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Dicky Struik, Marleen B Dommerholt, Johan W Jonker
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Several members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family have been identified as key regulators of energy metabolism in rodents and nonhuman primates. Translational studies show that their metabolic actions are largely conserved in humans, which led to the development of various FGF-based drugs, including FGF21-mimetics LY2405319, PF-05231023, and pegbelfermin, and the FGF19-mimetic NGM282. Recently, a number of clinical trials have been published that examined the safety and efficacy of these novel therapeutic proteins in the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cholestatic liver disease...
March 18, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Saori Mukaida, Masaaki Sato, Anette I Oberg, Nodi Dehvari, Jessica M Olsen, Martina Kocan, Michelle Louise Halls, Jon Merlin, Anna L Sandstrom, Robert I Csikasz, Bronwyn Anne Evans, Roger James Summers, Dana Sabine Hutchinson, Tore Bengtsson
The type 2 diabetes epidemic makes it important to find insulin independent ways to improve glucose homeostasis. This study examines the mechanisms activated by a dual β2 -/β3 -adrenoceptor agonist BRL37344 to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, and its effects on glucose homeostasis in vivo. We measured the effect of BRL37344 on glucose uptake, GLUT4 translocation, cAMP levels, β2 -adrenoceptor desensitization, β-arrestin recruitment, Akt, AMPK and mTOR phosphorylation using L6 skeletal muscle cells as a model...
March 20, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Xianghai Zhou, Yufeng Li, Xiuying Zhang, Ying Ying Guan, Yindra Puentes, Fang Zhang, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Linong Ji
AIMS: Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in developing countries but its causes are not known. We aimed to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of NAFLD in a new largely unmedicated population-based cohort from the rapidly gentrifying region of Pinggu, China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We randomized cluster sampled 4002 Pinggu residents aged 26-76 years. Data from 1238 men and 1928 women without significant alcohol drinking or hepatitis virus B or C infection were analyzed...
March 20, 2019: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Cornelia Then, Holger Then, Christa Meisinger, Margit Heier, Annette Peters, Wolfgang Koenig, Wolfgang Rathmann, Jürgen Scherberich, Jochen Seissler
AIMS: Serum uromodulin has recently emerged as promising biomarker for kidney function and was suggested to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in coronary patients. Here, we analyzed the association of serum uromodulin with T2D in the population-based KORA F4/FF4 study. METHODS: In 1119 participants of the KORA F4 study aged 62 - 81 years, serum uromodulin was measured and the association of serum uromodulin with T2D was assessed using logistic and linear regression models stratified for sex...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mariana Angela Rossaneis, Selma Maffei de Andrade, Raquel Gvozd, Paloma de Souza Cavalcante Pissinati, Maria do Carmo Lourenço Haddad
Investigate the factors associated with the glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). Cross-sectional study with 746 people with type-2 DM of age 40 or older. The following variables were selected: socioeconomic, clinical data, lifestyle and the risk of developing foot ulcers. Data collection occurred through interviews, medical record analysis and clinical examination of the lower limbs. We used the Poisson multiple regression model to determine the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) of the glycemic alteration...
March 2019: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Tom Quisel, Luca Foschini, Susan M Zbikowski, Jessie L Juusola
BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases have a widespread impact on health outcomes and costs in the United States. Heart disease and diabetes are among the biggest cost burdens on the health care system. Adherence to medication is associated with better health outcomes and lower total health care costs for individuals with these conditions, but the relationship between medication adherence and health activity behavior has not been explored extensively. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between medication adherence and health behaviors among a large population of insured individuals with hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Dania O Govea Alonso, Jaime I Arevalo-Villalobos, Verónica A Márquez-Escobar, Sornkanok Vimolmangkang, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
Over the last two decades, genetically engineered plants became attractive and mature platforms for producing vaccines and other relevant biopharmaceuticals. Autoimmune and inflammatory disorders demand the availability of accessible treatments and one alternative therapy is based on therapeutic vaccines able to down-regulate immune responses that favor pathology progression. Areas covered: The current status of plant-made tolerogenic vaccines is presented with emphasis on the candidates under evaluation in large test animals...
March 20, 2019: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Heba M Ismail, Carmella Evans-Molina, Linda A DiMeglio, Dorothy J Becker, Ingrid Libman, Emily K Sims, David Boulware, Kevan C Herold, Lisa Rafkin, Jay Skyler, Mario A Cleves, Jerry Palmer, Jay Sosenko
BACKGROUND: In new onset type 1 diabetes (T1D), overall C-peptide measures such as area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide and peak C-peptide are useful for estimating the extent of β-cell dysfunction, and for assessing responses to intervention therapy. However, measures of the timing of C-peptide responsiveness could have additional value. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the contribution of the timing of C-peptide responsiveness during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) to HbA1c variation at T1D diagnosis...
March 20, 2019: Pediatric Diabetes
Eduardo Montero, David Herrera, Mariano Sanz, Sangeeta Dhir, Thomas Van Dyke, Corneliu Sima
AIM: To develop and validate a predictive model for moderate-to-severe periodontitis in the adult USA population, with data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycle. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A subset of 3017 subjects aged >30 years, with >14 teeth present and having received a periodontal examination in addition to data collected on cardio-metabolic risk measures (smoking habit, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, total cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c]) were used for model development by multivariable logistic regression...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Jordan R R Casey, Jennifer Banks, Kathleen Braniff, Petra Buettner, Clare Heal
BACKGROUND: Some women with diabetes in pregnancy express and store colostrum in the antenatal period for the purposes of preventing and treating neonatal hypoglycaemia. AIMS: Our primary aim was to compare rates of neonatal hypoglycaemia in babies born to mothers who express and store antenatal colostrum to babies born to mothers who do not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study involving 357 women with diabetes in pregnancy, who had live, singleton births delivered after 36 weeks gestation, in a regional hospital in North Queensland (2014-2015)...
March 19, 2019: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Yun-Li Pang, Jing-Wen Hu, Guang-Long Liu, Shuai-Yao Lu
Background: There are few reports on the comparative medical characteristics of type 2 diabetes models in late stage. An analysis of comparative medical characteristics of Zucker diabetic fatty type 2 diabetes mellitus (ZDF-T2DM) rats during the course of development to late stage disease was performed. Methods: In this study, ZDF rats were fed with high-sugar and high-fat diets to raise the fasting blood glucose, and develop of type 2 diabetes. At the late stage of T2DM, the preliminary comparative medical characteristics of the T2DM model were analyzed through the detection of clinical indicators, histopathology, related cytokine levels, and insulin-related signaling molecule expression levels...
September 2018: Animal Models and Experimental Medicine
Krithiga Shridhar, Sanjay Kinra, Ruby Gupta, Shweta Khandelwal, Prabhakaran D, Sharon E Cox, Preet K Dhillon
Background: Evidence suggests a role for elevated serum calcium in dysregulated glucose metabolism, linked through low-level chronic inflammation. Objectives: We investigated the association of elevated serum calcium concentrations (corrected for albumin) with markers of dysregulated glucose metabolism and type II diabetes and tested if these associations were accounted for by chronic inflammation in a rural Indian population. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of participants aged 40-84 y from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCaPS; n  = 2699, 52...
March 2019: Current Developments in Nutrition
A González-López, J de Moura, J Novo, M Ortega, M G Penedo
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) constitutes an imaging technique that is increasing its popularity in the ophthalmology field, since it offers a more complete set of information about the main retinal structures. Hence, it offers detailed information about the eye fundus morphology, allowing the identification of many intraretinal pathological signs. For that reason, over the recent years, Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems have spread to work with this image modality and analyze its information. A crucial step for the analysis of the retinal tissues implies the identification and delimitation of the different retinal layers...
February 2019: Heliyon
Jennifer Iyengar, Inas H Thomas, Scott A Soleimanpour
For adolescents and emerging adults, the transition from pediatrics to adult care is fraught with challenges both inside and outside the clinical arena, including assuming independent care for diabetes, working with new adult providers, and overcoming concomitant psychosocial issues, while maintaining work/school-life balance. Not surprisingly, glycemic control in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes is amongst the worst in all age groups. Thus, new and comprehensive strategies are needed by both pediatric and adult diabetes care teams to support young adults during the transition to adult care...
2019: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
Muhammad Yakoob Ahmedani, Asher Fawwad, Fariha Shaheen, Bilal Tahir, Nazish Waris, Abdul Basit
BACKGROUND: Inadequate health infrastructure and poverty especially in rural areas are the main hindrance in the optimal management of subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Pakistan. AIM: To observe effectiveness of diabetes care through development of model clinics for subjects with T1D in the province of Sindh Pakistan. METHODS: A welfare project with name of "Insulin My Life", was started in province of Sindh, Pakistan. This was collaborative work of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology, World Diabetes Foundation and Baqai Medical University between February 2010 to February 2013...
March 15, 2019: World Journal of Diabetes
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