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Cathode Materials

Zhirong Zhao-Karger, Ping Gao, Thomas Ebert, Svetlana Klyatskaya, Zhi Chen, Mario Ruben, Maximilian Fichtner
Organic materials are both environmentally and economically attractive as potential electrode candidates. This Research News reports on a new class of stable and electrically conductive organic electrodes based on metal porphyrins with functional groups that are capable of electrochemical polymerization, rendering the materials promising for electrochemical applications. Their structural flexibility and the unique highly conjugated macrocyclic structure allows the produced organic electrodes to act as both cathode and anode materials giving access to fast charging as well as high cycling stability...
February 20, 2019: Advanced Materials
Bin Zhang, Lve Wang, Fan Bai, Peng Xiao, Biao Zhang, Xu Chen, Jie Sun, Wensheng Yang
We prepare the lithium-rich layered oxide Li1.2Mn0.54Co0.13Ni0.13O2 with a 3.65 V average-discharge voltage by using lithiated homologous spinel Li0.4Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O1.6 in an O2 atmosphere. In addition, we discuss how oxygen vacancies affect the discharge voltage.
February 20, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Zhixing Xiao, Weidong Wang, Dan Chen, Yadong Yu, He Huang
Maintenance of stable pH during pyrite-oxidizing denitrification process is important. Here, we demonstrated effective pH control (7.80 ± 0.20-8.40 ± 0.30) in an electrochemical-H2 and pyrite-oxidizing denitrifying bioreactor (HPR) through in situ electrohydrogenesis. HPR achieved a higher nitrate removal activity (maximum:19.66 ± 0.63 mg NO3 - -N/(L·h)) with excellent resistance to high nitrate loading (up to 400 mg/L NO3 - -N) compared to that of the control groups. Nitrate removal rate of HPR fitted the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model (R2  = 0...
February 15, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Xu-Dong Lv, Yu-Hong Cui, Wei-Jun Xue, Sui-Qin Yang, Jia-Ying Li, Zheng-Qian Liu
To investigate the effect of cathode materials on organics degradation in a cathode/Fe3+ /PMS process, different cathode materials (platinum, copper and iron) were selected and their performances were compared with iohexol as target organics. The optimal conditions were found to be different for different cathode/Fe3+ /PMS processes. With a relatively high cathodic current input (2.0 mA/cm2 ), similar results were found for all the three cathode/Fe3+ /PMS processes. With a small cathodic current input (not higher than 1...
February 14, 2019: Chemosphere
Yi-Lin Liu, Cheng Yan, Gui-Gen Wang, Hua-Yu Zhang, Le-Yang Dang, Bo-Wen Wu, Zhao-Qin Lin, Xiao-Shuai An, Jiecai Han
Self-assembled Ni(OH)2 nanosheet decorated hierarchical flower-like MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles was synthesized via a cost-effective and facile hydrothermal strategy, aiming to realize high capacity as the advanced electrode of battery-supercapacitor hybrid (BSH) device. It is demonstrated that the as-synthesized hierarchical flower-like MnCo2O4.5@Ni(OH)2-nanosheet electrode exhibits high specific capacity of 318 mAh g-1 at current density of 3 A g-1 and still maintains a capacity of 263.5 mAh g-1 at higher current density of 20 A g-1, with an extremely long cycle lifespan of 87...
February 20, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kit McColl, Furio Corà
Orthorhombic V2O5 is a promising Mg battery cathode material, and reversible intercalation in the layered α-phase has been claimed experimentally. However, these results, based on electrochemistry and XRD, are controversial. Previous computational studies have predicted high activation barriers (∼1 eV) for ionic migration in α-V2O5, although improved Mg2+ mobility is expected in the δ-phase. Here, hybrid-exchange density functional theory is used to discuss structure, stability and intercalation in the α and δ phases, beginning with a model system with MV2O5 stoichiometry, and varying ionic radius of the M cations...
February 20, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Baoxi Zhang, Enhao Zhang, Shunyao Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Zhuo Ma, Yunfeng Qiu
Photochlorination method was used to engineer the structural defects and covalent CCl bonds in graphene. Cl coverage of 18 atom% was successfully confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and D, G and 2D peaks changes upon irradiation were monitored by Raman. The mobility of chlorinated graphene field-effect transistor decreased to 66.1 cm2 /(V s) in comparison to pristine graphene of 730.4 cm2 /(V s). Raman indicated that the defects and CCl bonds are sensitively associated with the irradiation time, thus the structural defects and composition can be engineered accordingly...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jinyun Liu, Xirong Lin, Huigang Zhang, Zihan Shen, Qianqian Lu, Junjie Niu, Jinjin Li, Paul V Braun
Emerging power batteries with both high volumetric energy density and fast charge/discharge kinetics are required for electric vehicles. The rapid ion/electron transport of mesostructured electrodes enables a high electrochemical activity in secondary batteries. However, the typical low fraction of active materials leads to a low volumetric energy density. Herein, we report a novel biomimetic "bee pupa infilled honeycomb"-structured 3D mesoporous cathode. We found previously the maximum active material filing fraction of an opal template before pinch-off was about 25%, whereas it could be increased to ∼90% with the bee pupa-infilled honeycomb-like architecture...
February 19, 2019: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yuliang Cao, Matthew Li, Jun Lu, Jun Liu, Khalil Amine
Batteries have shaped much of our modern world. This success is the result of intense collaboration between academia and industry over the past several decades, culminating with the advent of and improvements in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. As applications become more demanding, there is the risk that stunted growth in the performance of commercial batteries will slow the adoption of important technologies such as electric vehicles. Yet the scientific literature includes many reports describing material designs with allegedly superior performance...
February 18, 2019: Nature Nanotechnology
Navaratnarajah Kuganathan, Apostolos Kordatos, Nikolaos Kelaidis, Alexander Chroneos
The defect processes of oxides such as self-diffusion impact their performance in electrochemical devices such as batteries and solid oxide fuel cells. The performance of lithium ion batteries can be improved by increasing the Li-ion diffusion. In that respect Li3 NbO4 is identified as a positive electrode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Here, we employ static atomistic scale simulations to examine the defect properties, doping behaviour and lithium ion migration paths in Li3 NbO4 . The present calculations show a correct reproduction of experimentally observed crystal structure of Li3 NbO4 ...
February 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yi Cui, Eric S Melby, Arielle C Mensch, Elizabeth D Laudadio, Mimi N Hung, Alice Dohnalkova, Dehong Hu, Robert J Hamers, Galya Orr
Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) can negatively impact biological systems through induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Over-produced ROS cause biochemical damage and hence need to be effectively buffered by a sophisticated cellular oxidative stress response system. How this complex cellular system, which consists of multiple enzymes, responds to NP-induced ROS is largely unknown. Here we apply a single cell analysis to quantitatively evaluate 10 key ROS responsive genes simultaneously to understand how the cell prioritizes tasks and reallocates resources in response to NP-induced oxidative stress...
February 18, 2019: Nano Letters
Qiannan Liu, Zhe Hu, Mingzhe Chen, Chao Zou, Huile Jin, Shun Wang, Shu-Lei Chou, Shi-Xue Dou
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are attracting increasing attention and considered to be a low-cost complement or an alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), especially for large-scale energy storage. Their application, however, is limited because of the lack of suitable host materials to reversibly intercalate Na+ ions. Layered transition metal oxides (Nax MO2 , M = Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, Ti, V, and their combinations) appear to be promising cathode candidates for SIBs due to their simple structure, ease of synthesis, high operating potential, and feasibility for commercial production...
February 18, 2019: Small
Xiangjun Pu, Huiming Wang, Dong Zhao, Hanxi Yang, Xinping Ai, Shunan Cao, Zhongxue Chen, Yuliang Cao
The increasing demands for renewable energy to substitute traditional fossil fuels and related large-scale energy storage systems (EES) drive developments in battery technology and applications today. The lithium-ion battery (LIB), the trendsetter of rechargeable batteries, has dominated the market for portable electronics and electric vehicles and is seeking a participant opportunity in the grid-scale battery market. However, there has been a growing concern regarding the cost and resource availability of lithium...
February 18, 2019: Small
Sarah A Goodchild, Lee J Hubble, Rupesh Kumar Mishra, Zhanhong Li, K Yugender Goud, Abbas Barfidokht, Rushabh Shah, Kara S Bagot, Alastair J S McIntosh, Joseph Wang
The increasing prevalence of fentanyl and its analogues as a contaminating material in illicit drug products presents a major hazard to first responder and law enforcement communities. Electrochemical techniques have the potential to provide critical information to these personnel via rapid, facile field detection of these materials. Here we demonstrate the use of cyclic square wave voltammetry (CSWV) with screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE), modified with the Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (RTIL) 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C4C1pyrr][NTf2], towards such rapid 'on-the-spot' fentanyl detection...
February 18, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
Erdogan Guk, Vijay Venkatesan, Yunus Sayan, Lisa Jackson, Jung-Sik Kim
Thermal management of SOFCs (solid oxide fuel cell) is important for helping to minimise high temperature-related performance losses and maximising cell/stack lifetime. Thin film sensor technology is proposed as an excellent candidate to measure the cell temperature during operation due to its negligible mass, minimal disturbance to normal operation and higher temporal and spatial resolutions. However, the effective application of such sensors in SOFC systems is a challenging endeavour and predicated on incorporating the external wire attachments to complete the electrical circuit...
February 15, 2019: Scientific Reports
Brian P Chaplin
Growing worldwide population, climate change, and decaying water infrastructure have all contributed to a need for a better water treatment and conveyance model. Distributed water treatment is one possible solution, which relies on the local treatment of water from various sources to a degree dependent on its intended use and, finally, distribution to local consumers. This distributed, fit-for-purpose water treatment strategy requires the development of new modular point-of-use and point-of-entry technologies to bring this idea to fruition...
February 15, 2019: Accounts of Chemical Research
Kristian E Dalle, Julien Warnan, Jane J Leung, Bertrand Reuillard, Isabell S Karmel, Erwin Reisner
The synthesis of renewable fuels from abundant water or the greenhouse gas CO2 is a major step toward creating sustainable and scalable energy storage technologies. In the last few decades, much attention has focused on the development of nonprecious metal-based catalysts and, in more recent years, their integration in solid-state support materials and devices that operate in water. This review surveys the literature on 3d metal-based molecular catalysts and focuses on their immobilization on heterogeneous solid-state supports for electro-, photo-, and photoelectrocatalytic synthesis of fuels in aqueous media...
February 15, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Jongwook W Heo, Munseok S Chae, Jooeun Hyoung, Seung-Tae Hong
Rhombohedral potassium-zinc hexacyanoferrate K1.88 Zn2.88 [Fe(CN)6 ]2 (H2 O)5 (KZnHCF) synthesized using a precipitation method is demonstrated as a high-voltage cathode material for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs), exhibiting an initial discharge capacity of 55.6 mAh g-1 with a discharge voltage of 3.9 V versus K/K+ and a capacity retention of ∼95% after 100 cycles in a nonaqueous electrolyte. All K ions are extracted from the structure upon the initial charge process. However, only 1.61 out of 1.88 K ions per formula unit are inserted back into the structure upon discharge, and it becomes the reversible ion of the second cycle onward...
February 15, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
Feng Wu, Haoyi Yang, Ying Bai, Chuan Wu
Aluminum metal is a high-energy-density carrier with low cost, and thus endows rechargeable aluminum batteries (RABs) with the potential to act as an inexpensive and efficient electrochemical device, so as to supplement the increasing demand for energy storage and conversion. Despite the enticing aspects regarding cost and energy density, the poor reversibility of electrodes has limited the pursuit of RABs for a long time. Fortunately, ionic-liquid electrolytes enable reversible aluminum plating/stripping at room temperature, and they lay the very foundation of RABs...
February 15, 2019: Advanced Materials
Pascal Pfeiffer, Dominik Stümmler, Simon Sanders, Carsten Beckmann, Gintautas Simkus, Michael Heuken, Andrei Vescan, Holger Kalisch
In this work, we use the transfer matrix method to optimize TPBi capping layers deposited on organic light emitting diodes with respect to light extraction and transmittance. The green transparent organic light emitting diodes comprise three organic semiconductors (CBP, Ir(ppy)₃ and TPBi) forming an efficient simplified phosphorescent organic light emitting diode stack. A transparent cathode of 2 nm Cs₂CO₃, 2 nm Al and 16 nm Au is deposited by thermal evaporation. The diode stack as well as the capping layer are deposited by organic vapor phase deposition...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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