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Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Nourollah Ramroodi, Hamed Amiri Fard, Sahar Talebian, Maryam Haghighi Rohani, Mahnaz Rezaei, Mehrangiz Noora, Saeedeh Salimi
Background and Objective: Evidence indicates that genetic factors may be involved in the risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of genetic polymorphisms located in exons or untranslated regions of MTHFR as well as FV genes on ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 106 patients with IS and 157 healthy volunteers (age <50 years) were genotyped for MTHFR C677T, A1298C , C2572A and C4869G , FVL , and prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms. Results: The MTHFR 677CT genotype was more frequent in patients and increased risk of IS with Odds Ratio = 1...
February 13, 2019: Medicina
Sung Wook Paek, Sangtae Kim, Olivier de Weck
Agile Earth observation can be achieved with responsiveness in satellite launches, sensor pointing, or orbit reconfiguration. This study presents a framework for designing reconfigurable satellite constellations capable of both regular Earth observation and disaster monitoring. These observation modes are termed global observation mode and regional observation mode, constituting a reconfigurable satellite constellation (ReCon). Systems engineering approaches are employed to formulate this multidisciplinary problem of co-optimizing satellite design and orbits...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Liang-Chia Chen, Thanh-Hung Nguyen
This paper presents a novel approach to the automated recognition and localization of 3-D objects. The proposed approach uses 3-D object segmentation to segment randomly stacked objects in an unstructured point cloud. Each segmented object is then represented by a regional area-based descriptor, which measures the distribution of surface area in the oriented bounding box (OBB) of the segmented object. By comparing the estimated descriptor with the template descriptors stored in the database, the object can be recognized...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Syed Farhan Ahmad, Cesar Martins
Supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are extra karyotype units in addition to A chromosomes, and are found in some fungi and thousands of animals and plant species. Bs are uniquely characterized due to their non-Mendelian inheritance, and represent one of the best examples of genomic conflict. Over the last decades, their genetic composition, function and evolution have remained an unresolved query, although a few successful attempts have been made to address these phenomena. A classical concept based on cytogenetics and genetics is that Bs are selfish and abundant with DNA repeats and transposons, and in most cases, they do not carry any function...
February 13, 2019: Cells
Salim Lamine, George P Petropoulos, Paul A Brewer, Nour-El-Islam Bachari, Prashant K Srivastava, Kiril Manevski, Chariton Kalaitzidis, Mark G Macklin
Technological advances in hyperspectral remote sensing have been widely applied in heavy metal soil contamination studies, as they are able to provide assessments in a rapid and cost-effective way. The present work investigates the potential role of combining field and laboratory spectroradiometry with geochemical data of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in quantifying and modelling heavy metal soil contamination (HMSC) for a floodplain site located in Wales, United Kingdom. The study objectives were to: (i) collect field- and lab-based spectra from contaminated soils by using ASD FieldSpec® 3, where the spectrum varies between 350 and 2500 nm; (ii) build field- and lab-based spectral libraries; (iii) conduct geochemical analyses of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd using atomic absorption spectrometer; (iv) identify the specific spectral regions associated to the modelling of HMSC; and (v) develop and validate heavy metal prediction models (HMPM) for the aforementioned contaminants, by considering their spectral features and concentrations in the soil...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Eiko N Minakawa, Keiji Wada, Yoshitaka Nagai
Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in patients with various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it can manifest in the early stages of the disease. Impaired sleep in patients with AD has been attributed to AD pathology that affects brain regions regulating the sleep⁻wake or circadian rhythm. However, recent epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated an association between impaired sleep and an increased risk of AD. These studies have led to the idea of a bidirectional relationship between AD and impaired sleep; in addition to the conventional concept that impaired sleep is a consequence of AD pathology, various evidence strongly suggests that impaired sleep is a risk factor for the initiation and progression of AD...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jibran Sualeh Muhammad, Mohamed Ahmed Eladl, Ghalia Khoder
Gastric cancer is ranked fifth in cancer list and has the third highest mortality rate. Helicobacter pylori is a class I carcinogen and a predominant etiological factor of gastric cancer. H. pylori infection may induce carcinogenesis via epigenetic alterations in the promoter region of various genes. H. pylori is known to induce hypermethylation-silencing of several tumor suppressor genes in H. pylori -infected cancerous and H. pylori -infected non-cancerous gastric mucosae. This article presents a review of the published literature mainly from the last year 15 years...
February 13, 2019: Pathogens
Maryamsadat Rasoulidanesh, Srishti Yadav, Sachini Herath, Yasaman Vaghei, Shahram Payandeh
Visual tracking performance has long been limited by the lack of better appearance models. These models fail either where they tend to change rapidly, like in motion-based tracking, or where accurate information of the object may not be available, like in color camouflage (where background and foreground colors are similar). This paper proposes a robust, adaptive appearance model which works accurately in situations of color camouflage, even in the presence of complex natural objects. The proposed model includes depth as an additional feature in a hierarchical modular neural framework for online object tracking...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Sudip Banerjee, Tyler Alexander, Debajyoti Majumdar, Thomas Groves, Frederico Kiffer, Jing Wang, Akshita Gorantla, Antiño R Allen, Snehalata A Pawar
Aging is characterized by increased inflammation and deterioration of the cellular stress responses such as the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium, DNA damage repair fidelity, and telomeric attrition. All these factors contribute to the increased radiation sensitivity in the elderly as shown by epidemiological studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. There is a global increase in the aging population, who may be at increased risk of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) as part of cancer therapy or accidental exposure...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Young Won Lee, Ki Wan Kim, Toan Minh Hoang, Muhammad Arsalan, Kang Ryoung Park
Accurate segmentation of the iris area in input images has a significant effect on the accuracy of iris recognition and is a very important preprocessing step in the overall iris recognition process. In previous studies on iris recognition, however, the accuracy of iris segmentation was reduced when the images of captured irises were of low quality due to problems such as optical and motion blurring, thick eyelashes, and light reflected from eyeglasses. Deep learning-based iris segmentation has been proposed to improve accuracy, but its disadvantage is that it requires a long processing time...
February 18, 2019: Sensors
Lama Jaffal, Wissam H Joumaa, Alexandre Assi, Charles Helou, Christel Condroyer, Maya El Dor, Georges Cherfan, Christina Zeitz, Isabelle Audo, Kazem Zibara, Said El Shamieh
To identify Bestrophin 1 ( BEST1 ) causative mutations in six Lebanese patients from three families, of whom four had a presumed clinical diagnosis of autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB) and two showed a phenotype with a single vitelliform lesion, patients were subjected to standard ophthalmic examinations. In addition, BEST1 exons and their flanking regions were amplified and sequenced by Sanger sequencing. Co-segregation and detailed bio-informatic analyses were performed. Clinical examination results were consistent with ARB diagnosis for all index patients showing multifocal vitelliform lesions and a markedly reduced light peak in the electrooculogram, including the two patients with a single vitelliform lesion...
February 18, 2019: Genes
Yujing Han, Jing Feng, Linjian Xia, Xin Dong, Xinyang Zhang, Shihan Zhang, Yuqi Miao, Qidi Xu, Shan Xiao, Zhixiang Zuo, Laixin Xia, Chunjiang He
N6-methyladenosine (m⁶A) has been identified in various biological processes and plays important regulatory functions in diverse cells. However, there is still no visualization database for exploring global m⁶A patterns across cell lines. Here we collected all available MeRIP-Seq and m⁶A-CLIP-Seq datasets from public databases and identified 340,950 and 179,201 m⁶A peaks dependent on 23 human and eight mouse cell lines respectively. Those m⁶A peaks were further classified into mRNA and lncRNA groups...
February 17, 2019: Cells
Xueqian Song, Yongping Wei, Wei Deng, Shaoyao Zhang, Peng Zhou, Ying Liu, Jiangjun Wan
In China, upper-level healthcare (ULHC) and lower-level healthcare (LLHC) provide different public medical and health services. Only when these two levels of healthcare resources are distributed equally and synergistically can the public's demands for healthcare be met fairly. Despite a number of previous studies having analysed the spatial distribution of healthcare and its determinants, few have evaluated the differences in spatial equity between ULHC and LLHC and investigated their institutional, geographical and socioeconomic influences and spillover effects...
February 17, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xue Fu, Jing Xu, Mengyu Zhou, Minmin Chen, Lan Shen, Ting Li, Yuchen Zhu, Jiajia Wang, Jiang Hu, Li Zhu, Zhenyu Gao, Guojun Dong, Longbiao Guo, Deyong Ren, Guang Chen, Jianrong Lin, Qian Qian, Guangheng Zhang
In molecular breeding of super rice, it is essential to isolate the best quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and genes of leaf shape and explore yield potential using large germplasm collections and genetic populations. In this study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used, which was derived from a cross between the following parental lines: hybrid rice Chunyou84, that is, japonica maintainer line Chunjiang16B (CJ16); and indica restorer line Chunhui 84 (C84) with remarkable leaf morphological differences...
February 17, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Joao Ramos, Jayaraman Muthukumaran, Filipe Freire, João Paquete-Ferreira, Ana Rita Otrelo-Cardoso, Dmitri Svergun, Alejandro Panjkovich, Teresa Santos-Silva
Bcl-2 protein is involved in cell apoptosis and is considered an interesting target for anti-cancer therapy. The present study aims to understand the stability and conformational changes of Bcl-2 upon interaction with the inhibitor venetoclax, and to explore other drug-target regions. We combined biophysical and in silico approaches to understand the mechanism of ligand binding to Bcl-2. Thermal shift assay (TSA) and urea electrophoresis showed a significant increase in protein stability upon venetoclax incubation, which is corroborated by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qianqian Sheng, Zunling Zhu
Nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) at a high concentration is among the most common and harmful air pollutants. The present study aimed to explore the physiological responses of plants exposed to NO₂. A total of 41 plants were classified into 13 functional groups according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification system. The plants were exposed to 6 μL/L NO₂ in an open-top glass chamber. The physiological parameters (chlorophyll (Chl) content, peroxidase (POD) activity, and soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations) and leaf mineral ion contents (nitrogen (N⁺), phosphorus (P⁺), potassium (K⁺), calcium (Ca2+ ), magnesium (Mg2+ ), manganese (Mn2+ ), and zinc (Zn2+ )) of 41 garden plants were measured...
February 16, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Feiyun Yang, Tianrui Yang, Kun Liu, Qi Yang, Yongqing Wan, Ruigang Wang, Guojing Li
Caragana intermedia , a leguminous shrub widely distributed in cold and arid regions, is rich in secondary metabolites and natural active substances, with high nutritional and medical values. It is interesting that the pods of C. intermedia often show different colors among individual plants. In this study, 10-, 20- and 30-day-old red and green pods of C. intermedia were used to identify and characterize important metabolites associated with pod color. A total 557 metabolites, which could be classified into 21 groups, were detected in the pod extracts using liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS/MS)...
February 16, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xiaodong Liu, Lingqi Li, Zulin Hua, Qile Tu, Ting Yang, Yuan Zhang
River channel confluences are widespread in natural rivers. Understanding their unique hydrodynamic characteristics and contaminant transport rules may facilitate the rational and effective treatment of the water environment. In this study, we considered the Xitiaoxi River Basin as the research area, and a well-designed flume was established based on the extracted water system features. Hydrodynamically, in the Y-shaped confluence channel the flow velocity was easy to separate at the confluence, and a low flow velocity region appeared in the two branches...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chris Sanders, Kristin Burnett
Under international law, birth registration is considered a human right because it determines access to important legal protections as well as essential services and social supports across the lifespan. Difficulties related to birth registration and the acquisition of personal identification (PID) are largely regarded as problems specific to low-income countries. For Indigenous people in northern and rural Canada, however, lack of PID, like birth certificates, is a common problem that is rooted in the geography of the region as well as historical and contemporary settler colonial policies...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Colleen G Julian, Lorna G Moore
Whether Andean populations are genetically adapted to high altitudes has long been of interest. Initial studies focused on physiological changes in the O₂ transport system that occur with acclimatization in newcomers and their comparison with those of long-resident Andeans. These as well as more recent studies indicate that Andeans have somewhat larger lung volumes, narrower alveolar to arterial O₂ gradients, slightly less hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictor response, greater uterine artery blood flow during pregnancy, and increased cardiac O2 utilization, which overall suggests greater efficiency of O₂ transfer and utilization...
February 15, 2019: Genes
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