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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742045/which-psychosocial-variables-affect-drive-the-most-analysis-of-sexual-desire-in-a-group-of-italian-men
#1
Filippo Maria Nimbi, Francesca Tripodi, Roberta Rossi, Paolo Maria Michetti, Chiara Simonelli
Literature lacks wide studies on variables affecting sexual desire in men. Aim of this study was to explore the role of some psychosocial variables such as quality of life, sexual function, distress, sexual satisfaction, psychological symptoms, emotions, alexithymia, couple adjustment, sexism, dysfunctional beliefs, cognitive schemas, and modes. A self-administered survey reached 450 heterosexual Italian men (age 31.36 ± 10.73). Results showed "orgasmic function", "lack of erotic thoughts", "erection concerns thoughts", "hostile sexism", and "positive affect" as the main sexual desire predictors...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Impotence Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30688172/placebo-and-cultural-responses
#2
Antonio Ventriglio, Giuseppe Magnifico, Luisa Borraccino, Angelo Rinaldi, Antonello Bellomo
BACKGROUND: Features of placebo response in medicine have been forgotten and ignored over the last decade. AIM: To explore why patients do get better with placebo despite its perceived inertness. METHODS: This lecture reviews the relation between illness perception, psychopharmacology and culture. RESULTS: Placebo response must be considered in the context of how patients perceive their experience of disease (illness) and through their own cultures, which determine cognitive schema and explanatory model of illness...
September 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685297/potentially-modifiable-determinants-of-malnutrition-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
M O'Keeffe, M Kelly, E O'Herlihy, P W O'Toole, P M Kearney, S Timmons, E O'Shea, C Stanton, M Hickson, Y Rolland, C Sulmont Rossé, S Issanchou, I Maitre, M Stelmach-Mardas, G Nagel, M Flechtner-Mors, M Wolters, A Hebestreit, L C P G M De Groot, O van de Rest, R Teh, M A Peyron, D Dardevet, I Papet, K Schindler, M Streicher, G Torbahn, E Kiesswetter, M Visser, D Volkert, E M O'Connor
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Malnutrition in older adults results in significant personal, social, and economic burden. To combat this complex, multifactorial issue, evidence-based knowledge is needed on the modifiable determinants of malnutrition. Systematic reviews of prospective studies are lacking in this area; therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the modifiable determinants of malnutrition in older adults. METHODS: A systematic approach was taken to conduct this review...
December 11, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30642780/the-representational-nature-of-the-body-schema-comment-on-muscleless-motor-synergies-and-actions-without-movements-from-motor-neuroscience-to-cognitive-robotics-by-v-mohan-et-al
#4
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612293/a-longitudinal-investigation-of-cognitive-self-schemas-across-adolescent-development
#5
Brae Anne McArthur, Taylor A Burke, Samantha L Connolly, Thomas M Olino, Margaret N Lumley, Lyn Y Abramson, Lauren B Alloy
Research in developmental psychology highlights youth's self-schemas as one possible pathway to improve adolescents' functioning and promote positive developmental outcomes. Despite this, the trajectory of positive and negative self-schemas is relatively understudied. This study addresses this limitation by empirically examining the trajectory of self-schemas in a community sample of 623 youth (M = 13.04 years; 54% female; 49% African American, 4% Biracial, 47% European American) who were followed over a seven-year period...
January 5, 2019: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30605426/validation-of-the-greek-version-of-the-young-schema-questionnaire-short-form-3-internal-consistency-reliability-and-validity
#6
I A Malogiannis, Aik Aggeli, D Garoni, Ch Tzavara, I Michopoulos, A Pehlivanidis, A Kalantzi-Azizi, G N Papadimitriou
Schema therapy (ST) is an integrative therapy, which combines elements of cognitive behavior therapy, attachment theory, object relations theory and emotional-focused models. Schema therapy is an effective treatment for patients with personality disorders and other chronic psychological disorders. Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) are a main concept in schema theory referring to self-defeating, core themes or patterns. They develop as a result of traumatic or toxic childhood experiences and the frustration of the core emotional needs in childhood...
July 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30590096/lateral-parietal-cortex-in-the-generation-of-behavior-implications-for-apathy
#7
REVIEW
S Tumati, S Martens, B M de Jong, A Aleman
A reduction in goal-directed behavior, or apathy, occurs in neurological and psychiatric disorders, while its neural substrates remain unclear. Deficits in circuits connecting the prefrontal cortex to subcortical regions are considered to underlie apathy. Although apathy is empirically associated with widespread changes in these regions, studies across disorders also link apathy with the lateral parietal cortex. Such variety in regional involvement is consistent with the established role of prefrontal and subcortical regions in models of goal-directed behavior, and with the suggestion of subtypes of apathy...
December 24, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30551314/link-of-negative-core-beliefs-about-the-self-with-perceived-dysfunctional-parenting
#8
Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata
Cognitive theory posits the central role of negative core beliefs about the self in cognitive vulnerabilities to depression, and this position is supported by empirical studies. It is also hypothesized that these core beliefs develop as a result of negative interactions with significant others in early life. To test the hypothesis that negative core beliefs about the self are formed by dysfunctional parenting, we examined their relations with perceived parental rearing. The subjects were 355 Japanese healthy volunteers...
December 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30536567/impact-of-processing-load-on-analogical-mapping-with-visual-sequences-in-children-with-developmental-language-disorders-dld
#9
Magali Krzemien, Christelle Maillart, Christophe Parisse, Sandrine Leroy
BACKGROUND: Analogical mapping is a domain-general cognitive process used notably in language development, and particularly in the abstraction of construction schemas. Children with developmental language disorders (DLD) display an impairment in linguistic productivity and creativity, which can be linked to a lack of generalization of construction schemas. AIMS: To investigate analogical mapping in children with DLD, and especially the influence of processing load, as it could explain the lack of creativity observed in children with DLD...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30535538/schema-related-cognitive-load-influences-performance-speech-and-physiology-in-a-dual-task-setting-a-continuous-multi-measure-approach
#10
Maria Wirzberger, Robert Herms, Shirin Esmaeili Bijarsari, Maximilian Eibl, Günter Daniel Rey
Schema acquisition processes comprise an essential source of cognitive demands in learning situations. To shed light on related mechanisms and influencing factors, this study applied a continuous multi-measure approach for cognitive load assessment. In a dual-task setting, a sample of 123 student participants learned visually presented symbol combinations with one of two levels of complexity while memorizing auditorily presented number sequences. Learners' cognitive load during the learning task was addressed by secondary task performance, prosodic speech parameters (pauses, articulation rate), and physiological markers (heart rate, skin conductance response)...
December 7, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30483175/power-of-cognition-how-dysfunctional-cognitions-and-schemas-influence-eating-behavior-in-daily-life-among-individuals-with-eating-disorders
#11
Tanja Legenbauer, Anne Kathrin Radix, Nick Augustat, Sabine Schütt-Strömel
Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized by marked cognitive distortions and maladaptive schemas. Cognitive models of EDs highlight the direct impact of cognitive dysfunctions on eating-related disturbances, insofar as specific cognitive contents such as thoughts about diet rules and food or loss of control may trigger disturbed eating behavior. Moreover, early maladaptive schemas that reflect perfectionist standards and relate to achievement and performance seem to be associated with disturbed eating, e.g...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30456921/sequential-processing-in-the-classic-oddball-task-erp-components-probability-and-behavior
#12
Jack S Fogarty, Robert J Barry, Genevieve Z Steiner
This study compared the ERP components and behavior associated with the auditory equiprobable and classic oddball tasks, to relate the cognitive processing stages in those paradigms and continue the development of the sequential processing schema. Target and nontarget ERP data were acquired from 66 healthy young adults (Mage = 20.1, SD = 2.4 years, 14 male) who completed both equiprobable (target p = 0.5) and oddball tasks (target p = 0.3). Separate temporal PCAs were used to decompose the ERP data in each task and condition, and the similarity of the components identified in each condition was examined between tasks...
November 19, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30450952/neuropsychological-consequences-of-chronic-stress-the-case-of-informal-caregivers
#13
Á Romero-Martínez, G Hidalgo-Moreno, L Moya-Albiol
INTRODUCTION: Caring for a family member with a long-term illness is a significant source of chronic stress that might significantly accelerate the cognitive ageing of informal caregivers. Nevertheless, the absence of a defined theoretical body of literature on the neuropsychology of this population makes it difficult to understand what the characteristic neuropsychological deficits of these caregivers are. AIMS: The main aim of this study is to carry out a systematic review of studies of cognitive deficits present in informal caregivers of people with several chronic pathologies, and analyse the effects of cognitive-behavioural interventions on caregivers' cognition...
November 18, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30388708/predictors-of-change-in-mothers-and-fathers-parent-child-aggression-risk
#14
Christina M Rodriguez, Paul J Silvia, Doris F Pu
Parents' cognitive schemas about parenting, personal vulnerabilities, and personal resources may affect their risk of engaging in parent-child aggression (PCA). This longitudinal study examined predictors of change in mothers' and fathers' PCA risk across the transition to parenthood, comparing trajectories of parents evidencing high versus low sociodemographic risk. Potential predictors involved parenting-relevant schemas (consistent with Social Information Processing theory, including approval of PCA, negative attributions of child behavior, and knowledge of nonphysical discipline options), personal vulnerabilities (psychopathology, intimate partner violence, substance use issues), and resources (problem-focused coping, emotion regulation, social support, and partner satisfaction)...
October 27, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30383656/prevention-of-depression-in-first-year-university-students-with-high-harm-avoidance-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-group-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-at-1-year-follow-up
#15
Tatsuo Saigo, Masaki Hayashida, Jun Tayama, Sayaka Ogawa, Peter Bernick, Atsushi Takeoka, Susumu Shirabe
High harm avoidance (HA) scores on the temperament and character inventory appear to be a risk factor for depressive disorders and suicide. Since 2012, we have conducted group cognitive behavioral therapy (G-CBT) interventions for students at Nagasaki University with high HA and without depressive disorders, with the aim of preventing depression. Here, we report on the effects of the G-CBT at 1-year follow-up for the 2012 to 2015 period.Forty-two participants with high HA were included in the final analysis...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30344304/association-between-the-vicious-cycle-of-diabetes-associated-complications-and-glycemic-control-among-the-elderly-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Muhammad Atif, Quratulain Saleem, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar, Shane Scahill
Background and objectives : Improved quality of life (QoL) and life expectancy of elderly diabetic patients revolves around optimal glycemic control. Inadequate glycemic control may lead to the development of diabetes-associated complications (DAC), which not only complicate the disease, but also affect morbidity and mortality. Based on the available literature, the aim was to elucidate the vicious cycle underpinning the relationship between diabetes complications and glycemic control. Materials and Methods : A comprehensive literature search was performed to find eligible studies published between 1 January 2000 and 22 September 2018 pertaining to diabetes complications and glycemic control...
October 15, 2018: Medicina
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30334217/neuronal-bases-of-systemic-organization-of-behavior
#17
Yuri I Alexandrov, Alexey A Sozinov, Olga E Svarnik, Alexander G Gorkin, Evgeniya A Kuzina, Vladimir V Gavrilov
Despite the years of studies in the field of systems neuroscience, functions of neural circuits and behavior-related systems are still not entirely clear. The systems description of brain activity has recently been associated with cognitive concepts, e.g. a cognitive map, reconstructed via place-cell activity analysis and the like, and a cognitive schema, modeled in consolidation research. The issue we find of importance is that a cognitive unit reconstructed in neuroscience research is mainly formulated in terms of environment...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30326472/adaptation-of-the-scrambled-sentences-task-to-assess-shattered-assumptions-construction-of-the-test-and-investigation-of-neural-substrates-in-an-fmri-study
#18
Roberto Viviani, Jacqueline S Mahler, Julia E Bosch, Lisa Dommes, Julia Eberhardt, Petra Beschoner, Zrinka Sosic-Vasic
BACKGROUND: Increasing recognition is being given to the importance of cognitions observed in posttraumatic conditions. These cognitions may reflect the activation of negative schemas. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of the scrambled-sentences task (SST) to assess individual differences in attributions commonly observed after traumas. Originally developed to assess the tendency to activate negative cognitions in individuals predisposed to depression, the SST is a laboratory task the outcome of which has been shown to predict depression relapse and is associated with depressiveness...
2018: Psychopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30249790/representation-of-real-world-event-schemas-during-narrative-perception
#19
Christopher Baldassano, Uri Hasson, Kenneth A Norman
Understanding movies and stories requires maintaining a high-level situation model that abstracts away from perceptual details to describe the location, characters, actions, and causal relationships of the currently unfolding event. These models are built not only from information present in the current narrative, but also from prior knowledge about schematic event scripts, which describe typical event sequences encountered throughout a lifetime. We analyzed fMRI data from 44 human subjects (male and female) presented with 16 three-minute stories, consisting of four schematic events drawn from two different scripts (eating at a restaurant or going through the airport)...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30225144/left-right-judgement-task-and-sensory-motor-and-cognitive-assessment-in-participants-with-wrist-hand-pain
#20
René Pelletier, Daniel Bourbonnais, Johanne Higgins, Maxime Mireault, Michel Alain Danino, Patrick G Harris
The Left Right Judgement Task (LRJT) involves determining if an image of the body part is of the left or right side. The LRJT has been utilized as part of rehabilitation treatment programs for persons with pain associated with musculoskeletal injuries and conditions. Although studies often attribute changes and improvement in LRJT performance to an altered body schema, imaging studies suggest that the LRJT implicates other cortical regions. We hypothesized that cognitive factors would be related to LRJT performance of hands and feet and that sensory, motor, and pain related factors would be related to LRJT in the affected hand of participants with wrist/hand pain...
2018: Rehabilitation Research and Practice
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