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emerging pathogen

Jane Ru Choi, Kar Wey Yong, Jean Yu Choi, Alistair C Cowie
Food safety issues have recently attracted public concern. The deleterious effects of compromised food safety on health have rendered food safety analysis an approach of paramount importance. While conventional techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry have traditionally been utilized for the detection of food contaminants, they are relatively expensive, time-consuming and labor intensive, impeding their use for point-of-care (POC) applications. In addition, accessibility of these tests is limited in developing countries where food-related illnesses are prevalent...
February 17, 2019: Sensors
Kai-Ting Fan, Kuo-Hsin Wang, Wei-Hung Chang, Jhih-Ci Yang, Ching-Fang Yeh, Kai-Tan Cheng, Sheng-Chi Hung, Yet-Ran Chen
Plants and pathogens are entangled in a continual arms race. Plants have evolved dynamic defence and immune mechanisms to resist infection and enhance immunity for second wave attacks from the same or different types of pathogenic species. In addition to evolutionarily and physiological changes, plant-pathogen interaction is also highly dynamic at the molecular level. Recently, an emerging quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach named data-independent acquisition (DIA), has been developed for the analysis of the proteome in a high-throughput fashion...
February 17, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ishita Roy Chowdhury, Sai Goutham Reddy Yeddula, Shin-Hee Kim
Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses can silently circulate in poultry and wild aquatic birds and potentially mutate into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In the U.S., recent emergence and spread of H7N8 and H7N9 HPAI viruses not only caused devastating losses to domestic poultry but also underscored the capability of LPAI viruses to mutate into HPAI viruses. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated pathogenicity and transmissibility of H7N8 and H7N9 LPAI viruses (the progenitors of HPAI viruses) in chickens and turkeys...
February 16, 2019: Viruses
Salima Gasmi, Nicholas H Ogden, Marion Ripoche, Patrick A Leighton, Robbin L Lindsay, Mark P Nelder, Erin Rees, Catherine Bouchard, Linda Vrbova, Richard Rusk, Curtis Russell, Yann Pelcat, Samir Mechai, Serge-Olivier Kotchi, Jules K Koffi
Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in North America, is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, which is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis in eastern Canada and Ixodes pacificus in western Canada. Recently, the northward range expansion of I. scapularis ticks, in south-eastern Canada, has resulted in a dramatic increase in the incidence of human Lyme disease. Detecting emerging areas of Lyme disease risk allows public health to target disease prevention efforts...
2019: PloS One
Angela Vasa, Syra Madad, LuAnn Larson, Colleen S Kraft, Sharon Vanairsdale, Jonathan D Grein, Jennifer Garland, Virginia Madison Butterworth, Christopher J Kratochvil
The use of investigational therapeutics in the care of patients with Ebola virus disease was documented in the literature following the 2013-2016 outbreak. In order to access these types of therapeutics, facilities must have processes in place to quickly and efficiently activate study protocols, obtain the medications, and administer them in a timely manner. Testing these procedures in advance of a real-world event is crucial to ensuring successful implementation and execution. Drills and exercises are routinely used as part of the emergency preparedness planning process, as they provide a low-risk environment in which to test plans and procedures...
January 2019: Health Security
Lauren M Sauer, Mark Romig, Jennifer Andonian, Jade Borromeo Flinn, Noreen Hynes, Robert Maloney, Lisa L Maragakis, Brian Garibaldi
High-consequence pathogens create a unique problem. To provide effective treatment for infected patients while providing safety for the community, a series of 10 high-level isolation units have been created across the country; they are known as Regional Ebola and Special Pathogen Treatment Centers (RESPTCs). The activation of a high-level isolation unit is a highly resource-intensive activity, with effects that ripple across the healthcare system. The incident command system (ICS), a standard tool for command, control, and coordination in domestic emergencies, is a command structure that may be useful in a biocontainment event...
January 2019: Health Security
Laura M Braden, Shona K Whyte, Alyson B J Brown, Carter Van Iderstine, Corinne Letendre, David Groman, Jeff Lewis, Sara L Purcell, Tiago Hori, Mark D Fast
With respect to salmonid aquaculture, one of the most important bacterial pathogens due to high mortality and antibiotic usage is the causative agent of typical furunculosis, Aeromonas salmonicida spp. salmonicida ( Asal ). In Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar , the host response during infections with Asal is well-documented, with furunculosis outbreaks resulting in significant mortality in commercial settings. However, less is known about the host-pathogen interactions in the emerging aquaculture species, Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus ...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
V Cicculli, L Capai, Y Quilichini, S Masse, A Fernández-Alvarez, L Minodier, P Bompard, R Charrel, A Falchi
Although livestock farming (sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle) is an important economic activity in Corsica, a French Mediterranean island, knowledge about the tick fauna and microorganisms carried by them remains scarce. This study aimed to investigate the presence and perform molecular characterization of Anaplasmataceae, Rickettsia spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in tick species collected in Corsica. Ticks from cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), and rodents (Rattus rattus) were collected from May to September 2016...
February 13, 2019: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Thomas Gerlach, Husni Elbahesh, Giulietta Saletti, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Various viruses, including poxviruses, adenoviruses and vesicular stomatitis virus, have been considered as vaccine vectors for the delivery of antigens of interest in the development of vaccines against newly emerging pathogens. Areas covered: Here, we review results that have been obtained with influenza A viruses (IAV) as vaccine vectors. With the advent of reverse genetics technology, IAV-based recombinant vaccine candidates have been constructed that induce protective immunity to a variety of different pathogens of interest, including West Nile virus, Plasmodium falciparum and respiratory syncytial virus...
February 19, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Vincent J Cascone, Rose S Cohen, Nicholas P Dodson, Chad M Cannon
BACKGROUND: Previous research has illustrated the importance of collection of microbiologic cultures prior to first antimicrobial dose (FAD) in septic patients to avoid sterilization of pathogens and thus allowing confirmation of infection, identification of pathogen(s), and de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy. There is currently a lack of literature characterizing the implications and clinical courses of patients who have cultures collected after FAD. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective chart review of 163 sepsis cases in the emergency department, the primary outcome was positive-cultures from appropriate sources...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Denis Malvy, Anita K McElroy, Hilde de Clerck, Stephan Günther, Johan van Griensven
Ebolaviruses are pathogenic agents associated with a severe, potentially fatal, systemic disease in man and great apes. Four species of ebolaviruses have been identified in west or equatorial Africa. Once the more virulent forms enter the human population, transmission occurs primarily through contact with infected body fluids and can result in major epidemics in under-resourced settings. These viruses cause a disease characterised by systemic viral replication, immune suppression, abnormal inflammatory responses, major fluid and electrolyte losses, and high mortality...
February 15, 2019: Lancet
Ibukun M Adesiyan, Mary A Bisi-Johnson, Aderemi O Ogunfowokan, Anthony I Okoh
Plesiomonas shigelloides, is an emerging and significant enteric pathogen in water having implication in both localised and gastrointestinal infections with characteristic of displaying high resistance against commonly used antibiotics. This study evaluated the prevalence of Plesiomonas shigelloides and their antibiogram fingerprints in water sample collected from four rivers in South-western Nigeria. In all, 148 presumptive Plesiomonas shigelloides isolates was recovered from the rivers out of which 66 (44...
February 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Joao Raul Belinato, Evandro Silva, Daiane Silva de Souza, Paulo Henrique Março, Patrícia Valderrama, Rodolpho Martin do Prado, Rafaella C Bonugli-Santos, Eduardo Jorge Pilau, Carla Porto
Studies of the microbiota of human skin have gained attention mainly because of its high complexity. Volatile metabolites that emerge from the microbiota play a significant role in fungus metabolism, acting on fungal development, defense, and protection against stress, communication, and pathogenicity. The present study evaluated volatile organic profiles, based on headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We sought to define the optimal experimental conditions for such identification...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Suzanne M de la Monte, Ming Tong, Lori A Daiello, Brian R Ott
BACKGROUND: Brain insulin resistance is a well-recognized abnormality in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the likely mediator of impaired glucose utilization that emerges early and progresses with disease severity. Moreover, the rates of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD are significantly greater in people with diabetes mellitus or obesity. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine whether systemic and central nervous system (CNS) insulin resistant disease states emerge together and thus may be integrally related...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Fikri Selcuk Simsek, Saadet Akarsu, Yavuz Narin
One of the most important benign tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is plexiform neurofibroma, and there is a risk of developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) throughout life approximately 10%. However lesion characterization by anatomical imaging methods are not possible. Because of that most of cases goes to biopsy. Using of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) for lesion characterization can be helpful in NF1 patients. We aimed to present an example of the efficacy of FDG-PET/CT in distinguishing benign neurofibroma from MPNST...
January 2019: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Papa Diogop Ndiaye, Gilles Pagès
The lymphatic system is made up of vessels that drain interstitial fluids throughout the body. The circulation of the lymph (liquid in the lymphatic system) in the lymphatic vessels is unidirectional: tissues to the lymph nodes and then to the veins. Ganglia are mechanical filters but also immune barriers that can block the progression of certain pathogens as well as cancer cells. However, most studies on the lymphatic system and cancer highlight the role of the lymphatic network in metastatic dissemination as tumor cells use this network to reach other organs...
February 2019: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Neha Potnis, Sandra E Branham, Jeffrey B Jones, William Patrick Wechter
Bacterial spot Xanthomonas species cause significant disease outbreaks on tomato and pepper in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. Host resistance has been one of the key components of integrated disease management approaches to mitigate plant pathogens. Although a number of resistance genes have been identified in pepper against bacterial spot xanthomonads, emergence of bacterial spot pathogen variants capable of overcoming these sources and changing pathogen distributions reinforce the importance of identifying novel candidates to incorporate into breeding programs...
February 18, 2019: Phytopathology
Sabine Zeidler, Volker Müller
Multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens are one of the most pressing challenges of contemporary health care. Acinetobacter baumannii takes a predominant position, emphasized in 2017 by the World Health Organization. The increasing emergence of MDR strains strengthens the demand for new antimicrobials. Possible targets for such compounds might be proteins involved in resistance against low water activity environments, since A. baumannii is known for its pronounced resistance against desiccation stress. Despite the importance of desiccation resistance for persistence of this pathogen in hospitals, comparable studies and precise data on this topic are rare and the mechanisms involved are largely unknown...
February 17, 2019: Environmental Microbiology
Shabir Ahmad Lone, Aijaz Ahmad
A paradigm shift of candidiasis from Candida albicans to non-albicans Candida species has fundamentally increased with the advent of C. auris. C. auris, despite being a newly emerged multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen, is associated with severe invasive infections and outbreaks with high mortality rates. Initially reported from Japan in 2009, C. auris have now been found in different countries on all the continents except Antarctica. Due to its capability of nosocomial transmission and forming adherent biofilms on clinically important substrates, a high number of related hospital outbreaks have been reported worldwide...
February 17, 2019: Mycoses
Jerald J Nair, Johannes van Staden
BACKGROUND: Fungal pathogenesis continues to be a burden to healthcare structures in both developed and developing nations. The gradual and irreversible loss of efficacies of existing antifungal medicines as well as the emergence of drug-resistant strains have contributed largely to this scenario. There is therefore a pressing need for new drugs from diverse structural backgrounds with improved potencies and novel modes of action to fortify or replace contemporary antifungal schedules...
November 14, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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