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Resistance hiv

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763299/transmission-patterns-in-a-low-hiv-morbidity-state-wisconsin-2014-2017
#1
Katarina M Grande, Casey L Schumann, M Cheryl Bañez Ocfemia, James M Vergeront, Joel O Wertheim, Alexandra M Oster
Public health interviews (i.e., partner services), during which persons with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection name their sexual or needle-sharing partners (named partners), are used to identify HIV transmission networks to guide and prioritize HIV prevention activities. HIV sequence data, generated from provider-ordered drug resistance testing, can be used to understand characteristics of molecular clusters, a group of sequences for which each sequence is highly similar (linked) to all other sequences, and assess whether named partners are plausible HIV transmission partners...
February 15, 2019: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762489/hiv-exposed-uninfected-compared-with-unexposed-infants-show-the-presence-of-leucocytes-lower-lactoferrin-levels-and-antimicrobial-resistant-micro-organisms-in-the-stool
#2
A C Maloupazoa Siawaya, E Kuissi Kamgaing, S Minto'o Rogombe, T Obiang, E Moungoyi Massala, M J V Magossou Mbadinga, M Leboueny, O Mvoundza Ndjindji, A Mveang-Nzoghe, J P Ondo, A Mintsa Ndong, P N Essone, S T Agnandji, M Kaba, S Ategbo, J F Djoba Siawaya
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)-infants have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to infections. In this population, disturbance of the gut micro-environment might increase their susceptibility to enteric diseases and even favour the translocation of bacteria in the bloodstream. METHODS: The gastro-intestinal micro-environment was explored in 22 HEU infants and 16 HIV-unexposed (HU) infants aged 6-24 weeks. Faecal leucocytes, firmicutes (gram-positive bacteria) and gracilicutes (gram-negative bacteria) were assessed by cytology...
February 14, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762480/hiv-positive-mozambican-migrants-in-south-africa-loneliness-secrecy-and-disclosure
#3
Bent Steenberg
South Africa continues to bear a heavy burden of HIV and a significant proportion of the nation's population consists of immigrants from other severely afflicted African nations. Yet little is known about how migrant populations respond to HIV in shifting cultural and clinical landscapes. Analysing 21 ethnographic life history interviews, this paper explores the social complexities of living with antiretroviral therapy and disclosure of serostatus among HIV-positive Mozambican migrants in Johannesburg. It focuses on (i) conceptualising the 'biosocial ambiance of illness'; (ii) how transformations occur in perceptions of disease; and (iii) how stigma produces an ambit of loneliness and secrecy, which inflects disclosure unevenly in different life-spaces and health-worlds...
February 14, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761136/resistance-and-tolerance-to-cryptococcal-infection-an-intricate-balance-that-controls-the-development-of-disease
#4
REVIEW
Mitra Shourian, Salman T Qureshi
Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous environmental yeast and a leading cause of invasive fungal infection in humans. The most recent estimate of global disease burden includes over 200,000 cases of cryptococcal meningitis each year. Cryptococcus neoformans expresses several virulence factors that may have originally evolved to protect against environmental threats, and human infection may be an unintended consequence of these acquired defenses. Traditionally, C. neoformans has been viewed as a purely opportunistic pathogen that targets severely immune compromised hosts; however, during the past decade the spectrum of susceptible individuals has grown considerably...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761133/hla-b-and-hla-c-differ-in-their-nanoscale-organization-at-cell-surfaces
#5
Philippa R Kennedy, Charlotte Barthen, David J Williamson, Daniel M Davis
The particular HLA class I variants an individual carries influences their resistance and susceptibility to a multitude of diseases. Expression level and variation in the peptide binding region correlates with, for example, a person's progression to AIDS after HIV infection. One factor which has not yet been addressed is whether or not different HLA class I proteins organize differently in the cell membrane on a nanoscale. Here, we examined the organization of three HLA-B allotypes (B* 2705, B* 5301, and B* 5701) and two HLA-C allotypes (C* 0602 and C* 0702) in the membrane of 721...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760706/longitudinal-hiv-sequencing-reveals-reservoir-expression-leading-to-decay-which-is-obscured-by-clonal-expansion
#6
Marilia Rita Pinzone, D Jake VanBelzen, Sam Weissman, Maria Paola Bertuccio, LaMont Cannon, Emmanuele Venanzi-Rullo, Stephen Migueles, R Brad Jones, Talia Mota, Sarah B Joseph, Kevin Groen, Alexander O Pasternak, Wei-Ting Hwang, Brad Sherman, Anastasios Vourekas, Giuseppe Nunnari, Una O'Doherty
After initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), a rapid decline in HIV viral load is followed by a long period of undetectable viremia. Viral outgrowth assay suggests the reservoir continues to decline slowly. Here, we use full-length sequencing to longitudinally study the proviral landscape of four subjects on ART to investigate the selective pressures influencing the dynamics of the treatment-resistant HIV reservoir. We find intact and defective proviruses that contain genetic elements favoring efficient protein expression decrease over time...
February 13, 2019: Nature Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760613/anticytomegalovirus-peptides-point-to-new-insights-for-cmv-entry-mechanisms-and-the-limitations-of-in-vitro-screenings
#7
Joseph W Jackson, Trevor J Hancock, Pranay Dogra, Ravi Patel, Ravit Arav-Boger, Angela D Williams, Stephen J Kennel, Jonathan S Wall, Tim E Sparer
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous betaherpesvirus that can cause severe disease following in utero exposure, during primary infection, or latent virus reactivation in immunocompromised populations. These complications lead to a 1- to 2-billion-dollar economic burden, making vaccine development and/or alternative treatments a high priority. Current treatments for HCMV include nucleoside analogues such as ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet, and cidofovir. Recently, letermovir, a terminase complex inhibitor, was approved for prophylaxis after stem cell transplantation...
February 13, 2019: MSphere
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760407/coexistence-of-dementia-with-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-is-associated-with-patient-in-hospital-mortality
#8
Masafumi Saiki, Yuki Iijima, Takayuki Honda, Sayaka Mori, Toshiharu Tsutsui, Yoshinori Uchida, Yoichi Kobayashi, Yumiko Kakizaki, Hiroyuki Sakashita, Yasunari Miyazaki, Yoshihiro Miyashita
BACKGROUND: The impact of dementia on the survival of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains unclear. This study sought to describe the risk factors influencing in-hospital mortality in patients with pulmonary TB and comorbid dementia. METHODS: A 9-y, medical record-based retrospective study of hospitalized adult patients with newly diagnosed, smear-positive, non-multidrug-resistant pulmonary TB without human immunodeficiency virus infection was performed...
February 11, 2019: Respiratory Investigation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760230/macrolide-and-fluoroquinolone-resistance-associated-mutations-in-mycoplasma-genitalium-in-johannesburg-south-africa-2007-2014
#9
Etienne E Muller, Mahlape P Mahlangu, David A Lewis, Ranmini S Kularatne
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium is rising globally with resultant clinical treatment failure. We investigated the prevalence of mutations in the macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-determining regions of M. genitalium in Johannesburg, South Africa, and ascertained their association with HIV serostatus. METHODS: Stored M. genitalium positive specimens, collected from STI and HIV patients enrolled in the Gauteng STI National Microbiological Surveillance programme (2007-2014) and a large HIV outpatient clinic-based study (2007) in Johannesburg, were tested for antimicrobial resistance...
February 13, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759864/tarbp2-enhanced-resistance-during-tamoxifen-treatment-in-breast-cancer
#10
Ming-Yang Wang, Hsin-Yi Huang, Yao-Lung Kuo, Chiao Lo, Hung-Yu Sun, Yu-Jhen Lyu, Bo-Rong Chen, Jie-Ning Li, Pai-Sheng Chen
Tamoxifen is the most widely used hormone therapy in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, which accounts for approximately 70% of all breast cancers. Although patients who receive tamoxifen therapy benefit with respect to an improved overall prognosis, resistance and cancer recurrence still occur and remain important clinical challenges. A recent study identified TAR (HIV-1) RNA binding protein 2 (TARBP2) as an oncogene that promotes breast cancer metastasis. In this study, we showed that TARBP2 is overexpressed in hormone therapy-resistant cells and breast cancer tissues, where it enhances tamoxifen resistance...
February 12, 2019: Cancers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759103/presence-persistence-and-effects-of-pre-treatment-hiv-1-drug-resistance-variants-detected-using-next-generation-sequencing-a-retrospective-longitudinal-study-from-rural-coastal-kenya
#11
Amin S Hassan, David F Bibby, Shalton M Mwaringa, Clara A Agutu, Kennedy K Ndirangu, Eduard J Sanders, Patricia A Cane, Jean L Mbisa, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) determined by Sanger capillary sequencing, has been widely studied. However, much less is known about HIVDR detected using next generation sequencing (NGS) methods. We aimed to determine the presence, persistence and effect of pre-treatment HIVDR variants detected using NGS in HIV-1 infected antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve participants from rural Coastal Kenya. METHODS: In a retrospective longitudinal study, samples from HIV-1 infected participants collected prior [n = 2 time-points] and after [n = 1 time-point] ART initiation were considered...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758229/dolutegravir-rilpivirine-dual-antiretroviral-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection
#12
E Kelly Hester, Kevin Astle
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of dolutegravir (DTG) with rilpivirine (RPV) as a dual therapy regimen in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was performed using PubMed (1966 to January 2019) and Google Scholar (2014 to January 2019) with the search terms dolutegravir, rilpivirine, dual, and switch. Other resources included review articles and the manufacturer product label. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All relevant English-language articles of studies assessing the efficacy and safety of switch therapy to DTG with RPV and review articles were included...
February 13, 2019: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755713/epithelial-cells-and-fibroblasts-from-the-human-female-reproductive-tract-accumulate-and-release-tfv-and-taf-to-sustain-inhibition-of-hiv-infection-of-cd4-t-cells
#13
Zheng Shen, Marta Rodriguez-Garcia, Mickey V Patel, Jack Bodwell, Charles R Wira
Tenofovir (TFV) treatment of female reproductive tract (FRT) cells results in differential accumulation of intracellular Tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) in different cell types, with greater concentrations in epithelial cells (100-fold) and fibroblasts (10-fold) than in CD4+ T cells. The possibility that TFV-DP accumulation and retention in epithelial cells and fibroblasts may alter TFV availability and protection of CD4+ T cells against HIV infection, prompted us to evaluate TFV and/or Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) release from FRT cells...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755580/an-overview-on-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis
#14
M K Khan, M N Islam, J Ferdous, M M Alam
Tuberculosis (TB) is a progressive granulomatous infectious disease caused by the gram positive, acid fast bacilli classified under the genus Mycobacterium. Tuberculosis in human is mostly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects lungs causing pulmonary tuberculosis. It can also affect intestine, meninges, bones, joints, lymph nodes, skin and other tissues of the body causing extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Human TB is transmitted mainly through droplet infection and droplet nuclei. Infection of human with M...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753724/stable-prevalence-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-mutations-and-increased-circulation-of-non-b-subtypes-in-antiretroviral-naive-chronically-hiv-infected-patients-in-2015-2016-in-france
#15
Lambert Assoumou, Laurence Bocket, Coralie Pallier, Maxime Grude, Rachid Ait-Namane, Jacques Izopet, Stéphanie Raymond, Charlotte Charpentier, Benoit Visseaux, Marc Wirden, Mary-Anne Trabaud, Hélène Le Guillou-Guillemette, Chakib Allaoui, Cécile Henquell, Anne Krivine, Georges Dos Santos, Catherine Delamare, Magali Bouvier-Alias, Brigitte Montes, Virginie Ferre, Anne De Monte, Anne Signori-Schmuck, Anne Maillard, Laurence Morand-Joubert, Camille Tumiotto, Samira Fafi-Kremer, Corinne Amiel, Francis Barin, Stéphanie Marque-Juillet, Laurence Courdavault, Sophie Vallet, Agnès Beby-Defaux, Alexis de Rougemont, Honorine Fenaux, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel, Annick Allardet-Servent, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Gilles Peytavin, Vincent Calvez, Marie-Laure Chaix, Diane Descamps
Objectives: We estimated the prevalence of transmitted-drug-resistance-associated mutations (TDRAMs) in antiretroviral-naive chronically HIV-1-infected patients. Patients and methods: TDRAMs were sought in samples from 660 diagnosed HIV-1-infected individuals in 2015/2016 in 33 HIV clinical centres. Weighted analyses, considering the number of patients followed in each centre, were used to derive representative estimates of the percentage of individuals with TDRAMs...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753573/clinical-experience-with-integrase-inhibitors-in-hiv-2-infected-individuals-in-spain
#16
S Requena, A B Lozano, E Caballero, F García, M C Nieto, R Téllez, J M Fernández, M Trigo, I Rodríguez-Avial, L Martín-Carbonero, P Miralles, V Soriano, C de Mendoza
Background: HIV-2 is a neglected virus despite estimates of 1-2 million people being infected worldwide. The virus is naturally resistant to some antiretrovirals used to treat HIV-1 and therapeutic options are limited for patients with HIV-2. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, we analysed all HIV-2-infected individuals treated with integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) recorded in the Spanish HIV-2 cohort. Demographics, treatment modalities, laboratory values, quantitative HIV-2 RNA and CD4 counts as well as drug resistance were analysed...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753326/gag-protease-coevolution-shapes-the-outcome-of-lopinavir-inclusive-treatment-regimens-in-chronically-infected-hiv-1-subtype-c-patients
#17
V Marie, M Gordon
Motivation: Commonly, protease inhibitor failure is characterized by the development of multiple protease resistance mutations (PRMs). While the impact of PRMs on therapy failure are understood, the introduction of Gag mutations with protease remains largely unclear. Results: Here, we utilized phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian network learning as tools to understand Gag-protease coevolution and elucidate the pathways leading to Lopinavir failure in HIV-1 subtype C infected patients...
February 12, 2019: Bioinformatics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745395/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-drug-interaction-potential-of-doravirine
#18
Kelly Bleasby, Kerry L Fillgrove, Robert Houle, Bing Lu, Jairam Palamanda, Deborah J Newton, Meihong Lin, Grace Hoyee Chan, Rosa I Sanchez
Doravirine is a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the potential for drug interactions with doravirine via major drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Kinetic studies confirmed that cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A plays a major role in the metabolism of doravirine, with ∼20-fold higher catalytic efficiency for CYP3A4 versus CYP3A5. Doravirine was not a substrate of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and likely not a substrate of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 or 1B3...
February 11, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744962/drug-susceptibility-testing-and-mortality-in-patients-treated-for-tuberculosis-in-high-burden-countries-a-multicentre-cohort-study
#19
Kathrin Zürcher, Marie Ballif, Lukas Fenner, Sonia Borrell, Peter M Keller, Joachim Gnokoro, Olivier Marcy, Marcel Yotebieng, Lameck Diero, E Jane Carter, Neesha Rockwood, Robert J Wilkinson, Helen Cox, Nicholas Ezati, Alash'le G Abimiku, Jimena Collantes, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Kamon Kawkitinarong, Miriam Reinhard, Rico Hömke, Robin Huebner, Sebastien Gagneux, Erik C Böttger, Matthias Egger
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance is a challenge for the global control of tuberculosis. We examined mortality in patients with tuberculosis from high-burden countries, according to concordance or discordance of results from drug susceptibility testing done locally and in a reference laboratory. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study was done in Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Peru, and Thailand. We collected Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and clinical data from adult patients aged 16 years or older...
February 7, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744875/dermatologic-care-for-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-persons-epidemiology-screening-and-disease-prevention
#20
REVIEW
Howa Yeung, Kevin M Luk, Suephy C Chen, Brian A Ginsberg, Kenneth A Katz
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons face important health issues relevant to dermatologists. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at higher risk of certain infectious diseases, including HIV, syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, and invasive meningococcal disease, and might be at higher risk of non-infectious conditions, including skin cancer. Recommendations for preventive health care, including screening for HIV and other STDs, sexual health-related vaccinations, and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, differ for MSM compared with non-MSM...
March 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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