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Fernando Freitas de Oliveira, René Peter Schneider
Control of the organic substrate pool that determines the microbial growth potential (MGP) of feedwater in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a challenge unresolved in conventional or advanced membrane pretreatment. Slow sand filtration (SSF) combines filtration with biodegradation, but its capability of reducing MGP, proteins and carbohydrates on seawater feeds is not known. Two SSF, one constructed with new media (newSSF) and one from a previous filtration run (oldSSF), reduced MGP as measured in a growth assay with the marine organism Pseudoalteromonas songiae by one order of magnitude after maturation periods of 76 and 61 days, respectively...
February 27, 2019: Water Research
Deepa Sriramulu, Hui Ying Yang
In recent years, capacitive deionization (CDI) has emerged as an energy efficient and cost-effective technology for the desalination of brackish water. However, high energy consumption and poor desalting efficiency at high salinity levels have hampered the application of CDI for seawater (∼35 000 mg L-1). A novel method of CDI termed hybrid capacitive deionization (HCDI) employs the use of a faradaic electrode paired with a capacitive electrode. Doing so increases the salt removal capacity to approximately three times that of conventional activated carbon (AC) materials (∼10 mg g-1)...
March 15, 2019: Nanoscale
José A Aznar-Sánchez, Luis J Belmonte-Ureña, Juan F Velasco-Muñoz, Diego L Valera
In the Campo de Níjar (southeast Spain), an intensive horticulture model under plastic has been developed based on the use of groundwater. For many years, aquifers have been overexploited, almost generating an environmental collapse. The construction of a desalination plant was planned to improve this situation and to achieve sustainable aquifer management. However, the aquifer is still being overexploited, since farmers scarcely use desalinated seawater for irrigation. In this paper, farmers irrigating with desalinated seawater are characterized, since they contribute to aquifer sustainability...
March 12, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Niraj Thakre, Amiya K Jana
Either concerning to the energy production from natural gas hydrates or employing the hydrate technology to gas handing and seawater desalination purposes, various pure and mixture clathrate hydrates need to be understood in terms of their phase behavior and stability. The ab initio methods have compelling implications in quantifying the anisotropic guest-water interactions that are responsible for the guest specific nature of the hydrates. Howbeit, the accurate cavity interactions for large guests are obscure due to computational infeasibility...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Zhe Zhai, Na Zhao, Wenjing Dong, Peng Li, Haixiang Sun, Qingshan Jason Niu
Zeolite imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) has emerged as an excellent candidate for the preparation of thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane. Nevertheless, it still remains a great challenge to effectively incorporate ZIF-8 into the resulting TFN membrane feasible for the facile application. Herein, we propose an in situ strategy to fabricate ZIF-8 nanocrystal hybrid reverse osmosis membrane induced by the ultrafast surface modification of Noria-polyethyleneimine (PEI) co-deposition. By this method, ZIF-8 nanocubes with monodispersity was firstly formed on modified support through the step-by-step deposition of precursor solutions...
March 14, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Anna Puiggalí-Jou, Luis J Del Valle, Carlos Alemán
Molecular sensing, water purification and desalination, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing are some striking applications of biomimetic hybrid membranes. These devices take advantage of biomolecules, which have gained excellence in their specificity and efficiency during billions of years, and of artificial materials that load the purified biological molecules and provide technological properties, such as robustness, scalability, and suitable nanofeatures to confine the biomolecules. Recent methodological advances allow more precise control of polymer membranes that support the biomacromolecules, and are expected to improve the design of the next generation of membranes as well as their applicability...
March 14, 2019: Soft Matter
Shudi Mao, Ling Chen, Yi Zhang, Zhe Li, Zhuobiao Ni, Zhuo Sun, Ran Zhao
In this study, we demonstrated the influence of adding nanofiltration membranes to a CDI cell, when desalinating mono- and divalent salt solutions both theoretically and experimentally, and proposed a new procedure for the separation of mono- and divalent ions. It is revealed that the distinction of the diffusion coefficient between mono- and divalent ions is the key to the effective separation. Combined with the appropriate time of adsorption (1.5 h), the concentration ratio of NaCl to MgSO4 can be increased by a factor of 3, from a mixture with equal amount of NaCl and MgSO4 ...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Rajasekaran Manokaran, K Ganapathy Ayappa
Graphene oxide membranes have been widely studied for their potential applications in water desalination applications. In order to understand the influence of surface oxidation and the inherent heterogeneity imposed by opposing surfaces formed in macroscopic membranes, molecular dynamics simulations of water confined in nanopores (8 - 15 Å) made up of different surface types are carried out. The greatest differences are observed at 8 Å which is the optimal separation distance for molecular sieving of ions...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Siwon Choi, Bumjoo Kim, Kishor G Nayar, Junghyo Yoon, Sumaya Al-Hammadi, John H Lienhard V, Jongyoon Han, Bader Al-Anzi
A techno-economic analysis is used to evaluate the economic feasibility of ion concentration polarization (ICP) desalination for seawater desalination and brine management. An empirical optimization model based on a limited set of experimental data, which was obtained from a lab-scale ICP desalination prototype, was established to calculate the required energy and membrane area for a given set of operating parameters. By calculating operating and capital expenses in various feed and product cases, the optimal levelized cost of water is determined over a range of feed salinities, mostly above seawater salinity (35 g/kg)...
February 25, 2019: Water Research
Guohai Yang, Daqing Zhang, Cheng Wang, Hong Liu, Lulu Qu, Haitao Li
Residual antibiotics in water have become a primary source of water pollution due to their misuse. Recently, membranes, produced by layered nanomaterials such as graphene oxide (GO), boron nitride (BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides, have been used in water purification, desalination and molecule separation as they are energy saving and simple to operate. The performance of membranes is closely related to their structure and the properties of the nanomaterials used. In this work, BN nanosheets (BNNSs) and GO were used to fabricate a two-dimensional nanocomposite membrane in order to improve the membrane's permeance...
March 6, 2019: Nanomaterials
Zechun Xiao, Rui Zheng, Yongjie Liu, Hailong He, Xiaofei Yuan, Yunhui Ji, Dongdong Li, Huabing Yin, Yuebiao Zhang, Xue-Mei Li, Tao He
Scaling in membrane distillation (MD) is a key issue in desalination of concentrated saline water, where the interface property between the membrane and the feed become critical. In this paper, a slippery mechanism was explored as an innovative concept to understand the scaling behavior in membrane distillation for a soluble salt, NaCl. The investigation was based on a novel design of a superhydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane with micro-pillar arrays (MP-PVDF) using a micromolding phase separation (μPS) method...
February 1, 2019: Water Research
Xinkun Zhao, Bingxin Jia, Qianqian Sun, Gaojie Jiao, Lili Liu, Diao She
Electrosorption is a novel desalination technique that has many advantages in the treatment of sewage. However, commercially available activated carbon electrodes for electrosorption commonly have low microporosity, poor moulding performance, and low adsorption and regeneration efficiency. Here, we evaluated a novel adsorbent material, activated carbon fibre felt (ACFF), for electrosorption of chromium ions (Cr6+ ) in sewage treatment. The ACFF was modified with 20% nitric acid and its modified structure was characterized...
September 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Steven Hand, Xia Shang, Jeremy S Guest, Kyle Christopher Smith, Roland D Cusick
Capacitive deionization (CDI) technologies couple electronic and ionic charge storage, enabling improved thermodynamic efficiency of brackish desalination by recovering energy released during discharge. However, insight into CDI has been limited by discrete experimental observations at low desalination depths (Δc, typically reducing influent salinity by 10 mM or less). In this study, the performance and sensitivity of three common CDI configurations (standard CDI, membrane CDI [MCDI], and flowable electrode CDI [FCDI]) were evaluated across the operational and material design landscape by varying eight common input parameters (electrode thickness, influent concentration, current density, electrode flow rate, specific capacitance, contact resistance, porosity, and fixed charge)...
March 1, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Mona M Naim, Abeer A Moneer, Mahmoud M Elewa, Ahmed A El-Shafei
Supported liquid membranes (SLM) suffer from very slow mass transfer of the solute from the donor phase (DP) to the receptor phase (RP) through the liquid membrane (LM). In the present work, an attempt was made to accelerate the mass transfer in SLM by creating a modified configuration in which the DP and RP are made to flow either co- or counter-currently to each other. Variables, which could affect the removal of NaCl, were the volume ratio of DP to RP, type and quantity of sequestering agent (SA), presence of mobile carrier (MC), type of LM, and flow rate of DP and RP...
January 2019: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Mahdi Alam, Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri, Mohammad Reza Ghaani
Carbon Xerogel is an economic choice of material for electrodes with applications in Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLCs) and Capacitive DeIonization systems (CDI, particularly for desalination). The objective here is to optimize Carbon Xerogel's performance, specifically its capacitance, through multi-parameter optimization using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). We choose NaOH as the catalyst and select as the optimization parameters (i) the pH of the initial Resorcinol-Formaldehyde-Catalyst (RFC) solution, (ii) Reactants to Liquid mass ratio (R/L) of the RFC solution, and (iii) the Pyrolysis Temperature (PT)...
February 2019: Heliyon
Seungju Kim, Huanting Wang, Young Moo Lee
Two-dimensional nanosheets have shown great potential for separation applications because of their exceptional molecular transport properties. Nanosheet materials such as graphene oxides, metal organic frameworks, and covalent organic frameworks provide unique molecular transport through nanopores and/or nanochannels that exhibit precise and fast transport. However, dimensional instability of nanosheets in harsh environments diminishes the membrane performance and hinders their long-term operation in various applications such as gas separation, water desalination and ion separation...
February 27, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Marion L Cambridge, Andrea Zavala-Perez, Greg R Cawthray, John Statton, Julie Mondon, Gary A Kendrick
Desalination has the potential to provide an important source of potable water to growing coastal populations but it also produces highly saline brines with chemical additives, posing a possible threat to benthic marine communities. The effects of brine (0%, 50%, 100%) were compared to seawater treatments with the same salinity (37, 46, 54 psu) for seagrass (Posidonia australis) in mesocosms over 2 weeks. There were significant differences between brine and salinity treatments for photosynthesis, water relations and growth...
March 2019: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Li Wang, Jouke Dykstra, Shihong Lin
Capacitive deionization (CDI) as a class of electrochemical desalination has attracted fast-growing research interest in recent years. A significant part of this growing interest is arguably attributable to the premise that CDI is energy efficient and has the potential to outcompete other conventional desalination technologies. In this review, systematic evaluation of literature data as presented reveals that while the absolute energy consumption of CDI is in general low, most existing CDI systems achieve limited energy efficiency from a thermodynamic perspective...
February 25, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Muhammad Hanis Tajuddin, Norhaniza Yusof, Ihsan Wan Azelee, Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Juhana Jaafar, Farhana Aziz, Kazukiyo Nagai, Nor Faizah Razali
This study aims to fabricate a thin film composite (TFC) membrane, modified with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanofillers via interfacial polymerization technique for nanofiltration (NF) processes. It was found that Cu-Al LDH nanofillers possessed layered structured materials with typical hexagonal plate-like shape and positive surface charge. The study revealed that TFN membrane exhibits a relatively smooth surface and a less nodular structure compared to pristine TFC membrane. The contact angle of TFN progressively decreased from 54...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Seoni Kim, Hwajoo Joo, Taegyun Moon, Seung-Hyun Kim, Jeyong Yoon
Due to the steep increase in the use of mobile electronics and electric vehicles, there has been a dramatic rise in the global lithium consumption. Although seawater is considered as an ideal future source of lithium, technological advances are necessary to ensure the economic feasibility of lithium recovery from seawater because the concentration and portion of Li+ are extremely low in seawater. Especially, battery-based electrochemical systems for lithium recovery have been considered as promising lithium recovery methods, though they have not been considered for seawater applications due to the extremely low concentration of Li+...
February 25, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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