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Horse, equine

Alayna N Hay, Ashley Potter, Leah Kasmark, Jing Zhu, Caroline M Leeth
Varying susceptibility exists among mammalian species to the development of potentially fatal endotoxemia due to gram-negative bacteria molecular component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is responsible for LPS-associated immune response and is expressed on numerous immune cells including B lymphocytes. TLR4 is expressed in a functional form on mouse B lymphocytes, a species much less susceptible to endotoxemia compared with humans who are highly sensitive to endotoxin. Humans possess B lymphocytes that are not responsive to LPS...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Alexandra G Raftery, Saloum Jallow, Jean Rodgers, David G M Sutton
BACKGROUND: Globally, working equines have a continued and growing socioeconomic role in supporting the livelihoods of between 300-600 million people in low income countries which is rarely recognised at a national or international level. Infectious diseases have significant impact on welfare and productivity in this population and equine trypanosomiasis is a priority disease due to its severity and prevalence. Strategies are required to improve the prevention, diagnosis, management and treatment of trypanosomiasis in equines and more data are required on the efficacy and safety of current trypanocidal drugs...
March 22, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
M Paraskevaidi, P D Hook, C L M Morais, J R Anderson, R White, P L Martin-Hirsch, M J Peffers, F L Martin
BACKGROUND: Reliable and validated biomarkers for osteoarthritis (OA) are currently lacking. OBJECTIVE: To develop an accurate and minimally invasive method to assess OA-affected horses and provide potential spectral markers indicative of disease. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of 15 horses with OA and 48 without clinical signs of the disease, which were used as controls...
March 22, 2019: Equine Veterinary Journal
A Khan, G D Hallowell, C Underwood, A W van Eps
BACKGROUND: Rectal fluid administration may offer a simple, safe and inexpensive alternative to intravenous or nasogastric fluid therapy in equine clinical patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the tolerance and effects of rectally administered fluid and compare measurements of haemodilution and intravascular volume with those during nasogastric and intravenous fluid administration. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised controlled experimental trial. METHODS: Six clinically normal Standardbred geldings were used in a 4-way crossover study: each received 3 different fluid treatments (intravenous, nasogastric and rectal) at 5 ml/kg/h for 6 h and underwent a control (no treatment) with water and feed withheld...
March 22, 2019: Equine Veterinary Journal
Stephanie Adolph, Carola Schedlbauer, Dominique Blaue, Axel Schöniger, Claudia Gittel, Walter Brehm, Herbert Fuhrmann, Ingrid Vervuert
Fatty acids, as key components of cellular membranes and complex lipids, may play a central role in endocrine signalling and the function of adipose tissue and liver. Thus, the lipid fatty acid composition may play a role in health status in the equine. This study aimed to investigate the fatty acid composition of different tissues and liver lipid classes by comparing Warmblood horses and Shetland ponies under defined conditions. We hypothesized that ponies show different lipid patterns than horses in adipose tissue, liver and plasma...
2019: PloS One
Helena Lindström, Aslam M A Mazari, Yaman Musdal, Bengt Mannervik
Equine glutathione transferase A3-3 (EcaGST A3-3) belongs to the superfamily of detoxication enzymes found in all higher organisms. However, it is also the most efficient steroid double-bond isomerase known in mammals. Equus ferus caballus shares the steroidogenic pathway with Homo sapiens, which makes the horse a suitable animal model for investigations of human steroidogenesis. Inhibition of the enzyme has potential for treatment of steroid-hormone-dependent disorders. Screening of a library of FDA-approved drugs identified 16 out of 1040 compounds, which at 10 μM concentration afforded at least 50% inhibition of EcaGST A3-3...
2019: PloS One
Renata L Linardi, Michael E Dodson, Kaitlyn L Moss, William J King, Kyla F Ortved
Cartilage injury occurs commonly in equine athletes, often precipitating posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Orthobiologics such as autologous conditioned serum (ACS) and autologous protein solution (APS) may be useful in decreasing posttraumatic inflammation, thereby preventing PTOA. The objective of this study was to quantify cytokine concentrations in ACS and APS and evaluate the protective effects of ACS and APS on inflamed chondrocytes cultured in vitro . We hypothesized that the combination of platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in APS would be superior in decreasing the inflammatory and catabolic cascade in inflamed chondrocytes when compared to ACS in which platelets are excluded from the preparation...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Reut Solomovich-Manor, Judith Comte, Israel Nissan, Gila A Sutton, Annie Gabay, Emanuel Gazit, Amir Steinman
Envenomation by venomous snakes is life threatening for horses. However, the efficacy of available treatments for this occurrence, in horses, has not yet been adequately determined. The aim of this study was to describe the treatments provided in cases of Daboia palaestinae envenomation in horses and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of antivenom administration. Data regarding 123 equine snakebite cases were collected over four years from 25 veterinarians. The majority of horses were treated with procaine-penicillin (92...
March 19, 2019: Toxins
Yanan Zhao, Jianxin Chang, Baojiang Zhang, Panpan Tong, Caidie Wang, Duoliang Ran, Yan Su
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) induces serious respiratory infections, viral abortion, neurological signs, and neonatal mortality in horses. Despite the use of vaccines, EHV-1 infection also causes a high annual economic burden to the equine industry. The poor immunogenicity of and protection conferred by EHV-1 vaccines are the major factors responsible for the spread of EHV-1 infection. The present study examined the immunogenicity of a novel DNA vaccine co-expressing FliC, a flagellin protein, in Salmonella abortus equi and the gD protein of EHV-1...
March 19, 2019: Archives of Virology
Mariëlle Kaashoek, Sarah Jane Hobbs, Hilary Mary Clayton, Peter Aerts, Sandra Nauwelaerts
To reduce anatomically unrealistic limb postures in a virtual musculoskeletal model of a horse's forelimb, accurate knowledge on forelimb joint constraints is essential. The aim of this cadaver study is to report all orientation and position changes of the finite helical axes (FHA) as a function of joint angle for different equine forelimb joints. Five horse cadaver forelimbs with standardized cuts at the midlevel of each segment were used. Bone pins with reflective marker triads were drilled into the forelimb bones...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Morphology
K Nostell, S Lindåse, H Edberg, J Bröjer
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence that horses with equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) have higher resting blood pressures than horses with normal insulin sensitivity. However, there are indications that EMS horses have an altered dynamic response to the cardiovascular effects of insulin. OBJECTIVES: To examine heart rate and the systemic blood pressure response in EMS and control horses during insulin infusion. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study...
March 18, 2019: Equine Veterinary Journal
Rahel Joss, Fabio Baschnagel, Stefani Ohlerth, Gabor Piskoty, Anton Fürst, Andrea S Bischofberger
OBJECTIVE:  The aim of this study was to compare the potential of an unshod and shod hoof to cause an orbital fracture in the event of a kick. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Thirty-four equine cadaveric orbitae were exposed to a steel or horn impactor in a dropping test set-up. An impactor velocity of 7 m/s was used for both materials. Testing was repeated on the same orbit at a velocity of 10 m/s with the horn impactor if no damage occurred. A high-speed camera was used to analyse the impact process...
March 18, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Karoliina Rissanen, Maryna Galat, Ganna Kovalenko, Olena Rodnina, Glib Mikharovskyi, Kärt Must, Pikka Jokelainen
BACKGROUND: Horses are recognized as important hosts for the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, mainly because meat of infected horses can be a source of human T. gondii infections. However, the baseline knowledge on equine T. gondii infections is limited and lacking from many countries. This seroepidemiological study was set in Ukraine, a country where little is known about T. gondii prevalence in any host species. METHODS: We investigated 78 serum samples from horses, collected from Kyiv and Lviv regions of Ukraine, using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a commercial modified direct agglutination test (DAT)...
March 18, 2019: Acta Parasitologica
Carine L Holz, Dodd G Sledge, Matti Kiupel, Rahul K Nelli, Lutz S Goehring, Gisela Soboll Hussey
Histopathological differences in horses infected with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) of differing neuropathogenic potential [wild-type (Ab4), polymerase mutant (Ab4 N752), EHV-1/4 gD mutant (Ab4 gD4)] were evaluated to examine the impact of viral factors on clinical disease, tissue tropism and pathology. Three of 8 Ab4 infected horses developed Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy (EHM) requiring euthanasia of 2 horses on day 9 post-infection. None of the other horses showed neurologic signs and all remaining animals were sacrificed 10 weeks post-infection...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
João B V Campos, Marcos R André, Luiz R Gonçalves, Carla R Freschi, Filipe M Santos, Carina E de Oliveira, Eliane M Piranda, Gisele B de Andrade, Gabriel C Macedo, Rosangela Z Machado, Heitor M Herrera
Brazilian Pantanal is the world´s largest wetland ecosystem, where cattle's ranching is the most important economic activity. The objective of this study was to compile some epidemiological features on equine piroplasmids from the Nhecolândia sub-region of Pantanal wetland through the evaluation of the patterns of T. equi and B. caballi infections in different groups of horses; identification of the tick species that infest horses; and to study phylogenetic relationships among Theileria equi 18S rRNA gene sequences...
March 8, 2019: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
(no author information available yet)
Abigail McGlennon from the Animal Health Trust introduces a new project to gather information on cases of strangles in horses throughout the UK.
March 16, 2019: Veterinary Record
Celia M Marr
Degenerative myxomatous disease is common and is associated with aging. Poor prognostic indicators for equine aortic regurgitation specifically include ventricular ectopy, increased pulse pressure, and hyperkinetic pulses. Valvular prolapse is a functional abnormality diagnosed echocardiographically, about which knowledge is limited. A better understanding of its role in valvular regurgitation is needed. Infective endocarditis presents with fever and other systemic signs accompanying valvular regurgitation...
March 11, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Mary M Durando
Horses have a high prevalence of resting arrhythmias, cardiac murmurs, and valvular regurgitation, and training can increase the prevalence. This makes it challenging for equine veterinarians who are asked to evaluate horses for poor performance to determine the clinical relevance of some findings. In addition, cardiac disease has the potential to cause collapse or sudden death, putting both the horse and rider at risk. Further diagnostics, such as echocardiograms and resting and exercising ECGs can help to sort out the impact of an abnormality found on resting physical examination...
March 11, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
John A Keen
Despite advances, increased convenience, and availability of echocardiography and other diagnostic techniques in equine cardiology, a comprehensive history and clinical examination still forms the essential first step in any cardiac evaluation. This article summarizes the approach to the cardiac examination at rest, highlighting key areas for the clinician to assess, and stressing the importance of context for assessing the significance of any abnormalities detected. Ancillary techniques, such as blood pressure measurement and the laboratory assessment of cardiac disease in the horse, are also introduced...
March 11, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Ana Leda F Longhini, Tatiana E Salazar, Cristiano Vieira, Thao Trinh, Yaqian Duan, Louise M Pay, Sergio Li Calzi, Megan Losh, Nancy A Johnston, Huisheng Xie, Minsu Kim, Robert J Hunt, Mervin C Yoder, Domenico Santoro, Taralyn M McCarrel, Maria B Grant
Previously, we showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be mobilized into peripheral blood using electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoints, LI-4, LI-11, GV-14, and GV-20. The purpose of this study was to determine whether EA-mobilized MSC could be harvested and expanded in vitro to be used as an autologous cell therapy in horses. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from young and aged lame horses (n = 29) showed a marked enrichment for MSCs. MSC were expanded in vitro (n = 25) and administered intravenously at a dose of 50 x 106 (n = 24)...
2019: PloS One
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