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Eeg Brain Connectivity

Yan-Yu Zhang
Integrating different visual features into a coherent object is a central challenge for the visual system, which is referred as the binding problem. Firstly, this review introduces the conception of the binding problem and the theoretical and empirical controversies regarding whether and how the binding processes are implemented in visual system. Although many neurons throughout the visual hierarchy are known to code multiple features, feature binding is recruited by visual system. Feature misbinding (or illusory conjunction) is probably the most striking evidence for the existence of the binding mechanism...
February 25, 2019: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Akihiro Takamiya, Jinichi Hirano, Bun Yamagata, Shigeki Takei, Taishiro Kishimoto, Masaru Mimura
Introduction : Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has antidepressant effects, but it also has possible cognitive side effects. The effects of ECT on neuronal oscillatory pattern and phase synchronization, and the relationship between clinical response or cognitive change and electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements remain elusive. Methods : Individuals with unipolar depressive disorder receiving bilateral ECT were recruited. Five minutes of resting, eyes-closed, 19-lead EEG recordings were obtained before and after a course of ECT...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sara Tremblay, Nigel C Rogasch, Isabella Premoli, Daniel M Blumberger, Silvia Casarotto, Robert Chen, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Faranak Farzan, Fabio Ferrarelli, Paul B Fitzgerald, Jeanette Hui, Risto J Ilmoniemi, Vasilios K Kimiskidis, Dimitris Kugiumtzis, Pantelis Lioumis, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Tarek Rajji, Gregor Thut, Reza Zomorrodi, Ulf Ziemann, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) has emerged as a powerful tool to non-invasively probe brain circuits in humans, allowing for the assessment of several cortical properties such as excitability and connectivity. Over the past decade, this technique has been applied to various clinical populations, enabling the characterization and development of potential TMS-EEG predictors and markers of treatments and of the pathophysiology of brain disorders. The objective of this article is to present a comprehensive review of studies that have used TMS-EEG in clinical populations and to discuss potential clinical applications...
January 19, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Steven H Mott, Richard P Morse, Scott A Burroughs, Ashura W Buckley, Cristan A Farmer, Audrey E Thurm, Susan E Swedo, Amara L Krag, Gregory L Holmes
Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) is an age-related, self-limited epileptic encephalopathy. The syndrome is characterized by cognitive and behavioral abnormalities and a specific EEG pattern of continuous spikes and waves during slow-wave sleep. While spikes and sharp waves are known to result in transient cognitive impairment during learning and memory tasks performed during the waking state, the effect of epileptiform discharges during sleep on cognition and behavior is unclear. There is increasing evidence that abnormalities of coherence, a measure of the consistency of the phase difference between two EEG signals when compared over time, is an important feature of brain oscillations and plays a role in cognition and behavior...
February 15, 2019: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Ho-Joon Lee, Kang Min Park
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate structural and functional connectivity of patients with newly diagnosed juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) compared to healthy subjects. METHODS: We enrolled 36 patients with a diagnosis of JME, who were newly diagnosed and drug-naïve. They underwent T1-weighted imaging, and structural volumes were calculated using FreeSurfer software. In addition, EEG data were obtained from all of them. Structural and functional connectivity matrices were estimated by calculating the structural volumes and EEG amplitude correlation, respectively...
February 13, 2019: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Kyle Joseph Edmunds, Hannes Petersen, Mahmoud Hassan, Sahar Yassine, Antonella Olivieri, Fabio Barollo, Rún Friðriksdóttir, Patricia Edmunds, Magnús Gíslason, Antonio Fratini, Paolo Gargiulo
Maintaining upright posture is a complex task governed by the integration of afferent sensorimotor and visual information with compensatory neuromuscular reactions. The objective of the present work was to characterize the visual dependency and functional dynamics of cortical activation during postural control. 
 Approach. Proprioceptic vibratory stimulation of calf muscles at 85 Hz was performed to evoke postural perturbation in open-eye (OE) and closed-eye (CE) experimental trials, with pseudorandom binary stimulation phases divided into four segments of 16 stimuli...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Saskia Steinmann, Gregor Leicht, Christoph Mulert
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia and have been linked to abnormal activation, connectivity and integration within the auditory, language, and memory brain networks. The interhemispheric miscommunication theory of AVH is based on a steadily growing number of studies using a variety of modalities (EEG, fMRI, DTI) reporting that both altered integrity of the interhemispheric auditory pathways and disturbed functional gamma-band synchrony between right and left auditory cortices significantly contribute to abnormal auditory processing and the emergence of AVH...
February 7, 2019: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Roisin McMackin, Peter Bede, Niall Pender, Orla Hardiman, Bahman Nasseroleslami
There is strong clinical, imaging and pathological evidence that neurodegeneration is associated with altered brain connectivity. While functional imaging (fMRI) can detect resting and activated states of metabolic activity, its use is limited by poor temporal resolution, cost and confounding vascular parameters. By contrast, electrophysiological (e.g. EEG/MEG) recordings provide direct measures of neural activity with excellent temporal resolution, and source localization methodologies can address problems of spatial resolution, permitting measurement of functional activity of brain networks with a spatial resolution similar to that of fMRI...
February 2, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
PeiYang Li, Huan Liu, Yajing Si, Cunbo Li, Fali Li, Xuyang Zhu, Xiaoye Huang, Ying Zeng, Dezhong Yao, Yangsong Zhang, Peng Xu
OBJECTIVE: Spectral power analysis plays a predominant role in electroencephalogram (EEG) based emotional recognition. It can reflect activity differences among multiple brain regions. In addition to activation difference, different emotions also involve different large-scale network during related information processing. In this work, both information propagation patterns and activation difference in the brain were fused to improve the performance of emotional recognition. METHODS: We constructed emotion-related brain networks with phase locking value (PLV) and adopted a multiple feature fusion approach to combine the compensative activation and connection information for emotion recognition...
February 5, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Hongxia Wang, Yan Sun, Jiaojiao Lv, Siyu Bo
OBJECTIVES: Internet addiction (IA) has been associated with widespread brain alterations. Functional connectivity (FC) and network analysis results related to IA are inconsistent between studies, and how network hubs change is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional and topological networks using an unbiased minimum spanning tree (MST) analysis on electroencephalography (EEG) data in IA and healthy control (HC) college students. METHODS: In this study, Young's internet addiction test was used as an IA severity measure...
January 31, 2019: Brain and Behavior
Andrea Orlandi, Alice Mado Proverbio
Previous evidence has shown neuroplastic changes in brain anatomy and connectivity associated with the acquisition of professional visuomotor skills. Reduced hemispherical asymmetry was found in the sensorimotor and visual areas in expert musicians and athletes compared with non-experts. Moreover, increased expertise with faces, body, and objects resulted in an enhanced engagement of the occipito-temporal cortex (OTC) during stimulus observation. The present study aimed at investigating whether intense and extended practice with dance would result in an enhanced symmetric response of OTC at an early stage of action processing...
January 30, 2019: Scientific Reports
Tian Mei, Xiaoyan Wei, Ziyi Chen, Xianghua Tian, Nan Dong, Dongmei Li, Yi Zhou
BACKGROUND: Characterizing the synchronous changes of epileptic seizures in different stages between different regions is profound to understand the transmission pathways of epileptic brain network and epileptogenic foci. There is currently no adequate quantitative calculation method for describing the propagation pathways of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in the brain network from the short and long term. The goal of this study is to explore the innovative method to locate epileptic foci, mapping synchronization in the brain networks based on EEG...
January 31, 2019: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Reshma Madhukar Shetkar, Alex Hankey, H R Nagendra, Balaram Pradhan
Background: Important stages of creativity include preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification. Earlier studies have reported that some techniques of meditation promote creativity but have not specified which stage is enhanced. Here, we report the influence of cyclic meditation (CM) on creative cognition measured by a divergent thinking task. Our aim was to determine the degree of association between the two. Methods: Twenty-four university students were randomly assigned to an experimental group (CM) and controls (Supine Rest), 35 min/day for 7 days...
January 2019: International Journal of Yoga
Frederik Van de Steen, Hannes Almgren, Adeel Razi, Karl Friston, Daniele Marinazzo
Functional and effective connectivity are known to change systematically over time. These changes might be explained by several factors, including intrinsic fluctuations in activity-dependent neuronal coupling and contextual factors, like experimental condition and time. Furthermore, contextual effects may be subject-specific or conserved over subjects. To characterize fluctuations in effective connectivity, we used dynamic causal modelling (DCM) of cross spectral responses over 1 min of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during rest, divided into 1-sec windows...
January 25, 2019: NeuroImage
Paul L Nunez, Michael D Nunez, Ramesh Srinivasan
A biophysical framework needed to interpret electrophysiological data recorded at multiple spatial scales of brain tissue is developed. Micro current sources at membrane surfaces produce local field potentials, electrocorticography, and electroencephalography (EEG). We categorize multi-scale sources as genuine, equivalent, or representative. Genuine sources occur at the micro scale of cell surfaces. Equivalent sources provide identical experimental outcomes over a range of scales and applications. In contrast, each representative source distribution is just one of many possible source distributions that yield similar experimental outcomes...
January 25, 2019: Brain Topography
Muhammad Zeeshan Baig, Manolya Kavakli
Modelling 3D objects in CAD software requires special skills which require a novice user to undergo a series of training exercises to obtain. To minimize the training time for a novice user, the user-dependent factors must be studied. we have presented a comparative analysis of novice/expert information flow patterns. We have used Normalized Transfer Entropy (NTE) and Electroencephalogram (EEG) to investigate the differences. The experiment was divided into three cognitive states i.e., rest, drawing, and manipulation...
January 24, 2019: Brain Sciences
Rodolfo Abreu, Alberto Leal, Patrícia Figueiredo
Most fMRI studies of the brain's intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) have assumed that this is static; however, it is now clear that it changes over time. This is particularly relevant in epilepsy, which is characterized by a continuous interchange between epileptic and normal brain states associated with the occurrence of epileptic activity. Interestingly, recurrent states of dynamic FC (dFC) have been found in fMRI data using unsupervised learning techniques, assuming either their sparse or non-sparse combination...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
Emanuela Formaggio, Silvia F Storti, Lucio Pastena, Massimo Melucci, Lucio Ricciardi, Fabio Faralli, Riccardo Gagliardi, Gloria Menegaz
Although the recent years have witnessed a growing interest in functional connectivity (FC) through brain sources, FC in extreme situations has not been completely elucidated. This study aimed at investigating whether the expertise acquired during deep-sea diving is reflected in FC in a group of professional divers (PDs) compared with a group of new divers (NDs) and how it could affect concentration and stress levels. The source of brain frequency rhythms, derived by electroencephalography (EEG) acquisition in a hyperbaric chamber, were extracted in different frequency bands and the corresponding FC was estimated in order to compare the two groups...
January 24, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Shuting Sun, Xiaowei Li, Jing Zhu, Ying Wang, Rong La, Xuemin Zhang, Liuqing Wei, Bin Hu
Existing studies have shown functional brain networks in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have abnormal network topology structure. But the methods to construct brain network still exist some issues to be solved. This study is to explore reliable and robust construction methods of functional brain network using different coupling methods and binarization approaches, based on high-density 128-channel resting state EEG recordings from 16 MDD patients and 16 normal controls (NC). It was found that the combination of imaginary part of coherence (ICoh) and Cluster-Span Threshold (CST) outperformed other methods...
January 23, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Miles Berger, Deborah Oyeyemi, Mobolaji O Olurinde, Heather E Whitson, Kent J Weinhold, Marty G Woldorff, Lewis A Lipsitz, Eugene Moretti, Charles M Giattino, Kenneth C Roberts, Junhong Zhou, Thomas Bunning, Michael Ferrandino, Randall P Scheri, Mary Cooter, Cliburn Chan, Roberto Cabeza, Jeffrey N Browndyke, David M Murdoch, Michael J Devinney, Leslie M Shaw, Harvey Jay Cohen, Joseph P Mathew
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Every year, up to 40% of the more than 16 million older Americans who undergo anesthesia/surgery develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) or delirium. Each of these distinct syndromes is associated with decreased quality of life, increased mortality, and a possible increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. One pathologic process hypothesized to underlie both delirium and POCD is neuroinflammation. The INTUIT study described here will determine the extent to which postoperative increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) levels and monocyte numbers are associated with delirium and/or POCD and their underlying brain connectivity changes...
January 23, 2019: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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