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Thin film

Wei Guo, Kersten Van Langenhove, Tara Vandermarken, Michael S Denison, Marc Elskens, Willy Baeyens, Yue Gao
Organic-diffusive gradients in thin-film samplers (o-DGT), were developed and applied for accumulation of estrogen and estrogen-like compounds on a XAD18 resin and deployed in situ in the effluents of Beijing Gaobeidian Wastewater Treatment Plant (GWWTP) and Brussels North Wastewater Treatment Plant as well as in several aquatic systems in Belgium, including the Zenne River, the Belgian Oostende Harbor and the North Sea. Estrogenic compounds accumulate on the XAD18 resin and the estrogenic activity of the resin extract was measured with the Estrogen Responsive Elements-Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (ERE-CALUX) bioassay...
March 18, 2019: Environment International
Sebastian Björklund, Vitaly Kocherbitov
HYPOTHESIS: Investigating the origin of water sorption-desorption hysteresis in glassy biopolymers is important for understanding the properties of biological barriers, such as the mucus epithelium. In general, hysteresis is a result of a complex interplay between diffusion of water and relaxation of the polymer matrix. Our hypothesis is that for thin films, typical for quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) experiments performed in gas phase with defined relative humidity, the diffusion limitation is eliminated and hysteresis results only from relaxation of the polymer matrix...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yue Sun, Yangyang Wang, Ce Zhang, Sai Chen, Huicong Chang, Nan Guo, Junku Liu, Yi Jia, Lei Wang, Yudong Weng, Wei Zhao, Kaili Jiang, Lin Xiao
Electrochromic devices with tunable infrared radiation can meet the steadily growing demands in energy saving and thermal camouflage applications. Here a mid-infrared radiation modulator based on flexible multilayer graphene thin films gated by nonvolatile ionic liquid on both rigid and flexible substrates is designed. The thermal emissivity of the device decreases nearly 80% within two seconds with the accumulation of anions in the multilayer graphene. The effective reduction of the emissivity results from the film's dramatically decrease in intraband absorption of graphene according to Drude model...
March 21, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ahra Cho, Da Bin Kim, Yong Soo Cho
The successful utilization of Pb-free piezoelectric materials is considered as critical since the piezoelectric material-based thin-film cantilever is still the preferred choice for commercial vibrational energy harvesters. Herein, we introduce a highly efficient piezoelectric energy harvester based on a Pb-free representative compound, Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, which has not been explored so far. Applying a strong electric field for poling purposes brought unexpectedly huge changes in the dielectric constant and piezoelectric coefficient, which were responsible for the promising power density of 21...
March 21, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Barbora Prudilová, Eva Otyepková, Jindřich Fanfrlík, Drahomír Hnyk, Josef Holub, Martin Petr, Jan Filip, Klára Čépe, Petr Lazar, Michal Otyepka
Superconductivity in polycrystalline and thin-film MgB2 is strongly affected by the termination of its surface, but a reliable determination of the surface termination is still a challenging task of surface chemistry. Here, the surface properties of superconducting MgB2 were investigated using a combination of inverse gas chromatography and van der Waals corrected density functional theory calculations. The dispersive surface energy was measured as a function of the surface coverage and its value (58 mJ m-2 to 48 mJ m-2) was verified by high-level non-local EXX + RPA calculations, which predicted that the dispersive contribution to the cleavage energy was 56 mJ m-2...
March 21, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Otchere Addai-Mensah, Daniel Gyamfi, Francis Agyei Amponsah, Max Efui Annani-Akollor, Kwabena Owusu Danquah, Lillian Boateng, Eddie-Williams Owiredu, Edward Y Afriyie, Richard Vikpebah Duneeh, Renate Asare, David Ofosu Ntiamoah, Richard Boateng
Introduction: The pathophysiology of malaria-related anaemia is not fully understood although increased destruction of parasitized and nonparasitized erythrocytes, as well as inadequate erythropoiesis, has been proposed. Circulating antierythropoietin (anti-EPO) antibodies have also been implicated in malaria and malaria-related anaemia in mice. However, studies on this association have not been investigated in humans. This study therefore determined the prevalence of anti-EPO antibody production and assessed its association with malaria and malaria-related anaemia in humans...
2019: TheScientificWorldJournal
R Xu, S Liu, S Saremi, R Gao, J J Wang, Z Hong, H Lu, A Ghosh, S Pandya, E Bonturim, Z H Chen, L Q Chen, A M Rappe, L W Martin
Deterministic creation of multiple ferroelectric states with intermediate values of polarization remains challenging due to the inherent bi-stability of ferroelectric switching. Here we show the ability to select any desired intermediate polarization value via control of the switching pathway in (111)-oriented PbZr0.2 Ti0.8 O3 films. Such switching phenomena are driven by kinetic control of the volume fraction of two geometrically different domain structures which are generated by two distinct switching pathways: one direct, bipolar-like switching and another multi-step switching process with the formation of a thermodynamically-stable intermediate twinning structure...
March 20, 2019: Nature Communications
Weronika Górka, Tomasz Kuciel, Paula Nalepa, Dorota Lachowicz, Szczepan Zapotoczny, Michał Szuwarzyński
Here we present a facile and efficient method of controlled embedding of inorganic nanoparticles into an ultra-thin (<15 nm) and flat (~1.0 nm) polymeric coating that prevents unwanted aggregation. Hybrid polymer brushes-based films were obtained by simultaneous incorporation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with diameters of 8⁻10 nm into a polycationic macromolecular matrix during the surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) reaction in an ultrasonic reactor...
March 19, 2019: Nanomaterials
William Joseph Scheideler, Vivek Subramanian
Metal oxides have broad multifunctionality and important applications to energy, sensing, and information display. Printed electronics has recently adopted metal oxides to push the limits of performance and stability for flexible thin film systems. However, a grand challenge in this field is to achieve these properties while balancing the thermal budget, which critically determines the applicability, flexibility, and cost of these systems. This paper presents a focused review of printed metal oxide electronics, highlighting our recent work developing high-performance, printed transistors processed at low temperatures via aqueous precursor chemistries, nanomaterial hybrid inks, and ultraviolet annealing...
March 20, 2019: Nanotechnology
Jingtong Zhang, Xu Hou, Jie Wang
Low dimensional ferroelectric materials, including nano thin films, nanowires and nanoparticules, exhibit excellent electrocaloric effect (ECE) and have potential application in solid-state cooling devices. Predicting the ECE property of nanoscale ferroelectrics is of scientific significance and practice importance. Here, the direct and indirect methods based on effective Hamilton are employed to study the electrocaloric effect(ECE) in BaTiO&lt;sub&gt;3&lt;/sub&gt; nanoparticle under different electric fields and temperatures...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Bien-Cuong Tran-Khac, Ryan White, Frank DelRio, Koo-Hyun Chung
Layer-by-layer thinning of molybdenum disulfide (MoS&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;) via laser irradiation was examined using Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. In particular, the effects of number of layers, laser conditions, and substrate were systematically identified. The results demonstrated the presence of nanoparticles on the MoS&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; at sufficient laser treatment conditions prior to layer-by-layer thinning. The volume of nanoparticles was found to increase and then decrease as the number of MoS&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; layers increased; the non-monotonic trend was ascribed to changes in the thermal conductivity of the film and interfacial thermal conductance between the film and substrate with number of layers...
March 20, 2019: Nanotechnology
Roman Grüter, Benjamin Costerousse, Jochen Mayer, Paul Mäder, Cécile Thonar, Emmanuel Frossard, Rainer Schulin, Susan Tandy
Wheat is a staple food crop and a major source of both the essential micronutrient zinc (Zn) and the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) for humans. Since Zn and Cd are chemically similar, increasing Zn concentrations in wheat grains (biofortification), while preventing Cd accumulation, is an agronomic challenge. We used two Swiss agricultural long-term field trials, the "Dynamic-Organic-Conventional System Comparison Trial" (DOK) and the "Zurich Organic Fertilization Experiment" (ZOFE), to investigate the impact of long-term organic, mineral and combined fertilizer inputs on total and phytoavailable concentrations of soil Zn and Cd and their accumulation in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
March 9, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Rashda Naseer, Bushra Ali, Fathima Laffir, Lekshmi Kailas, Calum Dickinson, Gordon James Armstrong, Timothy McCormac
The Krebs transition metal substituted type polyoxometalate [Sb2W20M2O70(H2O)6]n-, M = Fe(III), Co(II) or Cu(II) were surface immobilized within the conducting polymer 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) on glassy carbon electrode surfaces. The immobilized films of different thickness were characterised by electrochemical and surface based techniques. The inherent redox activity for the [Sb2W20M2O70(H2O)6]n-, M = Fe(III), Co(II) or Cu(II) POMs observed in the solution phase were maintained in the polymeric PEDOT matrix...
March 20, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Tiago Carneiro Gomes, Dinesh Kumar, Lucas Fugikawa-Santos, Neri Alves, Jeff Kettle
The present study reports a two-level multivariate analysis to optimise the production of anodised aluminium oxide (Al2O3) dielectric films for zinc oxide thin-film transistor (TFTs). Fourteen performance parameters were measured and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) of the combined responses has been applied to identify how the Al2O3 dielectric fabrication process influences the electrical properties of the TFTs. Using this approach, the levels for the manufacturing factors to achieve optimal overall device performance have been identified and ranked...
March 20, 2019: ACS Combinatorial Science
Wei Huang, Catalin Harnagea, Xin Tong, Daniele Benetti, Shuhui Sun, Mohamed Chaker, Federico Rosei, Riad Nechache
The photoelectric properties of multiferroic double-perovskite Bi2FeCrO6 (BFCO), such as above-bandgap photovoltages, switchable photocurrents and bulk photovoltaic effect, have recently been explored for potential applications in solar technology. Here we report the fabrication of photoelectrodes based on n-type ferroelectric (FE) semiconductor BFCO heterojunctions coated with p-type transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) by pulsed laser deposition, and their application for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation...
March 20, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Prateek Prajapati, Ritamay Bhunia, Shahil Siddiqui, Ashish Garg, Raju Kumar Gupta
Dielectric polymer nanocomposites with high breakdown field and high dielectric constant have drawn significant attention in modern electrical and electronic industries due to their potential applications in dielectric and energy storage systems. The interfaces of the nanomaterials play a significant role in improving the dielectric performance of polymer nanocomposites. In this work, polydopamine (dopa) functionalized TiO2-BaTiO3-TiO2 (TiO2-BT-TiO2@dopa) core@double-shell nanoparticles have been developed as novel nanofillers for high energy density capacitor application...
March 20, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Silvan Staufert, Harun Torlakcik, Salvador Pane, Christofer Hierold
Parylene-C is a frequently used polymeric thinfilm coating in medical applications and is known for its excellent biocompatibility and flexible deposition process. However, its use in long-term implants is limited due to its poor adhesion to metals in liquid environments. In this work we present a strategy to anchor Parylene-C to medical grade titanium (Ti) by means of nanostructuring the Ti substrates surface prior to Parylene coating. We observe that, after aging in physiological salt solution for 3 days, Parylene coating lose their adhesion to bare titanium surfaces...
March 15, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Ibrahim Dundar, Marina Krichevskaya, Atanas Katerski, Ilona Oja Acik
In this study, we showed that the TiO2 thin films deposited onto window glass are practicable for air purification and self-cleaning applications. TiO2 films were deposited onto window glass by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. Different deposition temperatures were used in the range of 250-450°C. The structural, morphological, optical properties and surface chemical composition were investigated to understand probable factors affecting photocatalytic performance and wettability of the TiO2 thin films. The TiO2 thin films were smooth, compacted and adhered adequately on the substrate with a thickness in the range of 100-240 nm...
February 2019: Royal Society Open Science
Jian Liu, Qilong Wang, Michael Adu-Frimpong, Qiuyu Wei, Yujiao Xie, Kangyi Zhang, Chunmei Wei, Wen Weng, Hao Ji, Elmurat Toreniyazov, Ximing Xu, Jiangnan Yu
Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has a great variety of pharmacological effects especially liver cancer therapy, but its poor solubility, bioavailability and liver targeting have limited its clinical use. In order to solve the aforementioned shortcomings, the TPGS-modified proliposomes loaded with ISL (ISL-TPGS-PLP) was prepared in this study. ISL-TPGS-PLP was fabricated via thin-film dispersion method and was characterized by the appearance, particle size, zeta potential and morphology. HPLC was used to evaluate entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro release and stability of ISL-TPGS-PLP single or combined while appropriate physicochemical parameters were measured with DLS...
March 16, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Gabriela Graziani, Matteo Berni, Alessandro Gambardella, Monica De Carolis, Maria Cristina Maltarello, Marco Boi, Gianluca Carnevale, Michele Bianchi
Biomimetic bone apatite coatings were realized for the first time by the novel Ionized Jet Deposition technique. Bone coatings were deposited on titanium alloy substrates by pulsed electron ablation of deproteinized bovine bone shafts in order to resemble bone apatite as closely as possible. The composition, morphology and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized by GI-XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDS, AFM, contact angle measurements, micro-scratch and screw-insertion tests. Different post-treatment annealing conditions (from 350 °C to 425 °C) were investigated...
June 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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