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Green city

Su Li Heng, Winston T L Chow
Urban green spaces offer vital ecosystem services such as regulating elevated temperatures in cities. Less information exists, however, on how urban green spaces influence outdoor thermal comfort (OTC), which is dependent on people's perceptions of the complex interactions amongst ambient humidity, wind and both air and radiant temperatures. In this study, we analysed an existing OTC dataset compiled within a large Singapore urban park and calibrated OTC thresholds for physiological equivalent temperatures (PET) by analysing PET against thermal perception survey responses from the park visitors (n = 1508)...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Biometeorology
Peng Chen, Qing Shen
INTRODUCTION: This study is aimed at filling part of the knowledge gap on bicycling safety in the built environment by addressing two questions. First, are built environment features and bicyclist injury severity correlated; and if so, what built environment factors most significantly relate to severe bicyclist injuries? Second, are the identified associations varied substantially among cities with different levels of bicycling and different built environments? METHODS: The generalized ordered logit model is employed to examine the relationship between built environment features and bicyclist injury severity...
February 2019: Journal of Safety Research
Bonnie D Kerker, Judy A Greene, Rachel Gerson, Michele Pollock, Kimberly E Hoagwood, Sarah McCue Horwitz
New York City (NYC) public hospitals recently mandated that all pregnant women be screened for depression, but no funds were allocated for screening or care coordination/treatment, and research suggests that unfunded mandates are not likely to be successful. To address this, we implemented an on-site depression prevention intervention (NYC ROSE) for positive depression screens among pregnant, mostly Black and Hispanic, lower-income women in one public hospital. In this paper, we used Aarons' implementation model to describe the successes and challenges of screening and intervention...
October 2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Maria Polinova, Lea Wittenberg, Haim Kutiel, Anna Brook
Wildfires occurring near and within cities are a potential threat to the population's life and health and can cause significant economic damage by destroying infrastructure and private property. Due to the relatively small area of these wildlands, the accuracy of fire risk-assessment plays a significant role in fire management. Introducing the experience of real events can improve accuracy. But this approach is limited by a lack of knowledge of pre-fire conditions, mainly vegetation characteristics as related to their definition as a fuel parameter because of their high temporal variation...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Beth A Reboussin, Renee M Johnson, Kerry M Green, C Debra M Furr-Holden, Nicholas S Ialongo, Adam J Milam
BACKGROUND: In emerging adulthood when many youth are maturing out of marijuana use, Blacks continue to have high rates of use and disorder. Theory suggests that factors tied to neighborhood disadvantage may partially explain this phenomenon but research is limited. OBJECTIVES: This study examines the influence of neighborhood physical and social disorder on transitions in marijuana use during emerging adulthood in a low-income urban sample. METHODS: 379 primarily Black young adults residing in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore City were followed-up annually from ages 18 to 21...
March 8, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Qianqian Sheng, Yanli Zhang, Zunling Zhu, Weizheng Li, Jingyuan Xu, Rui Tang
Air pollution is an important environmental and health concern all over the world and PM2.5 is one of the most important constituents of air pollution. In urban area with high population density, vehicles contribute a big portion of PM2.5 . The effect of vegetations along road, i.e., road greenbelts, on PM2.5 concentration is still a hot research topic. This study used three-dimensional green volume (3DGV, the three-dimensional volume of the crown and stems of all vegetations including trees, shrubs and grass) to evaluate the vegetation quantity of road greenbelts along four main roads in Nanjing, China...
February 20, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
David Donaire-Gonzalez, Antònia Valentín, Erik van Nunen, Ariadna Curto, Albert Rodriguez, Mario Fernandez-Nieto, Alessio Naccarati, Sonia Tarallo, Ming-Yi Tsai, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Roel Vermeulen, Gerard Hoek, Paolo Vineis, John Gulliver, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
To assess environmental exposures at the individual level, new assessment methods and tools are required. We developed an exposure assessment system (ExpoApp) for smartphones. ExpoApp integrates: (i) geo-location and accelerometry measurements from a waist attached smartphone, (ii) data from portable monitors, (iii) geographic information systems, and (iv) individual's information. ExpoApp calculates time spent in microenvironments, physical activity level, inhalation rate, and environmental exposures and doses (e...
March 5, 2019: Environment International
Wei Cao, Liqin Yin, Dan Zhang, Yingying Wang, Jing Yuan, Yi Zhu, Junfeng Dou
This study investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in the reconstructed land of an abandoned industrial site: a coking plant in Beijing. To meet the needs of urban development, many factories have had to be relocated from city centers, and abandoned industrial sites often need to be transformed into residential land or urban green space through a series of restoration measures. It is necessary to study the level of residual pollutants and potential risks associated with industrial reconstructed land...
February 25, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Katherine H A Footer, Sahnah Lim, Christine Tagliaferri Rael, George J Greene, Alex Carbolla-Diéguez, Rebecca Giguere, Michelle Martinez, Walter Bockting, Richard D'Aquila, Susan G Sherman
To address a shortage in research on Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) amongst women at high risk of HIV acquisition, this study explored the attitudes and preferences of female sex workers (FSW) (n = 15) and women who inject drugs (WWID) (n = 16) to existing (e.g., pill) and new (e.g., injection, implant) PrEP modalities, in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. This study reports on seven focus groups conducted between December 2016 and April 2017 and aims to provide new insights into FSW and WWID attitudes and preferences towards three different PrEP delivery methods (i...
March 1, 2019: AIDS Care
Francesco Sera, Ben Armstrong, Aurelio Tobias, Ana Maria Vicedo-Cabrera, Christofer Åström, Michelle L Bell, Bing-Yu Chen, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Patricia Matus Correa, Julio Cesar Cruz, Tran Ngoc Dang, Magali Hurtado-Diaz, Dung Do Van, Bertil Forsberg, Yue Leon Guo, Yuming Guo, Masahiro Hashizume, Yasushi Honda, Carmen Iñiguez, Jouni J K Jaakkola, Haidong Kan, Ho Kim, Eric Lavigne, Paola Michelozzi, Nicolas Valdes Ortega, Samuel Osorio, Mathilde Pascal, Martina S Ragettli, Niilo R I Ryti, Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Joel Schwartz, Matteo Scortichini, Xerxes Seposo, Shilu Tong, Antonella Zanobetti, Antonio Gasparrini
BACKGROUND: The health burden associated with temperature is expected to increase due to a warming climate. Populations living in cities are likely to be particularly at risk, but the role of urban characteristics in modifying the direct effects of temperature on health is still unclear. In this contribution, we used a multi-country dataset to study effect modification of temperature-mortality relationships by a range of city-specific indicators. METHODS: We collected ambient temperature and mortality daily time-series data for 340 cities in 22 countries, in periods between 1985 and 2014...
February 27, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Tamás Bányai, Péter Tamás, Béla Illés, Živilė Stankevičiūtė, Ágota Bányai
The accelerated movement of people towards cities led to the fact that the world's urban population is now growing by 60-million persons per year. The increased number of cities' population has a significant impact on the produced volume of household waste, which must be collected and recycled in time. The collection of household waste, especially in downtown areas, has a wide range of challenges; the collection system must be reliable, flexible, cost efficient, and green. Within the frame of this paper, the authors describe the application possibilities of Industry 4...
February 21, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sharon K Greene, Erin M Andrews, Pamela Evans Lloyd, Jennifer Baumgartner, Eric R Peterson
CONTEXT: The Bureau of Communicable Disease at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene receives an average of more than 1000 reports daily via electronic laboratory reporting. Rapid recognition of any laboratory reporting drop-off of test results for 1 or more diseases is necessary to avoid delays in case investigation and outbreak detection. PROGRAM: We modified our outbreak detection approach using the prospective space-time permutation scan statistic in SaTScan...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Arthur D Barraza, Lisa M Komoroske, Camryn Allen, Tomoharu Eguchi, Rich Gossett, Erika Holland, Daniel D Lawson, Robin A LeRoux, Alex Long, Jeffrey A Seminoff, Christopher G Lowe
Foraging aggregations of east Pacific green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) inhabit the Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (SBNWR) and San Diego Bay (SDB), two habitats in southern California, USA, located near urbanized areas. Both juvenile and adult green turtles forage in these areas and exhibit high site fidelity, which potentially exposes green turtles to anthropogenic contaminants. We assessed 21 trace metals (TM) bioaccumulated in green turtle scute and red blood cell (RBC) samples collected from SBNWR (n = 16 turtles) and SDB (n = 20 turtles) using acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
February 8, 2019: Chemosphere
Paula Matos, Joana Vieira, Bernardo Rocha, Cristina Branquinho, Pedro Pinho
The UN Sustainable Development Goals states that urban air pollution must be tackled to create more inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities. Urban green infrastructures can mitigate air pollution, but a crucial step to use this knowledge into urban management is to quantify how much air-quality regulation can green spaces provide and to understand how the provision of this ecosystem service is affected by other environmental factors. Considering the insufficient number of air quality monitoring stations in cities to monitor the wide range of natural and anthropic sources of pollution with high spatial resolution, ecological indicators of air quality are an alternative cost-effective tool...
February 2, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jingqiu Chen, Yaoze Liu, Margaret W Gitau, Bernard A Engel, Dennis C Flanagan, Jonathan M Harbor
Evaluation of the effectiveness of green infrastructure (GI) practices on improving site hydrology and water quality and their associated cost could provide valuable information for decision makers when creating development/re-development strategies. In this study, a watershed scale rainfall-runoff model (the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Analysis - Low Impact Development model, the L-THIA-LID 2.1 model) was enhanced to improve its simulation of urban water management practices including GI practices. The enhanced model (L-THIA-LID 2...
January 31, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Zhongzhen Wang, Hongbin Wang, Haijuan Wang, Qinchun Li, Yang Li
A survey was conducted to investigate the pollution and health risks of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) in 60 Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) collected from a market in Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China. Furthermore, eight CHMs (Cyathulae radix, Drynariae rhizoma, Peucedani radix, Homalomenae rhizoma, Dryopteris setosa, Polygonati rhizoma, Lilii bulbus, and Linderae radix) containing high Cd concentrations were selected to further analyse their Cd chemical forms...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Elsa C Anderson, Emily S Minor
Vacant lots are typically viewed as urban blight but are also green spaces that provide wildlife habitat and ecosystem services in urban landscapes. Vacant lot vegetation results from interacting biophysical and social forces, and studying vacant lot ecology is an opportunity to examine urban socio-environmental intersections. Here, we assess vegetation patterns in vacant lots across Chicago, IL (USA), and ask two questions: 1) How does diversity and structure vary, and 2) how do social and biophysical drivers contribute to this variation? We conducted vegetation surveys in 35 vacant lots in the summer of 2015...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ashley Baker, Emma Brenneman, Heejun Chang, Lauren McPhillips, Marissa Matsler
This study explores the spatial distribution of green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) relative to sociodemographic and landscape characteristics in Portland, OR, and Baltimore, MD, USA at census block group (CBG) and census tract scales. GSI density is clustered in Portland, while it is randomly distributed over space in Baltimore. Variables that exhibit relationships with GSI density are varied over space, as well as between cities. In Baltimore, GSI density is significantly associated with presence of green space (+), impervious surface coverage (+), and population density (-) at the CBG scale; though these relationships vary over space...
January 31, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Paula Martins Horta, Eliseu Verly Junior, Luana Caroline Dos Santos
Nutritional surveys are important information sources for public policy in the food and nutrition field. They focus on assessing usual dietary patterns, because health outcomes result from the long-term intake. Here we aimed to evaluate diet quality adjusted for day-to-day variance among Brazilian children. Data were collected between March 2013 and August 2015. The sample included 8- to 12-year-old children (n = 1,357) from public schools from all administrative regions of a Brazilian city. One 24-h dietary recall (24HR) was collected for the whole sample and two 24HR for two non-consecutive days of the same week for a subsample...
February 11, 2019: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Hung Chak Ho, Sawaid Abbas, Jinxin Yang, Rui Zhu, Man Sing Wong
Climate variability has been documented as being key to influencing human wellbeing across cities as it is linked to mortality and illness due to changes in the perceived weather cycle. Many studies have investigated the impact of summer temperature on human health and have proposed mitigation strategies for summer heat waves. However, sub-tropical cities are still experiencing winter temperature variations. Increasing winter perceived temperature through the decades may soon affect city wellbeing, due to a larger temperature change between normal winter days and extreme cold events, which may cause higher health risk due to lack of adaptation and self-preparedness...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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