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tolerance mechanism

Yuan Meng, Liang Zhang, Linquan Wang, Chunju Zhou, Yuxian Shangguan, Yang Yang
The enrichment of Cadmium in vegetables is threatening human health. The study aimed to screen Cd low-enriched leafy vegetables and explore whether antioxidative enzymes and heavy metal chelators are synergistic defensive mechanisms. In this paper, the Cd accumulation and translocation of garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were examined by soil pot culture and hydroponic experiments. The responses of oxidative stress markers, antioxidative enzymes activity, and thiol pool (cysteine, γ-glutamylcysteine, glutathione, and phytochelatins) content to Cd stress were assayed...
February 14, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Livnat Brill, Iris Lavon, Adi Vaknin-Dembinsky
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the frequency or function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which play a critical role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance, are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), of which the etiology and mechanisms underlying its development are not completely understood. Although there is increasing evidence for the involvement of effector T cells in NMOSD, no data are available regarding the role of Tregs in its pathogenesis...
January 30, 2019: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Sarah Vaughan, Francis McGlone, Helen Poole, David J Moore
Sensory abnormalities in autism has been noted clinically, with pain insensitivity as a specified diagnostic criterion. However, there is limited research using psychophysically robust techniques. Thirteen adults with ASD and 13 matched controls completed an established quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery, supplemented with measures of pain tolerance and central modulation. The ASD group showed higher thresholds for light touch detection and mechanical pain. Notably, the ASD group had a greater range of extreme scores (the number of z-scores outside of the 95% CI > 2), dynamic mechanical allodynia and paradoxical heat sensation; phenomena not typically seen in neurotypical individuals...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Márcia Araújo, José Miguel P Ferreira de Oliveira, Conceição Santos, José Moutinho-Pereira, Carlos Correia, Maria Celeste Dias
A water-deficit period, leading to stomatal control and overexpression of protective proteins (sHSP and DHN), contributes to olive´s tolerance to later imposed stress episodes. Aquaporins modulation is important in olive recovery. Olive is traditionally cultivated in dry farming or in high water demanding irrigated orchards. The impact of climate change on these orchards remains to unveil, as heat and drought episodes are increasing in the Mediterranean region. To understand how young plants face such stress episodes, olive plants growing in pots were exposed to well-irrigated and non-irrigated treatments...
February 15, 2019: Planta
Kevin Bircher, Manuel Zündel, Marco Pensalfini, Alexander E Ehret, Edoardo Mazza
Fracture toughness characterizes the ability of a material to maintain a certain level of strength despite the presence of a macroscopic crack. Understanding this tolerance for defects in soft collagenous tissues (SCT) has high relevance for assessing the risks of fracture after cutting, perforation or suturing. Here we investigate the peculiar toughening mechanisms of SCT through dedicated experiments and multi-scale simulations, showing that classical concepts of fracture mechanics are inadequate to quantify and explain the high defect tolerance of these materials...
February 15, 2019: Nature Communications
Joanna S Griffiths, Francis T-C Pan, Morgan W Kelly
Ocean acidification (OA), the global decrease in surface water pH from absorption of anthropogenic CO2 , may put many marine taxa at risk. However, populations that experience extreme localized conditions, and are adapted to these conditions predicted in the global ocean in 2100, may be more tolerant to future OA. By identifying locally adapted populations, researchers can examine the mechanisms used to cope with decreasing pH. One oceanographic process that influences pH, is wind driven upwelling. Here we compare two Californian populations of the coral Balanophyllia elegans from distinct upwelling regimes, and test their physiological and transcriptomic responses to experimental seawater acidification...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Ecology
Lilong He, Ying Jing, Jian-Lin Shen, Xi-Ning Li, Hui-Ping Liu, Zi-Long Geng, Mei Wang, Yongqing Li, Dong-Hua Chen, Jianwei Gao, Wei Zhang
Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant and Cd toxicity is a serious cause of abiotic stress in the environment. Plants protect themselves against Cd stress through a variety of pathways. In a recent study, we found that mitochondrial pyruvate carriers (MPCs) are involved in Cd tolerance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Following the identification of MPCs in yeast in 2012, most studies have focused on the function of MPCs in animals, as a possible approach to reduce the risk of cancer developing...
February 15, 2019: Plant Physiology
Xiaoshuang Li, Yuqing Liang, Bei Gao, Meiheriguli Mijiti, Tohir A Bozorov, Honglan Yang, Daoyuan Zhang, Andrew J Wood
Drought and salinity are major factors limiting crop productivity worldwide. DREB (dehydration-responsive element-binding) transcription factors play important roles in plant stress response and have been identified in a wide variety of plants. Studies on DREB are focused on the A-1 ( DREB1 ) and A-2 ( DREB2 ) groups. Studies on A-5 group DREBs, which represent a large proportion of the DREB subfamily, is limited. In this study, we characterized and analyzed the stress tolerance function of ScDREB10, an A-5c type DREB gene from the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis ...
February 14, 2019: Genes
Clarisse Brígido, Sakshi Singh, Esther Menéndez, Maria J Tavares, Bernard R Glick, Maria do Rosário Félix, Solange Oliveira, Mário Carvalho
The aims of this study were to isolate, identify and characterize culturable endophytic bacteria from chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) roots grown in different soils. In addition, the effects of rhizobial inoculation, soil and stress on the functionality of those culturable endophytic bacterial communities were also investigated. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the endophytic bacteria isolated in this work belong to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, with Enterobacter and Pseudomonas being the most frequently observed genera...
February 14, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Huilong Zhang, Chen Deng, Jun Yao, Yan-Li Zhang, Yi-Nan Zhang, Shurong Deng, Nan Zhao, Gang Sa, Xiaoyang Zhou, Cunfu Lu, Shanzhi Lin, Rui Zhao, Shaoliang Chen
Sodium chloride (NaCl) induced expression of a jacalin-related mannose-binding lectin ( JRL ) gene in leaves, roots, and callus cultures of Populus euphratica (salt-resistant poplar). To explore the mechanism of the PeJRL in salinity tolerance, the full length of PeJRL was cloned from P. euphratica and was transformed into Arabidopsis. PeJRL was localized to the cytoplasm in mesophyll cells. Overexpression of PeJRL in Arabidopsis significantly improved the salt tolerance of transgenic plants, in terms of seed germination, root growth, and electrolyte leakage during seedling establishment...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mei Yee Kwan, Anthony Choo, Taleen Hanania, Afshin Ghavami, Jose Beltran, John Shea, Amidi Barboza, Andrew Hu, Marcie Fowler, Venugopal Rao Neelagiri, Irving Sucholeiki
There is an unmet medical need for the development of non-addicting pain therapeutics with enhanced efficacy and tolerability. The current study examined the effects of AQU-118, an orally active inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) rat model of neuropathic pain. Mechanical allodynia and the levels of various biomarkers were examined within the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) before and after oral dosing with AQU-118. The rats that received the SNL surgery exhibited significant mechanical allodynia as compared to sham controls...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nicholas K H Khoo, Marco Fazzari, Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Lihua Li, Danielle Aparecida Guimaraes, Gavin E Arteel, Sruti Shiva, Bruce A Freeman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to obesity and insulin resistance and is the most prevalent chronic liver disease. During the development of obesity and NAFLD, mitochondria adapt to the increased lipid load in hepatocytes by increasing the rate of fatty acid oxidation. In concert with this, reactive species (RS) generation is increased, damaging hepatocytes and inducing inflammation. Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of NAFLD via undefined mechanisms. There are no FDA approved treatments for NAFLD other than weight loss and management of glucose tolerance...
February 1, 2019: Redox Biology
Maria Filek, Apolonia Sieprawska, Janusz Kościelniak, Jana Oklestkova, Barbara Jurczyk, Anna Telk, Jolanta Biesaga-Kościelniak, Anna Janeczko
This study focused on the idea that the toxic effect of zearalenone (ZEA) and the protective actions of the brassinosteroid - 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) as well as selenium are dependent on its accumulation in chloroplasts to a high degree. These organelles were isolated from the leaves of oxidative stress-sensitive and stress-tolerant wheat cultivars that had been grown from grains that had been incubated in a solution of ZEA (30 μM), Na2 SeO4 (Se, 10 μM), EBR (0.1 μM) or in a mixture of ZEA with Se or EBR...
February 1, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Olena Klimenko, Miroslav Pernis, Maksym Danchenko, Ludovít Skultéty, Katarína Klubicová, Galina Shevchenko
Large areas polluted with toxic heavy metals or radionuclides were formed as a side product of rapid industrial development of human society. Plants, due to their sessile nature, should adapt to these challenging genotoxic environmental conditions and develop resistance. Herein, we evaluated the response of three natural ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh (Oasis, Columbia-0, and Chernobyl-07) to cadmium, using discovery gel-based proteomics. These accessions are differing by level of tolerance to heavy metal probably achieved by various exposure to chronic ionizing radiation...
February 12, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Franz Puttur, Lisa G Gregory, Clare M Lloyd
The lungs present a challenging immunological dilemma for the host. Anatomically positioned at the environmental interface, they are constantly exposed to antigens, pollutants and microbes, while simultaneously facilitating vital gas exchange. Remarkably, the lungs maintain a functionally healthy state, ignoring harmless inhaled proteins, adapting to toxic environmental insults and limiting immune responses to allergens and pathogenic microbes. This functional strategy of environmental adaptation maintains immune defense, reduces tissue damage, and promotes and sustains lung immune tolerance...
February 15, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Alexander García Antón, Vicente Garza, Jorge Hernández Justribó, Juan Traba
In this work, we analyse factors explaining the distribution and range regression of Dupont's lark in Spain, the only European country in which this threatened alaudid is present. Dupont's lark is an extremely elusive and scarce species, distributed across a reduced and strongly fragmented range, showing a metapopulational structure with unknown dispersive and connective mechanisms. We used maximum entropy modelling (Maxent) on nearly 15,000 Dupont's lark observations (1985-2015) to assess the probability of presence at a 1 km resolution across its European range...
2019: PloS One
Yi Li Wong, Mei-Tzu Su, Akiko Sugahara-Tobinai, So Itoi, Dai Kezuka, Shota Endo, Masanori Inui, Toshiyuki Takai
Immune homeostasis is critically regulated by the balance between activating and inhibitory receptors expressed on various immune cells such as T and B lymphocytes, and myeloid cells. The inhibitory receptors play a fundamental role in the immune-checkpoint pathway, thus maintaining peripheral tolerance. We recently found that expression of leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR)B4, an inhibitory member of the human LILR family, is augmented in autoantibody-producing plasmablasts/plasma cells of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients...
February 15, 2019: International Immunology
Xinyou Cao, Liqin Hu, Xueyan Chen, Rongzhi Zhang, Dungong Cheng, Haosheng Li, Zhaoshi Xu, Liancheng Li, Yongbin Zhou, Aifeng Liu, Jianming Song, Cheng Liu, Jianjun Liu, Zhendong Zhao, Ming Chen, Youzhi Ma
BACKGROUND: Potassium (K) is essential to plant growth and development. Foxtail millet (Setaria italic L.) is an important fodder grain crop in arid and semi-arid regions of Asia and Africa because of its strong tolerance to drought and barren stresses. The molecular mechanisms of physiological and biochemical responses and regulations to various abiotic stresses such as low potassium conditions in foxtail millet are not fully understood, which hinders the research and exploitation of this valuable resource...
February 15, 2019: BMC Genomics
Travis J Carlson, Bradley T Endres, Eugénie Bassères, Anne J Gonzales-Luna, Kevin W Garey
Ridinilazole is a novel antibiotic being developed for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Ridinilazole has completed two phase II trials and phase III trials which are denoted Ri-CoDIFy 1 and 2, are planned ( identifiers: NCT03595553 and NCT03595566). Areas covered: This article covers the chemistry, mechanism of action, in vitro microbiology versus C. difficile and host microbiota, pre-clinical and clinical efficacy, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety and tolerability of ridinilazole...
February 15, 2019: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Sandra Kolbeck, Jürgen Behr, Rudi F Vogel, Christina Ludwig, Matthias A Ehrmann
AIMS: Coagulase negative Staphylococcus xylosus strains are used as starter organisms for sausage fermentation. As those strains have to cope with low pH-values during fermentation, the aim of this study was to identify the acid adaptation mechanisms of S. xylosus TMW 2·1523 previously isolated from salami. METHODS AND RESULTS: A comparative proteomic study between two different acid tolerant mutants was performed. Therefore, both S. xylosus mutants were grown pH-static under acid stress (pH 5·1) and reference conditions (pH 7·0)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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