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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877626/polycaprolactone-based-neurotherapeutic-delivery-of-rasagiline-targeting-behavioral-and-biochemical-deficits-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
N Kanwar, R Bhandari, A Kuhad, V R Sinha
Rasagiline mesylate is an irreversible MAO-B inhibitor which requires daily oral administration for treatment of Parkinson's disease due to its short half-life. Patients with Parkinson's disease also develop dysphagia, i.e., difficulty in swallowing. Encapsulating rasagiline in polycaprolactone microspheres can alleviate the problem of daily oral administration by prolonging drug release from polymeric microspheres for 1 month by single subcutaneous administration. Polycaprolactone shows absence of any acidic environment generation during its degradation in body which is its advantage over poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid...
March 14, 2019: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862700/manganese-promotes-the-aggregation-and-prion-like-cell-to-cell-exosomal-transmission-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#2
Dilshan S Harischandra, Dharmin Rokad, Matthew L Neal, Shivani Ghaisas, Sireesha Manne, Souvarish Sarkar, Nikhil Panicker, Gary Zenitsky, Huajun Jin, Mechelle Lewis, Xuemei Huang, Vellareddy Anantharam, Arthi Kanthasamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
The aggregation of α-synuclein (αSyn) is considered a key pathophysiological feature of certain neurodegenerative disorders, collectively termed synucleinopathies. Given that a prion-like, cell-to-cell transfer of misfolded αSyn has been recognized in the spreading of αSyn pathology in synucleinopathies, we investigated the biological mechanisms underlying the propagation of the disease with respect to environmental neurotoxic stress. Considering the potential role of the divalent metal manganese (Mn2+ ) in protein aggregation, we characterized its effect on αSyn misfolding and transmission in experimental models of Parkinson's disease...
March 12, 2019: Science Signaling
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30861520/oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-proliferation-and-fate-after-white-matter-stroke-in-juvenile-and-adult-mice
#3
Andra L Dingman, Krista M Rodgers, Robert M Dietz, Sean P Hickey, Alexandra P Frazier, Amy C Clevenger, Joan C Yonchek, Richard J Traystman, Wendy B Macklin, Paco S Herson
The incidence of stroke in children is 2.4 per 100,000 person-years and results in long-term motor and cognitive disability. In ischemic stroke, white matter (WM) is frequently injured, but is relatively understudied compared to grey matter injury. Previous research suggests that the cellular response to WM ischemic injury is different at different ages. Little is known about whether WM repair mechanisms differ in children and adults. We utilized a model of focal ischemic WM injury to determine the oligodendrocyte (OL) response to focal WM ischemic injury in juvenile and adult mice...
March 12, 2019: Developmental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853652/the-androgen-receptor-in-the-hypothalamus-positively-regulates-hind-limb-muscle-mass-and-voluntary-physical-activity-in-male-mice
#4
Michele V Clarke, Patricia K Russell, Jeffrey D Zajac, Rachel A Davey
We have previously shown that expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in neurons within the brain positively regulates hind-limb muscle mass and physical activity in male mice. To further investigate the region of the brain responsible for mediating these effects of testosterone and to determine whether they are only important for muscle mass accrual during development or whether they are also important for the maintenance of muscle mass in the adult, we deleted the AR specifically in the hypothalamus of adult male mice (Hyp-ARKOs)...
March 7, 2019: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30842488/cyclosporin-a-ameliorates-cerebral-oxidative-metabolism-and-infarct-size-in-the-endothelin-1-rat-model-of-transient-cerebral-ischaemia
#5
Axel Forsse, Troels Halfeld Nielsen, Kevin Heebøll Nygaard, Carl-Henrik Nordström, Jan Bert Gramsbergen, Frantz Rom Poulsen
Cerebral microdialysis can be used to detect mitochondrial dysfunction, a potential target of neuroprotective treatment. Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a mitochondrial stabiliser that in a recent clinical stroke trial showed protective potential in patients with successful recanalisation. To investigate specific metabolic effects of CsA during reperfusion, and hypothesising that microdialysis values can be used as a proxy outcome measure, we assessed the temporal patterns of cerebral energy substrates related to oxidative metabolism in a model of transient focal ischaemia...
March 6, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30822399/intravital-multiphoton-microscopic-imaging-platform-for-ocular-surface-imaging
#6
Yueh-Feng Wu, Chia-Yi Wang, Tsung-Lin Yang, Po-Nien Tsao, Sung-Jan Lin, Hsin-Yuan Tan
The purpose of this study is to provide an intravital noninvasive multiphoton microscopic platform for long-term ocular imaging in transgenic fluorescent mice with subcellular resolution. A multiphoton microscopic system with tunable laser output was employed. We designed a mouse holder incorporated with stereotaxic motorized stage for in vivo three-dimensional imaging of ocular surface in 3 transgenic mouse line with fluorescent protein (FP) expression to visualize distinct structures. With our imaging platform and the expression of FPs, we obtained the three-dimensional images across the whole cornea from epithelium to endothelium and in conjunctiva with subcellular resolution in vivo...
February 26, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30807769/voluntary-wheel-running-effects-on-intra-accumbens-opioid-high-fat-feeding-and-locomotor-behavior-in-sprague-dawley-and-wistar-rat-strains
#7
Jenna R Lee, Kyle E Parker, Melissa Tapia, Howard W Johns, Ted G Floros, Michael D Roberts, Frank W Booth, Matthew J Will
The present study examined the influence of physical activity vs. sedentary home cage conditions on baseline and opioid-driven high-fat feeding behaviors in two common strains of laboratory rats. Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats were singly housed with either access to a voluntary running wheel (RUN) or locked-wheel (SED) for 5 weeks, before being stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cannulae targeting the nucleus accumbens. Following recovery, with RUN or SED conditions continuing the duration of the experiment, all rats were given 2 h daily access to a high-fat diet for 6 consecutive days to establish a stable baseline intake...
February 23, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30799380/electrophysiological-measurement-of-rat-atrial-epicardium-using-a-novel-stereotaxic-apparatus
#8
Boyuan Fan, Hongtao Wang, Tao Wu, Yingqi Li, Zehao Lin, Mengying Li, Qing Li, Wei Zhang, Qiangsun Zheng
Flexible, in vivo maneuverable electrophysiology mapping techniques are not available in rat models. A novel cardiac stereotactic electrophysiology epicardial mapping system (CREAMS) allows for various measurements, including: (1) recording unipolar electrograms at multiple sites; (2) positioning of mapped sites and precision testing (Distance between the two "centers" = 297 ± 54 μm, n = 15); (3) evaluation of electrophysiology in an in vivo Sprague-Dawley rat model with high-frequency stimulation (HFS)-induced Atrial fibrillation (AF) at high right atrium (HRA) sites...
February 22, 2019: International Heart Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30796974/the-deglycase-activity-of-dj-1-mitigates-%C3%AE-synuclein-glycation-and-aggregation-in-dopaminergic-cells-role-of-oxidative-stress-mediated-downregulation-of-dj-1-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Neelam Sharma, Swetha Pavani Rao, Shasi V Kalivendi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with the degeneration of dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the presence of intra-neuronal aggregates of α-synuclein and its post-translational products. Based on the emerging reports on the association between glycated α-synuclein and PD; and the newly identified deglycase activity of DJ-1, we sought to find the relevance of the deglycase activity of DJ-1 on glycation of α-synuclein and its plausible role in PD...
February 20, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30787269/microglia-as-modulators-of-exosomal-alpha-synuclein-transmission
#10
Yun Xia, Guoxin Zhang, Chao Han, Kai Ma, Xingfang Guo, Fang Wan, Liang Kou, Sijia Yin, Ling Liu, Jinsha Huang, Nian Xiong, Tao Wang
Recent researches regarding to exosomal involvement in alpha-synuclein (α-syn) transmission relating to the pathological process of Parkinson's disease (PD) have attracted considerable attention. It is highly desirable to make clear the diffusion process and cellular uptake of α-syn-associated exosomes and the underlying mechanism of exosomes-involved communication in the synucleinopathy pathogenesis. To determine the contribution of α-syn-associated exosomes to the initiation and progression of PD, plasma exosomes derived from PD patients were stereotaxically injected into the striatum of mice brains...
February 20, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784006/optogenetic-stimulation-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-ameliorates-autistic-like-behaviors-in-rats-induced-by-neonatal-isolation-caudate-putamen-as-a-site-for-alteration
#11
Elham Sadat Sayed Javad Javaheri, Mohammad Reza Bigdeli, Mohammad Ismail Zibaii, Leila Dargahi, Hamid Reza Pouretemad
Epigenetic agents, such as neonatal isolation during neurodevelopmental period of life, can change various regions of the brain. It may further induce psychological disorders such as autistic-like phenomena. This study indicated the role of chronic increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) output on alteration of caudate putamen (CPu) as a main behavior regulator region of the brain in adult maternal deprived (MD) rats. For making an animal model, neonates were isolated from their mothers in postnatal days (PND 1-10, 3 h/day)...
February 19, 2019: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779367/stereotaxic-laser-brain-surgery-with-1940-nm-tm-fiber-laser-an-in-vivo-study
#12
Burcu Tunc, Murat Gulsoy
BACKGROUND: With exciting developments in fiber laser technology, studies investigating the use of lasers in neurosurgery have been increasing in the recent years. Fiber lasers are advantageous in many ways; first of all they are compact and they provide a more comfortable environment in the operating room due to feasibility of coupling laser light to different cross-sectioned fibers. Thulium fiber (Tm:fiber) lasers have been under investigation for medical applications since 2005 due to their spectral proximity to the water absorption peak...
February 19, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772446/microinjection-of-26rfa-an-endogenous-ligand-for-the-glutamine-rf-amide-peptide-receptor-qrfp-receptor-into-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla-rvm-locus-coelureus-lc-and-periaqueductal-grey-pag-produces-an-analgesic-effect-in-rats
#13
Koji Yoshida, Takahiro Nonaka, Shingo Nakamura, Miki Araki, Tatsuo Yamamoto
26RFa is an endogenous ligand for the QRFP receptor. We previously found that intracerebroventricular injection of 26RFa produces an analgesic effect in a rat formalin test. In the present study, we directly tested the hypothesis that the analgesic effects of 26RFa in the formalin test are mediated in well-recognized regions of the descending inhibitory pain pathways, such as the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), locus coeruleus (LC), and periaqueductal grey (PAG) in rats. Injection cannulae were stereotaxically placed in the RVM, LC, or PAG through a burr hole...
February 14, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771169/stereotaxic-targeting-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-mouse-brain-using-preformed-fibrils
#14
Bin Zhang, Victoria Kehm, Ron Gathagan, Susan N Leight, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, Kelvin C Luk
The accumulation of intraneuronal inclusions containing misfolded alpha-synuclein (aSyn) within the central nervous system (CNS) is a common feature found in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Emerging evidence indicates that aSyn amyloid fibrils, a configuration that is present within these characteristic inclusions, are capable of self-replicating by templating the conversion of endogenously expressed aSyn in neurons. Stereotaxic administration of synthetic α-synuclein preformed fibrils (PFFs) into the mouse brain has been shown to seed the formation of intracellular aSyn pathology reminiscent of Lewy body (LB) inclusions present in human PD and related synucleinopathies...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765523/insulin-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-and-amygdala-regulates-metabolism-and-neurobehavior
#15
Marion Soto, Weikang Cai, Masahiro Konishi, C Ronald Kahn
Previous studies have shown that insulin and IGF-1 signaling in the brain, especially the hypothalamus, is important for regulation of systemic metabolism. Here, we develop mice in which we have specifically inactivated both insulin receptors (IRs) and IGF-1 receptors (IGF1Rs) in the hippocampus (Hippo-DKO) or central amygdala (CeA-DKO) by stereotaxic delivery of AAV-Cre into IRlox/lox /IGF1Rlox/lox mice. Consequently, both Hippo-DKO and CeA-DKO mice have decreased levels of the GluA1 subunit of glutamate AMPA receptor and display increased anxiety-like behavior, impaired cognition, and metabolic abnormalities, including glucose intolerance...
February 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765272/chronic-brain-stimulation-rewarding-experience-ameliorates-depression-induced-cognitive-deficits-and-restores-aberrant-plasticity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#16
Suwarna Chakraborty, Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, B N Srikumar, T R Raju, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial disease which often coexists with cognitive deficits. Depression-induced cognitive deficits are known to be associated with aberrant reward processing, neurochemical and structural alterations. Recent studies have shown that chronic electrical stimulation of brain reward areas induces a robust antidepressant effect. However, the effects of repeated electrical self-stimulation of lateral hypothalamus - medial forebrain bundle (LH-MFB) on depression-induced cognitive deficits and associated neurochemical and structural alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are unknown...
January 31, 2019: Brain Stimulation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759305/lingo-1-sirna-nanoparticles-promote-central-remyelination-in-ethidium-bromide-induced-demyelination-in-rats
#17
Alaa Eldin H Youssef, Abeer E Dief, Nesrine M El Azhary, Doaa A Abdelmonsif, Ola S El-Fetiany
Multiple sclerosis is among the most common causes of neurological disabilities in young adults. Over the past decade, several therapeutic strategies have emerged as having potential neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties. We investigated the effect of intranasal administration of LINGO-1-directed siRNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on demyelination and remyelination processes in a rat model of demyelination. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 6 groups (n = 10 each) and subjected to intrapontine stereotaxic injection of ethidium bromide (EB) to induce demyelination...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756362/nucleic-acid-based-therapeutics-for-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Masayuki Nakamori, Eunsung Junn, Hideki Mochizuki, M Maral Mouradian
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is diagnosed largely on clinical grounds due to characteristic motor manifestations that result from the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. While traditional pharmacological approaches to enhance dopamine levels, such as with L-dopa, can be very effective initially, the chronic use of this dopamine precursor is commonly plagued with motor response complications. Additionally, with advancing disease, non-motor manifestations emerge, including psychosis and dementia that compound patient disability...
February 12, 2019: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742344/effects-of-high-and-low-frequency-stimulation-of-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-on-pentylentetrazole-induced-seizures-in-rats
#19
Víctor Manuel Magdaleno-Madrigal, Gerardo Contreras-Murillo, Alejandro Valdés-Cruz, David Martínez-Vargas, Adrián Martínez, Benjamín Villasana-Salazar, Salvador Almazán-Alvarado
RATIONALE: The use of electrical stimulation therapy to treat epilepsy is currently being studied in experimental animals and patients. Our study was designed to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation applied in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) on the development of pentylentetrazole-induced seizures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed using male Wistar rats with electrodes stereotaxically implanted in the left TRN. Epidural EEG recording screws were implanted in the motor cortex for EEG recording...
February 11, 2019: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739800/-nasal-cavity-mucosal-melanoma-with-skin-extension-mimicking-a-malignant-lentigo-with-mucosal-extension
#20
A Houette, A Depeyre, S Mansard, C Chevenet, I Barthelemy, N Pham Dang
Mucosal melanoma is a rare malignant disease developed from melanocyte. We report the case of a patient with nasal cavity mucosal melanoma with a primary clinical and histological diagnosis of malignant lentigo with mucosal spreading. The presence of a c-Kit mutation, in a second lecture and the evolving nature of the lesion, reorientated the diagnosis of malignant lentigo to mucosal melanoma with skin extension. Extensive surgical resection and foramen free flap with costal graft reconstruction may have a local control of the disease...
February 7, 2019: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
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