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Metabolism and RNA

Yangchun Li, Zhaoping Wang, Zongwu Zhao, Yuting Cui
Low salinity treatment is proven to be the practical polyploidy inducing method for shellfish with advantages of lower cost, higher operability and reliable food security. However, little is known about the possible molecular mechanism of hypotonic induction. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) based proteomic profiling was pursued to investigate the responses of zygotes of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to low salinity. A total of 2235 proteins were identified and 87 proteins were considered differentially expressed, of which 14 were up-regulated and 69 were down-regulated...
December 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Corrado Campochiaro, Simon Lytton, Svetlana Nihtyanova, Dietmar Fuchs, Voon H Ong, Christopher P Denton
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic disease characterized by vasculopathy, progressive fibrosis and autoimmune activation. Tryptophan (Trp) metabolism has been linked to altered immune cell function and to malignancy. We have investigated the role of Trp metabolic pathway in SSc measuring serum Trp, Kynurenine (Kyn) and Trp/Kyn ratio in a cohort of 97 SSc patients and 10 healthy controls. Association with disease characteristics was evaluated. We found that Trp levels in SSc patients were significantly lower compared to HCs...
February 13, 2019: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Robert J Huber, Sabateeshan Mathavarajah
Mutations in CLN3 cause a juvenile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). This devastating neurological disorder, commonly known as Batten disease, is currently untreatable due to a lack of understanding of the physiological role of the protein. Recently, work in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has provided valuable new insight into the function of CLN3 in the cell. More specifically, research has linked the Dictyostelium homolog (gene: cln3, protein: Cln3) to protein secretion, adhesion, and aggregation during starvation, which initiates multicellular development...
February 13, 2019: Cellular Signalling
Mandy Koopman, Renée I Seinstra, Ellen A A Nollen
Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used to investigate biological processes related to health and disease. Multiple C. elegans models for human neurodegenerative diseases do exist, including those expressing human α-synuclein. Even though these models do not feature all pathological and molecular hallmarks of the disease they mimic, they allow for the identification and dissection of molecular pathways that are involved. In line with this, genetic screens have yielded multiple modifiers of proteotoxicity in C...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Haisheng Ding, Huiling Zhao, Guanglong Cheng, Yongxin Yang, Xiaofei Wang, Xiaowei Zhao, Yunxia Qi, Dongwei Huang
BACKGROUND: Hair fibre length is an important economic trait of rabbits in fur production. However, molecular mechanisms regulating rabbit hair growth have remained elusive. RESULTS: Here we aimed to characterise the skin traits and gene expression profiles of short-hair and long-hair rabbits by histological and transcriptome analyses. Haematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the histological structure of the skin of short-hair and long-hair rabbits...
February 15, 2019: BMC Genomics
Ada Congrains-Castillo, Fernanda S Niemann, Adriana S Santos Duarte, Sara T Olalla-Saad
LEF1 antisense RNA 1 (LEF1-AS1) is an antisense long non-coding RNA encoded in the lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) locus. LEF1-AS1 is a conserved transcript dysregulated in hematopoiesis. This study aimed to functionally characterize the role of this transcript in myeloid malignancy and explore a possible regulatory effect of LEF1-AS1 upon LEF1. We show that LEF1-AS1 is highly expressed in normal hematopoietic stem cells but barely detectable in myeloid malignant cell lines. Additionally, bone marrow cells from myelodysplastic syndrome (n=12) and acute myeloid malignancy patients (n=28) expressed significantly reduced levels of LEF1-AS1 compared to healthy controls (n=15)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Michal B Juda, Alexandra K Brooks, Albert E Towers, Gregory G Freund, Robert H McCusker, Andrew J Steelman
OBJECTIVE: Viral encephalitis increases the risk for developing seizures and epilepsy. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (Ido1) is induced by inflammatory cytokines and functions to metabolize tryptophan to kynurenine. Kynurenine can be further metabolized to produce kynurenic acid and the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonist quinolinic acid (QuinA). In the present study, we sought to determine the role of Ido1 in promoting seizures in an animal model of viral encephalitis. METHODS: C57BL/6J and Ido1 knockout mice (Ido1-KO) were infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)...
February 15, 2019: Epilepsia
Ruili Han, Xiangnan Wang, Xinlei Wang, Yaping Guo, Donghua Li, Guoxi Li, Yanbin Wang, Xiangtao Kang, Zhuanjian Li
Zinc finger proteins are a class of transcription factors with finger-like domains and have diverse uses in biological processes, including development, differentiation, and metabolism. In this study, we identified the absence of the 24 bp sequence in the third exon of the zinc finger protein 764-like (ZNF764L) gene that lead to the production of two new transcripts, ZNF764L-SV1 and ZNF764L-SV2, and the sum of the expression levels of the two transcripts is approximately equal the total RNA expression level...
February 12, 2019: Gene
Juntong Yu, Hui Guo, Jinli Xie, Jianming Luo, Yuetong Li, Liu Liu, Shiyi Ou, Guangwen Zhang, Xichun Peng
The diet of traditional Asian is similar to the Mediterranean that was considered as a healthy dietary pattern. The report was scarce on whether different plant-derived components with similar anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory function such as quercetin and alliin in traditional Asian diet consumed in an alternate style cooperatively affect health including the growth of host and the status of the gut microbiota and colonic epithelial immunity. In the present study, the effects of alternate consumption of quercetin and alliin on host health judging by the profile of gut microbiota and gene expression of colonic epithelial cells were investigated with the Illumina MiSeq sequencing (16S rRNA genes) and Illumina HiSeq (RNA-seq) technique, respectively...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Food Science
Marah C Runtsch, Morgan C Nelson, Soh-Hyun Lee, Warren Voth, Margaret Alexander, Ruozhen Hu, Jared Wallace, Charisse Petersen, Vanja Panic, Claudio J Villanueva, Kimberley J Evason, Kaylyn M Bauer, Timothy Mosbruger, Sihem Boudina, Mary Bronner, June L Round, Micah J Drummond, Ryan M O'Connell
Identifying regulatory mechanisms that influence inflammation in metabolic tissues is critical for developing novel metabolic disease treatments. Here, we investigated the role of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) during diet-induced obesity in mice. miR-146a is reduced in obese and type 2 diabetic patients and our results reveal that miR-146a-/- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) have exaggerated weight gain, increased adiposity, hepatosteatosis, and dysregulated blood glucose levels compared to wild-type controls. Pro-inflammatory genes and NF-κB activation increase in miR-146a-/- mice, indicating a role for this miRNA in regulating inflammatory pathways...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Genetics
Allison R Kolbe, Anthony J Studer, Omar E Cornejo, Asaph B Cousins
BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the hydration of CO2 in the first biochemical step of C4 photosynthesis, and has been considered a potentially rate-limiting step when CO2 availability within a leaf is low. Previous work in Zea mays (maize) with a double knockout of the two highest-expressed β-CA genes, CA1 and CA2, reduced total leaf CA activity to less than 3% of wild-type. Surprisingly, this did not limit photosynthesis in maize at ambient or higher CO2 concentrations...
February 15, 2019: BMC Genomics
Bruce Wang, Sean Rudnick, Brent Cengia, Herbert L Bonkovsky
The acute hepatic porphyrias (AHPs) are a group of four inherited diseases of heme biosynthesis that present with episodic, acute neurovisceral symptoms. The four types are 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase deficiency porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and variegate porphyria. Their diagnoses are often missed or delayed because the clinical symptoms mimic other more common disorders. Recent results indicate that acute intermittent porphyria, the most severe of the more common types of AHP, is more prevalent than previously thought, occurring in about 1 in 1600 Caucasians, but with low clinical penetrance (approximately 2%-3%)...
February 2019: Hepatology Communications
Sarah H Merkling, Human Riahi, Gijs J Overheul, Annette Schenck, Ronald P van Rij
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable model organism for the discovery and characterization of innate immune pathways, but host responses to virus infection remain incompletely understood. Here, we describe a novel player in host defense, Sgroppino (Sgp). Genetic depletion of Sgroppino causes hypersensitivity of adult flies to infections with the RNA viruses Drosophila C virus, cricket paralysis virus, and Flock House virus. Canonical antiviral immune pathways are functional in Sgroppino mutants, suggesting that Sgroppino exerts its activity via an as yet uncharacterized process...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
An-Qi Li, Zhan-Peng Sun, Xu Liu, Jin-Shu Yang, Feng Jin, Lin Zhu, Wen-Huan Jia, Stephanie De Vos, Gilbert Van Stappen, Peter Bossier, Wei-Jun Yang
Cellular quiescence, a reversible state in which growth, proliferation, and other cellular activities are arrested, is important for self-renewal, differentiation, development, re-generation, and stress resistance. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying cellular quiescence remain largely unknown. In the present study, we used embryos of the crustacean Artemia in the diapause stage, in which these embryos remain quiescent for prolonged periods, as a model to explore the relationship between cell membrane potential (Vmem ) and quiescence...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zhongxiang Sun, Qi Shi, Qilin Li, Rumeng Wang, Cuicui Xu, Huanhuan Wang, Chunxia Ran, Yuanyuan Song, Rensen Zeng
Generalist phytophagous insects adapt to adventurous chemical environment in a wide variety of host plants by extraordinary detoxifying metabolic abilities. However, how polyphagous insect cope with the diversity of plant defenses remains largely unknown and only a few counter-defense genes detoxifying a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites have been well characterized. Here, we identify a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP6AB60) from tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura) in response to three different plant's defense metabolites...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Minghui Jin, Chongyu Liao, Swapan Chakrabarty, Weigang Zheng, Kongming Wu, Yutao Xiao
When any living organism is frequently exposed to any drugs or toxic substances, they evolve different detoxification mechanism to confront with toxicants during absorption and metabolism. Likewise, the insects have evolved detoxification mechanisms as they are frequently exposed to different toxic secondary plant metabolites and commercial insecticides. ABC transporter superfamily is one of the largest and ubiquitous group of proteins which play an important role in phase III of the detoxification process...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Wei Wang, Suzhen Niu, Yi Dai, Xinmi Zhai, Mingchun Wang, Yanqin Ding, Wenpeng Yang, Degang Zhao
The opaque2 ( o2 ) mutation in maize is associated with high lysine content in endosperm and good nutritional value. To improve the nutritional quality of waxy maize, the o2 allele was introgressed into the wxwx line using marker-assisted backcrossing selection technology. The lysine content of o2o2wxwx lines was higher than that of the wxwx line. To reveal the mechanism of increasing lysine content through introgression of the o2 in waxy maize, the transcriptome on kernels (18th day after pollination) of the o2o2wxwx and parent lines was analyzed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq)...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuanhui Qi, Qiying Yi, Yamin Liu, Yanxia Hu, Dongshen Ni, Jianing Liu, Qin Zhou, Yajun Xie
Glucocorticoid hormones have been widely used in clinical practice as potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. However, the underlying mechanisms of how they work remain unaddressed. Here, we used RNA-set to profile spleen gene expression in adult mice after consistent intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone. We identified 13565 genes in control (injected with 0.9% NaCl) and 13702 genes in dexamethasone-injected group, 12920 genes were expressed in both, but 645 genes were identified only in control and 782 genes were identified only in the dexamethasone group...
February 11, 2019: Gene
Ziad S Mahmassani, Paul T Reidy, Alec I McKenzie, Chris Stubben, Michael T Howard, Micah J Drummond
Short-term muscle disuse is characterized by skeletal muscle insulin resistance, though this response is divergent across subjects. The mechanisms regulating inactivity-induced insulin resistance between populations that are more or less susceptibile to disuse-induced insulin resistance are not known. RNA sequencing was conducted on vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from subjects before and after bed rest (n=26) to describe the transcriptome of inactivity-induced insulin resistance. Subjects were separated into Low (n=14) or High (n=12) Susceptibility based on the magnitude of change in insulin sensitivity after 5-days of bed rest...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Pek Yoke Chong, J Brad Shotwell, John F Miller, Daniel J Price, Andy Maynard, Christian Voitenleitner, Amanda Mathis, Shawn Williams, Jeffrey Pouliot, Katrina Creech, Feng Wang, Jing M Fang, Huichang Zhang, Vincent Tai, Elizabeth Turner, Kristen M Kahler, Renae Crosby, Andrew J Peat
We previously described the discovery of GSK5852 (1), a non-nucleoside polymerase (NS5B) inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV), in which a N-benzyl boronic acid was essential for potent antiviral activity. Unfortunately, facile benzylic oxidation resulted in a short plasma half-life (5 h) in human volunteers, and a backup program was initiated to remove metabolic liabilities associated with 1. Herein we describe second generation NS5B inhibitors including GSK8175 (49), a sulfonamide-N-benzoxaborole analog with low in vivo clearance across preclinical species and broad-spectrum activity against HCV replicons...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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