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David M Kingsley, Cassandra L Roberge, Alena Rudkouskaya, Denzel E Faulkner, Margarida Barroso, Xavier Intes, David T Corr
3D multicellular aggregates, and more advanced organotypic systems, have become central tools in recent years to study a wide variety of complex biological processes. Most notably, these model systems have become mainstream within oncology (multicellular tumor spheroids) and regenerative medicine (embryoid bodies) research. However, the biological behavior of these in vitro tissue surrogates is extremely sensitive to their aggregate size and geometry. Indeed, both of these geometrical parameters are key in producing pathophysiological gradients responsible for cellular and structural heterogeneity, replicating in vivo observations...
February 15, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Justyna Kozłowska, Weronika Prus, Natalia Stachowiak
Most peeling products (exfoliators) available on the market, used in cosmetic and aesthetic dermatology applications, contain synthetic microbeads as abrasive agents. After being released into the natural environment, these non-biodegradable microparticles have an adverse impact on it, especially on aquatic ecosystems. Cosmetics consisting of solid plastic particles will be prohibited in the European Union from 2020. Therefore, there is a great need to develop effective abrasive substances for cosmetic industry...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hawley C Pruitt, Daniel Lewis, Mark Ciccaglione, Sydney Connor, Quinton Smith, John W Hickey, Jonathan P Schneck, Sharon Gerecht
Lymphocyte motility is governed by a complex array of mechanisms, and highly dependent on external microenvironmental cues. Tertiary lymphoid sites in particular have unique physical structure such as collagen fiber alignment, due to matrix deposition and remodeling. Three dimensional studies of human lymphocytes in such environments are lacking. We hypothesized that aligned collagenous environment modulates CD8+ T cells motility. We encapsulated activated CD8+ T cells in collagen hydrogels of distinct fiber alignment, a characteristic of tumor microenvironments...
February 15, 2019: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Seyed Nasrollah Tabatabaei, Rabeb Mouna Derbali, Chun Yang, Rosanne Superstein, Patrick Hamel, Jeanne Leblond Chain, Pierre Hardy
Melphalan is an efficient chemotherapeutic agent that is currently used to treat retinoblastoma (Rb); however, the inherent risk of immunogenicity and the hazardous integration of this drug in healthy cells is inevitable. MicroRNAs are short non-coding single-stranded RNAs that affect a vast range of biological processes. Previously, we focused on the regulatory role of miR-181a during cancer development and progression. In this manuscript, 171 nm switchable lipid nanoparticles (LNP) co-delivered melphalan and miR-181a with encapsulation efficiencies of 93%...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Reema Vareen Diengdoh, Suman Kumaria, Meera Chettri Das
Orchids and their sustainability are very important issues that need global conservation efforts. Paphiopedilum insigne (an endangered orchid), is one of the most excessively exploited species of orchids and is mentioned in the IUCN Red List and Appendix I of CITES. The prospect for conservation and commercialization of this species would be strengthened with the development of improved cryopreservation techniques. This study reports on successful cryopreservation of protocorms of P.insigne after cryopreservation using vitrification (Vit) and encapsulation-vitrification (E-Vit) techniques...
February 15, 2019: Cryobiology
Aaron H Aziz, Stephanie J Bryant
This study investigated osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated in matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels in chemically-defined medium (10 ng/ml BMP-2). Thiol-norbornene photoclick hydrogels were formed with CRGDS and crosslinkers of PEG dithiol (non-degradable), CVPLS-LYSGC (P1) or CRGRIGF-LRTDC (P2) (dash indicates cleavage site) at two crosslink densities. Exogenous MMP-2 degraded P1 and P2 hydrogels similarly. MMP-14 degraded P1 hydrogels more rapidly than P2 hydrogels...
February 18, 2019: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Sue-Ming Chang, Vicky Jain, Tai-Lin Chen, Anilkumar Patel, Hima Bindu Pidugu, Yi-Wen Lin, Ming-Hsi Wu, Jiao-Ren Huang, Han-Chung Wu, Anamik K Shah, Tsann-Long Su, Te-Chang Lee
Hybrid molecules are composed of two pharmacophores with different biological activities. Here, we conjugated phthalazine moieties (anti-angiogenetic pharmacophore) and bis(hydroxymethyl)pyrrole moieties (DNA crosslinking agent) to form a series of bis(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolo[2,1- a]phthalazine hybrids. These conjugates were cytotoxic to a variety of cancer cell lines by inducing DNA damage, arresting cell cycle progression at the G2/M phase, triggering apoptosis and inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in endothelial cells...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ali Rahimian, Christian Siltanen, Hamid Feyzizarnagh, Patricio Escalante, Alexander Revzin
Cytokines are produced by leukocytes in blood and may be used as indicators of malignancies or infections. The objective of this study was to develop a strategy for immunosensing cytokines in whole, unprocessed human blood. Microfluidic droplet generation was employed to fabricate ∼400 μm diameter microcapsules with a hydrogel shell and an aqueous core containing sensing microbeads. The hydrogel shell was composed of poly(ethylene glycol) forming a thin (∼10 μm) immunoisolation layer protecting antibody-modified microbeads inside the capsule from immune cells on the outside...
February 18, 2019: ACS Sensors
Luana Rossato, Erico S Loreto, Tarcieli P Venturini, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Janio M Santurio, Sydney H Alves
Cryptococcus species are an encapsulated fungal pathogen that cause cryptococcal meningitis. There are limited therapeutic options for this infection. The management includes the use of different antifungals such as amphotericin B, flucytosine, or fluconazole, either alone or in combination. However, numerous therapeutic failures, as well as the limited effectiveness of such therapeutics, have been described. Diphenyl diselenide is a chemically synthesized molecule with was found to have antimicrobial activity...
February 18, 2019: Mycoses
Yong-Jiang Wang, Shi-Yu Wu, Yan-Qiong Sun, Xin-Xiong Li, Shou-Tian Zheng
A series of new Ln14-substituted polyoxometalates, H27Na16[(Ln14(H2O)W4(OH)O14)(WO4)4(GeW10O38)6]·nH2O (n ≈ 86) (1-Ln, Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er), which contain 14 Ln3+ and 6 {α(1,5)-[GeW10O38]12-} units, has been synthesized in one-pot reactions. As the first 14-Ln-containing polyoxometalates, the octahedron-shaped three-shell structure of the [(Ln14(H2O)W4(OH)O14)(WO4)4(GeW10O38)6]43- polyanion is made up of a W4 tetrahedron, a Ln14W4 tetrahedron and a Ge6W60 octahedron. Compound 1-Dy exhibits frequency dependent magnetic properties...
February 18, 2019: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Zhihua Lin, Xunhui Xiong, Mengna Fan, Dong Xie, Gang Wang, Chenghao Yang, Meilin Liu
Pyrite (FeS2) has been considered as one of the most potential anode materials for sodium ion batteries (SIBs) due to its low cost, environmentally friendly features and high theoretical capacity. However, the huge volume changes during a charge/discharge process and poor conductivity of FeS2 hindered its practical applications. Herein, we propose a facile scalable approach to prepare nanostructured FeS2 embedded in an N-doped carbon nanosheet composite (FeS2/CNS) via a combined template method and a solid state sulfuration method...
February 18, 2019: Nanoscale
Yue Zhang, Haiyun Dong, Yuan Liu, Chunhuan Zhang, Fengqin Hu, Yong Sheng Zhao
We demonstrate efficient and stable dual-wavelength microlasers fabricated by encapsulating different organic dyes into metal-organic framework (MOF) microcrystals. The intermolecular interactions between the organic dyes are suppressed effectively by the spatial confinement effect of the MOF pores, enabling a simultaneously efficient optical gain, and therefore lasing at different wavelengths. The results represent an important step towards a function-oriented laser material design.
February 18, 2019: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Xiaoxiong Cai, Qionghao Xu, Gaomei Tu, Yanghe Fu, Fumin Zhang, Weidong Zhu
The synthesis of heterogeneous cooperative catalysts in which two or more catalytically active components are spatially separated within a single material has generated considerable research efforts. The multiple functionalities of catalysts can significantly improve the efficiency of existing organic chemical transformations. Herein, we introduce ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles (NPs) on the surfaces of a metal-organic framework pre-encapsulated with polyoxometalate silicotungstic acid (SiW) UiO-66 (University of Oslo [UiO]) and prepared a 2...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Fei-Xiang Ma, Cheng-Yan Xu, Fucong Lyu, Bo Song, Shu-Chao Sun, Yang Yang Li, Jian Lu, Liang Zhen
Developing noble-metal-free based electrocatalysts with high activity, good stability, and low cost is critical for large-scale hydrogen production via water splitting. In this work, hollow FeP nanoparticles densely encapsulated in carbon nanosheet frameworks (donated as hollow FeP/C nanosheets), in situ converted from Fe-glycolate precursor nanosheets through carbonization and subsequent phosphorization, are designed and synthesized as an advanced electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction. FeP hollow nanoparticles are transformed from intermediate Fe3 O4 nanoparticles through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect...
February 6, 2019: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jiacheng Lin, Xiaodong Zeng, Yuling Xiao, Lin Tang, Jinxia Nong, Yufang Liu, Hui Zhou, Bingbing Ding, Fuchun Xu, Hanxing Tong, Zixin Deng, Xuechuan Hong
Near-infrared II fluorescence imaging holds great promise for in vivo imaging and imaging-guided surgery with deep penetration and high spatiotemporal resolution. However, most NIR-II aromatic luminophores suffer from the notorious aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect in the aqueous solution, which largely hinders their biomedical application in vivo . In this study, the first NIR-II organic aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorophore ( HLZ-BTED ), encapsulated as nanoparticles ( HLZ-BTED dots) for in vivo biomedical imaging, was designed and synthesized...
January 28, 2019: Chemical Science
Mahesh Vishe, Jeffrey N Johnston
A stereocontrolled synthesis of β2,3 -amino amides is reported. Innovation is encapsulated by the first use of nitroalkenes to achieve double umpolung in enantioselective β-amino amide synthesis. Step economy is also fulfilled by the use of Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS) in the second step, delivering the amide product without intermediacy of a carboxylic acid or activated derivative. Molybdenum oxide-mediated hydride reduction provides the anti -β2,3 -amino amide with high selectivity.
January 28, 2019: Chemical Science
Wangqiang Shen, Lipiao Bao, Shuaifeng Hu, Le Yang, Peng Jin, Yunpeng Xie, Takeshi Akasaka, Xing Lu
The successful isolation and unambiguous crystallographic assignment of a series of lutetium-containing endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs), Lu2 C2 n (2 n = 76, 78, 80, 84, 86, 88, 90), reveal an unrecognized decisive effect of the cage size on the configuration of the encapsulated clusters. The molecular structures of these compounds are unambiguously assigned as Lu2 @ T d (2)-C76 , Lu2 @ D 3h (5)-C78 , Lu2 @ C 2v (5)-C80 , Lu2 @ C 2v (7)-C84 , Lu2 @ C s (8)-C86 , Lu2 @ C s (15)-C86 , Lu2 @ C 1 (26)-C88 , Lu2 C2 @ C 2v (9)-C86 , Lu2 C2 @ C s (32)-C88 and Lu2 C2 @ D 2 (35)-C88 ...
January 21, 2019: Chemical Science
Ross W Stephens, Gregory D Tredwell, Karen J Knox, Lee A Philip, David W King, Kelly M Debono, Jessica L Bell, Tim J Senden, Marcel R Tanudji, Jillean G Winter, Stephanie A Bickley, Michael J Tapner, Stephen K Jones
Purpose: Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is an effective treatment option for liver tumors, using Y-90-loaded polymer microspheres that are delivered via catheterization of the hepatic artery. Since Y-90 is a beta emitter and not conveniently imaged by standard clinical instrumentation, dosimetry is currently evaluated in each patient using a surrogate particle, 99m Technetium-labeled macroaggregated albumin (99m Tc-MAA). We report a new composite consisting of 99m Tc-labeled nanoparticles attached to the same polymer microspheres as used for SIRT, which can be imaged with standard SPECT...
2019: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Yuanjing Zhu, Fangfang Song, Yanyun Ju, Liyuan Huang, Lu Zhang, Chuliang Tang, Hongye Yang, Cui Huang
Purpose: In this study, we aimed to develop a unique N -acetyl cysteine (NAC)-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) electrospun system with separate compartments for the promotion of osteogenesis. Materials and methods: We first prepared solutions of NAC-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), PLGA, and NAC in N , N -dimethylformamide and tetrahydrofuran for the construction of the electrospun system. We then fed solutions to a specific injector for electrospinning...
2019: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Sally Bloodworth, Gabriela Sitinova, Shamim Alom, Sara Vidal, George R Bacanu, Stuart J Elliott, Mark E Light, Julie M Herniman, G John Langley, Malcolm H Levitt, Richard John Whitby
The endohedral fullerene CH4@C60, in which each C60 fullerene cage encapsulates a single methane molecule, has been synthesised for the first time. The key orifice contraction step, a photochemical desulfinylation of an open fullerene, was successfully completed, even though it is significantly inhibited by the presence of the endohedral molecule. The 13C NMR resonance for the cage nuclei in CH4@C60 is deshielded by Δδ = +0.52 ppm relative to C60. The crystal structure of the nickel(II) octaethylporphyrin / benzene solvate shows no significant distortion of the carbon cage, relative to the C60 analogue, and shows the methane hydrogens as a shell of electron density around the central carbon, indicative of the quantum nature of the methane, existing in a set of quantised rotational-translational states at 100 K...
February 18, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
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