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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772547/effects-of-boom-and-bust-grazing-management-on-vegetation-and-health-of-beef-cattle-used-for-wildfire-prevention-in-a-mediterranean-forest
#1
Miguel Teruel-Coll, Javier Pareja, Jordi Bartolomé, Emmanuel Serrano, Gregorio Mentaberre, Rafaela Cuenca, Johan Espunyes, Ferran Pauné, Juan Antonio Calleja
Humans and wildfires have historically driven landscape structure in the Mediterranean basin. The Iberian Peninsula is not an exception to that rule, and therefore, farmers, researchers, and governments seek alternative tools to minimize the loss of biodiversity and wildfire risks. Extensive livestock including beef cattle is currently promoted as a suitable management tool by European agro-environmental policies yet pieces of evidence exist regarding the reciprocal effects between cows and Mediterranean woody vegetation...
February 4, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772307/nitro-fatty-acids-protect-against-steatosis-and-fibrosis-during-development-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#2
Oren Rom, Guan Xu, Yanhong Guo, Yunhao Zhu, Huilun Wang, Jifeng Zhang, Yanbo Fan, Wenying Liang, Haocheng Lu, Yuhao Liu, Michael Aviram, Zhipeng Liu, Seongho Kim, Wanqing Liu, Xueding Wang, Y Eugene Chen, Luis Villacorta
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and resulting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are reaching global epidemic proportions. Lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools and effective therapies constitute two of the major hurdles for a bona fide treatment and a reversal of NASH progression and/or regression of the disease. Nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2 ) has been proven effective in multiple experimental models of inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, the potential benefit of in vivo administration of OA-NO2 to treat advanced NAFLD was tested herein in a model of long-term NASH diet-induced liver damage...
February 13, 2019: EBioMedicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767547/current-concepts-and-best-evidence-on-strategies-to-prevent-dental-erosion
#3
Vanara F Passos, Mary A S Melo, Jennifer Park, Howard E Strassler
Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition associated with chemical, biological, and behavioral factors whereby a non-bacterial chemical process leads to an irreversible loss of dental structure. Consequences of this erosive process include painful sensitivity, susceptibility to further erosion, mechanical wear, changes in occlusion, exposure of dental pulp, and poor esthetics. Substantial evidence has revealed new insights to diagnosing early stages of dental erosion and enabling novel preventive approaches to control its progression...
February 2019: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747415/the-potential-of-omics-to-link-lipid-metabolism-and-genetic-and-comorbidity-risk-factors-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-african-americans
#4
Kaitlyn E Stepler, Renã A S Robinson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects African Americans (AAs) and Hispanics, who are more likely to have AD than non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) and Asian Americans. Racial disparities in AD are multifactorial, with potential contributing factors including genetics, comorbidities, diet and lifestyle, education, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status. Interestingly, comorbidities such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease also impact AAs. It is plausible that a common underlying molecular basis to these higher incidences of AD and comorbidities exists especially among AAs...
2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735059/dietary-interventions-in-fibromyalgia-a-systematic-review
#5
Ana Rita Silva, Alexandra Bernardo, João Costa, Alexandra Cardoso, Paula Santos, Maria Fernanda de Mesquita, José Vaz Patto, Pedro Moreira, Maria Leonor Silva, Patrícia Padrão
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic non-degenerative disease, whose nutritional therapy seems controversial. This systematic review aimed to synthesize the knowledge about the effect of dietary interventions on patient reported outcomes (PRO) and inflammation in patients with FM. Six electronic databases - PubMed, BioMed Central, Cochrane library, EMBASE, LILACS and ISI - were searched for clinical trials, in which a dietary intervention in patients with FM diagnosed was conducted. Quality of evidence assessment was measured in accordance to GRADE methodology...
February 8, 2019: Annals of Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733818/metabolic-effects-of-mulberry-branch-bark-powder-on-diabetic-mice-based-on-gc-ms-metabolomics-approach
#6
Fan Qiu, Yu-Qing Zhang
Background: Mulberry ( Morus multicaulis ) branch bark powder have showed effective hypoglycemic activity in our previous research. This study aims to explore the mechanism of protect effect on diabetes mice of mulberry branch bark as food supplement based on non-targeted GC-MS metabolomics' platform. Methods: Animal model of double diabetes was established with high fat diet and Streptozotocin injection. Mice were fed with mulberry branch bark powder (MBBP) for five weeks to study its therapeutic effect...
2019: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732666/challenges-and-opportunities-to-tackle-the-rising-prevalence-of-diet-related-non-communicable-diseases-in-africa
#7
Victor O Owino
Africa is experiencing a sharp rise in non-communicable diseases (NCD) related to rapid globalisation and urbanisation leading to shifts in dietary and lifestyle patterns characterised by increased energy intake and physical inactivity. However, unlike more resource-endowed regions, Africa has a double burden of disease: NCD co-exist with infectious diseases including lower respiratory tract infections, HIV/AIDS and diarrhoeal diseases. The African economy is also relatively weaker, making it difficult to cope with this burden...
February 8, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30720795/effect-of-an-education-program-on-nutrition-knowledge-attitudes-toward-nutrition-diet-quality-lifestyle-and-body-composition-in-polish-teenagers-the-abc-of-healthy-eating-project-design-protocol-and-methodology
#8
Jadwiga Hamulka, Lidia Wadolowska, Monika Hoffmann, Joanna Kowalkowska, Krystyna Gutkowska
To increase teenagers' nutrition knowledge is an important target and has the potential to improve their dietary habits and lifestyle while reducing incidences of obesity-related non-communicable diseases throughout the whole lifespan. This study protocol presents the general approach and details of an assessment of nutritional knowledge, attitudes toward nutrition, diet quality, lifestyle and body composition that have been used to comprehensively evaluate the cross-behavioral patterns covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors in Polish teenagers...
October 5, 2018: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719961/association-between-nutritional-values-of-hays-fed-to-horses-and-sensory-properties-as-perceived-by-human-sight-touch-and-smell
#9
S Julliand, C Dacremont, C Omphalius, C Villot, V Julliand
Although hay is the foundation of most equine diets, horse owners rarely ask for biochemical analysis and the routine practice is to choose hay based on its 'perceived' nutritional value. The present study aimed at exploring the relationship between sensory properties as perceived by sight, touch and smell, and the nutritional value of hay measured by biochemical analysis using a 'free sorting task' method. Fifty-four non-expert participants were asked individually to: (1) observe 21 hays samples, (2) group together hays that they perceived as similar for each of the three modalities (hay appearance, odour or texture) and (3) characterize each formed group with a maximum of five descriptive terms...
February 5, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717015/french-and-mediterranean-style-diets-contradictions-misconceptions-and-scientific-facts-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Thulile Ndlovu, Francois van Jaarsveld, Oluwafemi J Caleb
The determination of appropriate dietary strategies for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases remains a challenging and highly relevant issue worldwide. Epidemiological dietary interventions have been studied for decades with contrasting impacts on human health. Moreover, research scientists and physicians have long debated diets encouraging alcohol intake, such as the Mediterranean and French-style diets, with regard to their impact on human health. Understanding the effects of these diets may help to improve in the treatment and prevention of diseases...
February 2019: Food Research International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716937/an-untargeted-metabolomics-approach-reveals-further-insights-of-lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-in-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#11
Hui Xia, Huali Tang, Feng Wang, Xian Yang, Zhaodan Wang, Hechun Liu, Da Pan, Chao Yang, Shaokang Wang, Guiju Sun
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), as one bioactive macromolecular abstracted from goji berry, has shown an abundance of potential function. The present study aimed to evaluate the metabolic effects of LBP on the urine and liver metabolomics on a high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. After 8 weeks of high-fat diet and streptozotocin induction of diabetes, 24 diabetic rats were randomly allocated to the diabetic control (DC) group, LBP low, moderate, and high dosage (LBP-L, LBP-M, LBP-H) groups and 6 non-diabetic rats were established as the non-diabetic control (NDC) group for 30 days' intervention...
February 2019: Food Research International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714219/food-avoidance-strategies-in-eosinophilic-oesophagitis
#12
Antonella Cianferoni, Michelle Shuker, Terri Brown-Whitehorn, Hannah Hunter, Carina Venter, Jonathan M Spergel
EoE is a chronic disease associated with significant morbidity that can result in permanent fibrosis and stricture formation. Given the complexity a multidisciplinary approach is recommended to manage these patients. In the majority of children with EoE not responsive to proton pump inhibitors (PPI), inflammation is driven by sensitivity to foods and treatment with an elimination diet can be effective. Foods most commonly identified to trigger EoE in children are milk and wheat, but egg, soy, meats and grains can also be triggers...
February 3, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710596/mendelian-randomisation-a-powerful-and-inexpensive-method-for-identifying-and-excluding-non-genetic-risk-factors-for-colorectal-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Alex J Cornish, Ian P M Tomlinson, Richard S Houlston
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in economically developed countries and a major cause of cancer-related mortality. The importance of lifestyle and diet as major determinants of CRC risk is suggested by differences in CRC incidence between countries and in migration studies. Previous observational epidemiological studies have identified associations between modifiable environmental risk factors and CRC, but these studies can be susceptible to reverse causation and confounding, and their results can therefore conflict...
January 30, 2019: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707411/new-developments-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#14
REVIEW
Quan M Nhu, Fouad J Moawad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, allergen-driven, immune-mediated disease of the esophagus that progresses to esophageal fibrostenosis if left untreated. The aim of this review is to provide a concise update on recent clinically relevant advances in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for EoE. RECENT FINDINGS: Current diagnostic and disease monitoring protocols for EoE rely on repetitive endoscopic evaluations and esophageal tissue acquisition for histopathologic analysis...
February 1, 2019: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30704533/dietary-outcomes-within-the-study-of-novel-approaches-to-weight-gain-prevention-snap-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Jessica Gokee LaRose, Rebecca H Neiberg, E Whitney Evans, Deborah F Tate, Mark A Espeland, Amy A Gorin, Letitia Perdue, Karen Hatley, Cora E Lewis, Erica Robichaud, Rena R Wing
BACKGROUND: Young adults (YA) are at high-risk for unhealthy dietary behaviors and weight gain. The Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention (SNAP) Trial demonstrated that two self-regulation approaches were effective in reducing weight gain over 2 years compared with control. The goal of this analysis was to examine effects of intervention on dietary outcomes and the association of diet changes with weight change. METHODS: Participants were 599 YA, age 18-35 years, BMI 21...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30695686/inhibition-of-mapk-linked-toxicity-pathway-is-involved-in-selenium-inhibited-high-fat-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-rats
#16
Ekram N Abd Al Haleem, Wesam M El-Bakly
BACKGROUND: MAP kinases, CREB, and Tau are signaling molecules among downstream synaptic targets involved in synaptic function, memory formation and cognition. PURPOSE: Here we investigate the neuro-protective effect of selenium in insulin resistant rat induced cognitive impairment by HFHCD. The study was focused on the effects on synaptic plasticity related molecules in hippocampus, which in turn may be responsible for underlying behavior alterations. METHOD: Rats were divided into 2 main groups: one fed with normal rat chow diet and the other with HFHCD for 6 weeks...
January 26, 2019: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690866/effects-of-sodium-intake-on-postural-lightheadedness-results-from-the-dash-sodium-trial
#17
Allison W Peng, Lawrence J Appel, Noel T Mueller, Olive Tang, Edgar R Miller, Stephen P Juraschek
Lightheadedness after standing contributes to adverse clinical events, including falls. Recommendations for higher sodium intake to treat postural lightheadedness have not been evaluated in a trial setting. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial (1998-1999) tested the effects of the DASH diet and sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP). Participants were randomly assigned to DASH or a typical Western diet (control). During either diet, participants ate three sodium levels (50, 100, 150 meq/d at 2100 kcal) in random order for 30-days, separated by 5-day breaks...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690116/untargeted-metabonomics-reveals-intervention-effects-of-chicory-polysaccharide-in-a-rat-model-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Hua Zhu, Zhenjiong Wang, Yulong Wu, Haitao Jiang, Feng Zhou, Xiaohong Xie, Renlei Wang, Chun Hua
In the current study, serum metabolomics techniques were used to evaluate the potential mechanism of the effect of chicory polysaccharides in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats. A rat model of NAFLD was constructed according to the histopathological data and biochemical parameters, while the underlying mechanisms of high-fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD and the therapeutic effects of chicory polysaccharides (CP) were studied by the adoption of serum metabolomics. The serum metabolites were analyzed by GC/MS...
January 25, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30687476/community-awareness-of-stroke-hypertension-and-modifiable-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-nkonya-wurupong-ghana
#19
Melissa Murray, Carol King, Cecilia Sorensen, Elaine Bunick, Renee King
Hypertension and other non-communicable diseases are growing risk factors for cardiovascular disease and stroke in lowand middle-income countries like Ghana who are experiencing the effects of rapid urbanization and globalization. Awareness and education may help reduce the population's exposure to modifiable risk-factors. A survey from a central clinic outside the city of Ho, in the Volta region investigates participants' level of awareness and education surrounding hypertension and stroke. It provides important information about the approach to education and preventing modifiable risk factors...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30680920/functional-interactions-between-gut-microbiota-transplantation-quercetin-and-high-fat-diet-determine-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-development-in-germ-free-mice
#20
David Porras, Esther Nistal, Susana Martínez-Flórez, José Luis Olcoz, Ramiro Jover, Francisco Jorquera, Javier González-Gallego, María Victoria García-Mediavilla, Sonia Sánchez-Campos
SCOPE: Modulation of intestinal microbiota has emerged as a new therapeutic approach for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here we addressed whether gut microbiota modulation by quercetin and intestinal microbiota transplantation can influence NAFLD development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gut microbiota donor mice were selected according to their response to high fat diet (HFD) and quercetin in terms of obesity and NAFLD-related biomarkers. Germ-free recipients displayed metabolic phenotypic differences derived from interactions between microbiota transplanted, diets and quercetin...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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