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Bronchopulmonary dysplasia AND preterm infant

Gaston Ofman, Trent E Tipple
Preterm birth is a primary cause of worldwide childhood mortality. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, characterized by impaired alveolar and lung vascular development, affects 25-50% of extremely low birth weight (BW; <1 kg) infants. Abnormalities in lung function persist into childhood in affected infants and are second only to asthma in terms of childhood respiratory disease healthcare costs. While advances in the medical care of preterm infants have reduced mortality, the incidence of BPD has not decreased in the past 10 years...
February 12, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Benjamin Stoecklin, Shannon J Simpson, J Jane Pillow
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as Chronic Lung Disease (CLD), is a chronic respiratory condition of prematurity with potential life-long consequences for respiratory well-being. BPD was first described by Northway in 1967, when the mean gestation of preterm infants with BPD was 34 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). Survival of preterm infants at lower gestational ages has increased steadily since 1967 associated with marked improvements in respiratory management of respiratory distress syndrome...
December 19, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Bosco Paes, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
The use of palivizumab for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus-related hospitalization is well-established and has been adopted universally in pediatric position statements. Areas covered: The definition of chronic lung disease (CLD, bronchopulmonary dysplasia) has evolved over time and has significantly impacted the reported incidence of the condition, and the description of mild, moderate and severe disease in published studies. We reviewed lung function in infancy, childhood and adulthood of healthy preterm infants and those with CLD and how alterations in airway function, especially following respiratory syncytial virus infection may set the stage for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults...
February 9, 2019: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Hilal Ozkan, Nilgün Köksal, Bayram Ali Dorum, Fatma Kocael, Yesim Ozarda, Pelin Doğan, Ipek Guney Varal, Onur Bagci
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been widely used in preterm infants. Lipid solutions used for PN were reported to be associated with oxidative stress and related morbidities. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of new generation lipid emulsion (SMOFLipid) and olive-oil based lipid emulsion for prevention of PN associated oxidative damage. METHODS: Preterm infants <32 gestational age were included to this prospective randomized study...
February 10, 2019: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Tamorah Lewis, William Truog, Mike Norberg, Philip L Ballard, Dara Torgerson
In the original version of this article, the Supplementary Information file contained incorrect reference numbers. 'Supplemental Table S1' has now been replaced with the corrected version, in which the correct reference numbers are cited. The authors would like to apologise for this error.
February 7, 2019: Pediatric Research
Phyllis A Dennery, Juliann M Di Fiore, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Eduardo Bancalari, John L Carroll, Nelson Claure, Aaron Hamvas, Anna Maria Hibbs, Premananda Indic, James Kemp, Katy N Krahn, Douglas Lake, Aaron Laposky, Richard J Martin, Aruna Natarajan, Casey Rand, Molly Schau, Debra E Weese-Mayer, Amanda M Zimmet, J Randall Moorman
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies may be due in part to immature ventilatory control, contributing to hypoxemia. The latter responds to ventilation and/or oxygen therapy, treatments associated with adverse sequelae. This is an overview of the Prematurity-Related Ventilatory Control Study which aims to analyze the under-utilized cardiorespiratory continuous waveform monitoring data to delineate mechanisms of immature ventilatory control in preterm infants and identify predictive markers...
February 1, 2019: Pediatric Research
Kaashif Aqeeb Ahmad, Monica M Bennett, Polli Rayburn, C Andrew Combs, Reese H Clark, Veeral N Tolia
OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is increased risk of prematurity-related complications for in vitro fertilization (IVF)-conceived preterm infants compared to matched controls. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study of 23-34 weeks' preterm infants from 329 US NICUs discharged from 2009 to 2016. Each IVF patient was matched to three controls. RESULTS: We identified 6,756 IVF-conceived preterm infants who were matched with 20,268 controls. IVF-conceived infants had no increase in non-respiratory morbidities but had significantly higher rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (8...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Sudeepta K Basu, Subechhya Pradhan, Kushal Kapse, Robert McCarter, Jonathan Murnick, Taeun Chang, Catherine Limperopoulos
Advanced neuroimaging techniques have improved our understanding of microstructural changes in the preterm supratentorial brain as well as the cerebellum and its association with impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the metabolic interrogation of the developing cerebellum during the early postnatal period after preterm birth remains largely unknown. Our study investigates the relationship between cerebellar neurometabolites measured by proton magnetic spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) in preterm infants with advancing post-menstrual age (PMA) and brain injury during ex-utero third trimester prior to term equivalent age (TEA)...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Zhihui Rong, Liwen Chang, Hongbin Cheng, Huizhen Wang, Xiaofang Zhu, Fen Peng, Qihong Fan, Wei Lu, Rui Pan, Li Xiong, Rong Jiao, Jie Sun, Shiwen Xia, Jijian Xie
OBJECTIVE:  Surfactant and noninvasive ventilation are two major strategies for the treatment of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). However, the optimal time for surfactant administering is yet controversial. This study compared the early and rescue Calsurf administration in preterm infants with RDS. STUDY DESIGN:  Preterm infants born between 260/7 and 326/7 weeks of gestation and needed nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) immediately after birth were randomly assigned to the early or rescue Calsurf treatment group...
February 4, 2019: American Journal of Perinatology
Huiqing Sun, Shuping Han, Rui Cheng, Mingyan Hei, Foteini Kakulas, Shoo K Lee
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of death among infants born at <30 weeks' gestation, but donor human milk can reduce the incidence of NEC. Unfortunately, freezing or pasteurizing human milk deactivates beneficial bioactive components. We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and impact of feeding very preterm infants fresh (unprocessed) mother's own milk within 4 hours of expression. In our multicentre prospective cohort analytic study, we fed 109 control and 98 intervention infants previously frozen donor or mother's own milk; only the intervention group was fed fresh mother's own milk once daily from enrollment until 32 weeks' corrected age...
January 30, 2019: Scientific Reports
Wes Onland, Filip Cools, Andre Kroon, Karin Rademaker, Maruschka P Merkus, Peter H Dijk, Henrica L van Straaten, Arjan B Te Pas, Thilo Mohns, Els Bruneel, Arno F van Heijst, Boris W Kramer, Anne Debeer, Inge Zonnenberg, Yoann Marechal, Henry Blom, Katleen Plaskie, Martin Offringa, Anton H van Kaam
Importance: Dexamethasone initiated after the first week of life reduces the rate of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) but may cause long-term adverse effects in very preterm infants. Hydrocortisone is increasingly used as an alternative, but evidence supporting its efficacy and safety is lacking. Objective: To assess the effect of hydrocortisone initiated between 7 and 14 days after birth on death or BPD in very preterm infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted in 19 neonatal intensive care units in the Netherlands and Belgium from November 15, 2011, to December 23, 2016, among preterm infants with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and/or birth weight of less than 1250 g who were ventilator dependent between 7 and 14 days of life, with follow-up to hospital discharge ending December 12, 2017...
January 29, 2019: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Stefano Nobile, Paolo Marchionni, Carlo Gidiucci, Alessio Correani, Maria L Palazzi, Cristina Spagnoli, Clementina Rondina, Virgilio P Carnielli
OBJECTIVE: To assess oxygen diffusion at 36 weeks' post-menstrual age in preterm infants by means of the non-invasive oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (36w-SFR) and to identify factors associated with 36w-SFR - ie, gestational age (GA) and early respiratory disease patterns (ERP). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. PATIENTS: 1005 preterm infants born below 32 weeks' GA...
January 27, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Satoko Tanaka, Keisuke Tsumura, Yukiko Nakura, Tsugumichi Tokuda, Hiroaki Nakahashi, Tomoko Yamamoto, Takeshi Ono, Itaru Yanagihara, Makoto Nomiyama
AIM: The optimal antibiotic regimen for preterm premature rupture of membrane (pPROM) is still unclear. This study aimed to determine the effects of ampicillin-sulbactam (SBT/ABPC) and azithromycin (AZM) on the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). METHODS: This retrospective study included women with singleton gestations and a diagnosis of pPROM between 22 and 27 weeks of gestation. In patients presenting with a high risk of intra-amniotic infection between January 2011 and May 2013, piperacillin or cefmetazole + clindamycin (regimen 1 group; n = 11) was administered, whereas SBT/ABPC and AZM (regimen 2 group; n = 11) were administered in patients presenting a similar risk between June 2013 and May 2016...
January 27, 2019: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Sara E Rostas, Christopher McPherson
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is frequently required by extremely preterm infants due to gastrointestinal immaturity and complications of prematurity. Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) and intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) are common complications of prolonged PN. Plant-based intravenous lipid emulsions, containing proinflammatory omega-6 fatty acids and phytosterols, may contribute to these conditions as well as other comorbidities such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and retinopathy of prematurity...
January 2019: Neonatal Network: NN
Keyur Donda, Nandini Vijayakanthi, Fredrick Dapaah-Siakwan, Parth Bhatt, Deepa Rastogi, Shantanu Rastogi
BACKGROUND: The management practices of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in the newborn have changed over time. We examine the trends in the epidemiology, resource utilization, and outcomes (mortality and bronchopulmonary dysplasia [BPD]) of RDS in preterm neonates ≤34 weeks gestational age (GA) in the United States. METHODS: In this retrospective serial cross-sectional study, we used ICD-9 codes to classify preterm infants GA ≤34 weeks between 2003 and 2014 from the National Inpatient Sample as having RDS or not...
January 20, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
A Pels, O C Knaven, B J Wijnberg-Williams, M J C Eijsermans, S M Mulder-de Tollenaer, C S H Aarnoudse-Moens, C Koopman-Esseboom, J van Eyck, J B Derks, W Ganzevoort, A G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore developmental outcomes at five years after early-onset fetal growth restriction (FGR). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis of prospective follow-up of patients of three Dutch centres, who participated in a twenty centre European randomized controlled trial on timing of delivery in early-onset FGR. Developmental outcome of very preterm infants born after extreme FGR is assessed at (corrected) age of five...
January 11, 2019: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Francesco Cresi, Elena Maggiora, Silvia Maria Borgione, Elena Spada, Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Fabio Meneghin, Luigi Tommaso Corvaglia, Maria Luisa Ventura, Gianluca Lista
BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and feeding intolerance are common conditions in preterm infants and among the major causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. For many years, preterm infants with RDS have been treated with mechanical ventilation, increasing risks of acute lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In recent years non-invasive ventilation techniques have been developed. Showing similar efficacy and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) have become the most widespread techniques in neonatal intensive care units...
January 18, 2019: Trials
Eui Kyung Choi, Seung Han Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim, Han-Suk Kim
BACKGROUND: Owing to advances in the critical care of premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), BPD-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) is becoming a growing concern. However, only few investigations were available on neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants with PH. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the impact of PH on growth and neurodevelopment at 18-24 months of corrected age (CA). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 394 infants (aged < 28 weeks of gestation) admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between 2005 and 2014...
January 17, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
Hirokazu Arai, Tomoo Ito, Masato Ito, Syozo Ota, Tsutomu Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: The Bubbly/cystic appearance on chest radiograph is an important factor in the severe type of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in Japan. Our objective is to determine the perinatal characteristics and neonatal complications of the bubbly/cystic+ group in extremely preterm infants with BPD by oxygen dependency at day28 after birth (BPD28). STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study of population data from infants (birth weight, <1,500 g) enrolled in the Neonatal Research Network of Japan...
January 13, 2019: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Carlo Dani
The vast majority (95%) of very preterm infants receive oxygen-therapy monitored by oxygen pulse saturation (SpO2 ). However, they spend a significant percentage of time out of the SpO2 target with a high risk of severe complications such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Recently, systems allowing the automated control of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) for patient delivery to maintain target SpO2 has been become commercially available. We reviewed literature and individuated sixteen studies on the effectiveness of automated control of FiO2 in preterm infants...
January 10, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
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