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Polymer nanocomposite

Rieke Koll, Lisa Sarah Fruhner, Hauke Heller, Jürgen Allgaier, Wim Pyckhout-Hintzen, Margarita Kruteva, Artem Feoktystov, Ralf Biehl, Stephan Förster, Horst Weller
We present a platform for the encapsulation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals (SPIONs) with a highly stable diblock copolymer shell allowing a homogeneous dispersion of the nanocrystals into a polymer matrix in the resulting nanocomposites. High polymer shell stability was achieved by crosslinking the inner polydiene shell for example in a persulfate based redox process. The advantage of this crosslinking reaction is the avoidance of heat and UV light for the initiation, making it suitable for heat or UV sensitive systems...
February 13, 2019: Nanoscale
Yinxiu Zuo, Jingkun Xu, Xiaofei Zhu, Xuemin Duan, Limin Lu, Yongfang Yu
This review (with 155 refs.) summarizes the progress made in the past few years in the field of electrochemical sensors based on graphene-derived materials for the determination of heavy metal ions. Following an introduction of this field and a discussion of the various kinds of modified graphenes including graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, the review covers graphene based electrodes modified (or doped) with (a) heteroatoms, (b) metal nanoparticles, (c) metal oxides, (d) small organic molecules, (e) polymers, and (f) ternary nanocomposites...
February 12, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Jayesh Cherusseri, Kowsik Sambath Kumar, Nitin Choudhary, Narasimha Nagaiah, Yeonwoong Jung, Tania Roy, Jayan Thomas
Electrochemical capacitors or supercapacitors have achieved great interest in the recent past due to their potential applications ranging from microelectronic devices to hybrid electric vehicles. Supercapacitors can provide high power densities but their inherently low energy density remains a great challenge. The high-performance supercapacitors utilize large electrode surface area for electrochemical double-layer capacitance and/or pseudocapacitance. To enhance the performance of supercapacitors, various strategies have been adopted such as electrode nanostructuring, hybrid electrode designs using nanocomposite electrodes and hybrid supercapacitor configurations...
February 12, 2019: Nanotechnology
Sumit Kumar, Shailesh Narian Sharma, Jitendra Kumar
TiO₂ nanorods integrated with poly[2-methoxy,5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) matrixes were investigated for charge transport properties to evaluate their potential application in a hybrid solar cell device. An exhaustive characterization was performed to identify the best hybrid nanocomposite among MEHPPV-TiO₂ and P3HT-TiO₂. The analysis involved optical and electrical characterization techniques such as the X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and I-V measurements...
June 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Waseem Sharaf Saeed, Abdel-Basit Al-Odayni, Ali Alrahlah, Abdulaziz Ali Alghamdi, Taieb Aouak
Titanium dioxide/poly(δ-valerolactone) (TiO₂/Pδ-VL) nanohybrid material containing interconnected pores with sizes in the range 80⁻150 μm were prepared by the solvent casting and polymer melting routes, and the dispersion of the TiO₂ nanofiller in the Pδ-VL matrix and its adhesion were characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. A significant depression in the glass transition temperature ( T g ) and melting temperature ( T m ) values were revealed for the polymer nanocomposites prepared by the solvent casting technique...
February 10, 2019: Materials
Rajesh Kumar Saini, Laxami Prasad Bagri, A K Bajpai
In the present study macroporous three dimensional spongy scaffolds composed of gelatin, alginate, and poly (vinyl alcohol) were prepared by cryogelation technique and silver hydroxyapatite was reinforced into the 3 D matrix. The polymer nanocomposite materials were characterized by analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The nanocomposite scaffolds were studied for their porous nature, water sorption capacity, and mechanical behavior...
January 31, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Olivija Plohl, Matjaž Finšgar, Sašo Gyergyek, Urban Ajdnik, Irena Ban, Lidija Fras Zemljič
Due to the extreme rise of sludge pollution with heavy metals (e.g. copper), the options for its disposal or treatment are decreasing. On the contrary, properly heavy metal-cleaned sludge can be used as an alternative sustainable energy and agriculture source. The aim of this study was to develop a novel nanoadsorbent, based on irreversibly linked amino-rich polymer onto previously silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) that can be applied efficiently for metal removal. MNPs were coated uniformly by 3 nm thick silica layer (core-shell structure), and were additionally modified with systematic covalent attachment of derived branched polyethyleneimine (bPEI)...
February 6, 2019: Nanomaterials
Yang Liu, Fushan Li, Lichun Qiu, Kaiyu Yang, Qianqian Li, Xin Zheng, Hailong Hu, Tailiang Guo, Chaoxing Wu, Tae Whan Kim
Perovskite materials have exhibited promising potential for universal applications including backlighting, color conversion, and anti-counterfeiting labels fabricated using solution processes. However, owing to the tendency of those materials to have uncontrollable morphologies and to form large crystals, they cannot be utilized in discontinuous microminiaturization, which is crucial for practical optoelectronic applications. In this research, combining the effects of adding polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), precisely controlling the inkjet printing technique, and using a post-processing procedure, we were able to fabricate in-situ crystallized perovskite-PVP nanocomposite microarrays with perfect morphologies...
February 8, 2019: ACS Nano
Erwan Gicquel, Céline Martin, Laurent Heux, Bruno Jean, Julien Bras
This study proposes a grafting strategy of thermo-sensitive amine-terminated oligomers of Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) (Pnipam2500 ) onto the surface of Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs). Pnipam2500 grafting in aqueous condition via peptidic coupling was explored to obtain CNC hydrogel with thermo-reversible aggregation and new colloidal properties. A discussion between grafting vs adsorption /presence of the Pnipam2500 is proposed. A large range of experimental techniques was used to investigate the properties of the CNC decorated with polymer and to confirm the grafting...
April 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Vladimir Mulens-Arias, Alba Nicolás-Boluda, Alexandre Gehanno, Alice Balfourier, Florent Carn, Florence Gazeau
Gold nanoparticles have been thoroughly used in designing thermal ablative therapies and in photoacoustic imaging in cancer treatment owing to their unique and tunable plasmonic properties. While the plasmonic properties highly depend on the size and structure, controllable aggregation of gold nanoparticles can trigger a plasmonic coupling of adjacent electronic clouds, henceforth leading to an increase of light absorption within the near-infrared (NIR) window. Polymer-engraftment of gold nanoparticles has been investigated to achieve the plasmonic coupling phenomenon, but complex chemical steps are often needed to accomplish a biomedically relevant product...
February 6, 2019: Nanoscale
Qinyu Zhu, Xuming Wang, Jan D Miller
High performance solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have long been desired for the next generation of lithium batteries. One of the most promising ways to improve the morphological and electrochemical properties of SPEs is the addition of fillers with specific nanostructures. However, the production of such fillers is generally expensive and requires complicated preparation procedures. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), with their tubular structure, resemble carbon nanotubes in terms of geometric features, and can be obtained at relatively low cost...
February 6, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Anastasia Koltsakidou, Zoi Terzopoulou, George Z Kyzas, Dimitrios N Bikiaris, Dimitra A Lambropoulou
In the present study, polymer supported nanocomposites, consisting of bio-based poly(ethylene furanoate) polyester and TiO₂ nanoparticles, were prepared and evaluated as effective photocatalysts for anti-inflammatory/analgesic drug removal. Nanocomposites were prepared by the solvent evaporation method containing 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% TiO₂ and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
February 4, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Francesca Luzi, Luigi Torre, José Maria Kenny, Debora Puglia
In the present review, the possibilities for blending of commodities and bio-based and/or biodegradable polymers for packaging purposes has been considered, limiting the analysis to this class of materials without considering blends where both components have a bio-based composition or origin. The production of blends with synthetic polymeric materials is among the strategies to modulate the main characteristics of biodegradable polymeric materials, altering disintegrability rates and decreasing the final cost of different products...
February 3, 2019: Materials
Shuilai Qiu, Yifan Zhou, Xia Zhou, Tao Zhang, Chenyu Wang, Richard K K Yuen, Weizhao Hu, Yuan Hu
Similar to graphene, few-layer black phosphorus (BP) features thermal stability, mechanical properties, and characteristic dimension effects, which has potential as a new member of nanofillers for fabricating polymer nanocomposites. Herein, a cross-linked polyphosphazene-functionalized BP (BP-PZN) is developed with abundant -NH2 groups via a one-pot polycondensation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether and hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene on the surface of BP nanosheets. Whereafter, the resulting BP-PZN is incorporated into epoxy resin (EP) to study the flame-retardant property and smoke suppression performance...
February 4, 2019: Small
Gareth J Price, Saira Bibi, Zahid Imran, Mohsan Nawaz, Tariq Yasin, Amjad Farooq
Chitosan-carbon nanotube (Chi-CNT) composite materials have been prepared with CNTs that were surface treated using either dilute acid combined with 20 kHz ultrasound or gamma-irradiation in air. The mechanical and dielectric properties have been measured and compared. Both modification methods gave nanocomposites with much improved tensile properties over native chitosan. The sonochemically treated samples were stronger with higher tensile strength but at the expense of lower elasticity and extensibility than found when γ-irradiation was used...
January 28, 2019: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Koteswara Rao Medidhi, Venkat Padmanabhan
Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the diffusion of polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNPs) in polymer. The diffusivity of PGNPs in the homopolymer matrix is investigated as a function of graft length and grafting density, and it is compared to that of bare nanoparticles with comparable effective size. Our results indicate that, in addition to the increase in the effective size of PGNPs due to grafting, the interpenetration of matrix polymers into the grafted layer also plays an important role in the mobility of PGNPs...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Chemical Physics
Pengcheng Zhao, Chao Chen, Meijun Ni, Longqi Peng, Chunyan Li, Yixi Xie, Junjie Fei
An electrochemical dopamine sensor with a temperature-controlled switch was constructed by using a mixture of thermo-sensitive block copolymers (type tBA-PDEA-tBA), graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). If the temperature is below 26 °C, the polymer on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is stretched, the distance between the MWCNTs is large, and the charge transfer resistance (Rct ) of the composite also is large. In the presence of dopamine, the electron transfer at the electrode is strongly retarded and in the "off" state...
February 1, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Sajjad Janfaza, Maryam Banan Nojavani, Maryam Nikkhah, Taher Alizadeh, Ali Esfandiar, Mohammad Reza Ganjali
A chemiresistive sensor is described for the lung cancer biomarker hexanal. A composite consisting of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes was used in the sensor that is typically operated at a voltage of 4 V and is capable of selectively sensing gaseous hexanal at room temperature. It works in the 10 to 200 ppm concentration range and has a 10 ppm detection limit (at S/N = 3). The sensor signal recovers to a value close to its starting value without the need for heating even after exposure to relatively high levels of hexanal...
February 1, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Roya Mirzajani, Fatemeh Kardani, Zahra Ramezani
A method is described for multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction of five sterol and steroid hormones from complex food samples. A composite was prepared from graphene oxide, a metal-organic framework (ZIF-8) and a molecularly imprinted polymers was deposited on a single thin fiber. Four thin fibers were combined to obtain a fiber bundle. The nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy...
February 1, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Geunsu Park, Semin Kim, Subin Chae, Hyunwoo Han, Thanh-Hai Le, Kap Seung Yang, Mincheol Chang, Hyungwoo Kim, Hyeonseok Yoon
It is important to fabricate nanostructured architectures comprised of functional components for a wide variety of applications because precise structural control in the nanometer regime can yield unprecedented, fascinating properties. Owing to their well-defined microstructural characteristics, it has been popular to use carbon nanospecies, such as nanotubes and graphene, in fabricating nanocomposites and nanohybrids. Nevertheless, it still remains hard to control and manipulate nanospecies for specific applications, thus preventing their commercialization...
January 31, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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