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Benedict T Green, Dale R Gardner, James A Pfister, Kevin D Welch, Gary L Bennett, Daniel Cook
Cattle losses from larkspur (Delphinium spp.) toxicity are a long-term challenge on the rangelands of western North America. In addition to animal factors that affect livestock poisonings, plant alkaloid composition (chemotype) affects the intoxication of cattle because some chemotypes are significantly more toxic. Differences in larkspur chemotype toxicity are due to the ratios of N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids to non-MSAL-type alkaloids and the concentrations of those alkaloids in the plant material...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Dahu Rui, Zhipeng Wu, Mingchng Ji, Jianfei Liu, Shuren Wang, Yuzuru Ito
To improve the washing efficiency for low-permeability clay, the method of freeze-thaw synergistic chemical washing was put forward to study the cadmium (Cd)-and lead (Pb)- real-site contaminated soils as the research object and ethylene diaminete traacetic acid (EDTA) was selected as the eluent to conduct a soil column washing test of heavy metal-contaminated clay soil. Results show that repeated freeze-thaw of soil can destroy the original structure of soil particles, help the eluent fully interact with pollutants, and thus improve washing efficiency...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ampa Jimtaisong, Thapanee Sarakonsri
Chitosan-bentonite clay composite was prepared for use as adsorbent matrix of water-soluble natural dyes. The addition of chitosan resulted in a relatively rough texture of the composite compared with bentonite. XRD analysis showed that a basal d001 -space value of the composite (15.545 Å) is higher than that of bentonite clay (14.525 Å) which indicates that chitosan was intercalated into the layer of clay. FT-IR and SEM measurement also suggested that new compound was formed. Water soluble dye extracted from sappanwood was adsorbed onto chitosan-bentonite clay composite at 81...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Niels Kanstrup, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg Balsby
Denmark implemented a total ban on the use of lead shot for hunting and clay target shooting in 1996. Compliance was not studied systematically until recently. However, sporadic police checks and individual studies indicated that compliance was far from complete in the early years after regulation. To assess current levels of compliance with Danish regulations, we purchased 730 carcasses of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and a further 690 mallard gizzards were obtained from > 14 shooting events distributed across > 10 local authority districts throughout East and West Denmark in the 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 hunting seasons...
February 15, 2019: Ambio
Jiahe Zhang, Amin Soltani, An Deng, Mark B Jaksa
The combined capacity of Jute Fibers (JF), the reinforcement, and Ground-Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GBFS), the binder, was examined as a sustainable solution towards ameliorating the inferior engineering properties of micaceous clays. A total of sixteen JF + GBFS mix designs, i.e., JF (% by total mass) = {0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5} and GBFS (% by total mass) = {0, 3, 6, 9}, were tested for unconfined compression (UC) strength; for those mix designs containing GBFS, curing was allowed for 7 and 28 days prior to testing...
February 14, 2019: Materials
Fernanda G C Tessarolli, Sara T S Souza, Ailton S Gomes, Claudia R E Mansur
Relatively smaller volumes of gelling systems had been used to address conformance problems located near the wellbore in oil reservoirs with harsh temperature and salinity conditions. These gelling systems were formulated with high concentrations of low-molecular-weight acrylamide-based polymers crosslinked with polyethylenimine (PEI). However, for in-depth conformance control, in which large gelant volumes and long gelation times were required, lower-base polymer loadings were necessary to ensure the economic feasibility of the treatment...
February 14, 2019: Gels
Chen Ye, Chengrong Chen, Orpheus M Butler, Mehran Rezaei Rashti, Maryam Esfandbod, Ming Du, Quanfa Zhang
The construction and operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), the largest hydropower dam in the world, has had significant consequences for the hydrology of riparian zones along the Yangtze river. Little is known about how such changes in hydrology might affect the levels of nutrients and organic matter (OM) in riparian soils. We conducted a nine-year study on the spatio-temporal dynamics and dominant environmental correlates of nutrients and OM in riparian soils along a 600 km section of the Yangtze...
February 4, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ahmed Ashiq, Nadeesh M Adassooriya, Binoy Sarkar, Anushka Upamali Rajapaksha, Yong Sik Ok, Meththika Vithanage
This study investigates the adsorption of ciprofloxacin (CPX) onto a municipal solid waste derived biochar (MSW-BC) and a composite material developed by combining the biochar with bentonite clay. A bentonite-MSW slurry was first prepared at 1:5 ratio (w/w), and then pyrolyzed at 450 °C for 30 min. The composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy before and after CPX adsorption. Batch experiments were conducted to assess the effect of pH, reaction time and adsorbate dosage...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Ying Liu, Deli Wu, Hongping He
Catalytic ozonation has been widely used for refractory dye wastewater treatment due to highly reactive HO·. In this study, a kind of low-cost and environmental-friendly modified ceramsite sphere derived from pyrite cinder, silty clay and kaolin was prepared as ozonation catalyst. The degradation performances of cation red x-GRL were performed under a continuous mode. Being close to the practical treatment, continuous-flow ozonation study is vital for applying heterogeneous catalytic ozonation in wastewater treatment at a large industrial scale...
December 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Martin Remmele, Andreas Martens
Sculpting representations of human organs out of modeling clay is an acknowledged method of teaching anatomical structures. Because of its potential to provide detailed spatial information, stereoscopic imagery can be understood to function as a suitable template for such sculpting tasks. Currently, it is unknown whether the advantages of stereoscopic images for modeling structures result from enhanced depth impression alone, or whether task performance is impacted by factors such as situational intrinsic motivation and perceived competence while sculpting a human organ using stereoscopic imagery as template...
March 1, 2019: Advances in Physiology Education
Mohamed A Soliman, Ghada M Rashad, Mamdoh R Mahmoud
Montmorillonite clay was organically modified with thoron (TH) and was employed as an adsorbent for removal of cobalt(II) radionuclides from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments, under several operational parameters such as pH, contact time, initial adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, ionic strength, and temperature, were conducted to determine the optimum conditions for efficient removal of cobalt(II) radionuclides. The obtained data showed that almost complete removals were achieved for cobalt(II) at pH values ≥ 3...
February 14, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Carolina Moller, William Clay Davis, Evan Clark, Anthony De Caprio, Frank Mari
The phospholipase A2 (PLA2 s) superfamily are ubiquitous small enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids at the sn-2 ester bond. PLA2 s in the venom of cone snails (conodipines, Cdpi) are composed of two chains termed as alpha and beta subunits. Conodipines are categorized within the group IX of PLA2 s. Here we describe the purification and biochemical characterization of three conodipines (Cdpi-P1, -P2 and -P3) isolated from the injected venom of Conus purpurascens. Using proteomics methods, we determined the full sequences of all three conodipines...
February 14, 2019: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Başak Savun-Hekimoğlu, Nilsun H Ince
The first part of the study is about the degradation of a common PPCP-methylparaben by high-frequency ultrasound to highlight the operation parameters, the reaction sites, the oxidation byproducts and the role of OH radicals. The second part covers the catalytic effect of a highly abundant and cost-effective clay mineral-sepiolite, and investigates the role of surface modification and SDS-composites of the clay in improving the efficiency of the degradation reactions. It was found that the compound (C0  = 10 mg L-1 ) was readily and totally decomposed by 30-min sonication at neutral pH, producing phenolic and aliphatic intermediates, but with insignificant mineralization...
February 4, 2019: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Mollie A Bloomsmith, Andrea W Clay, Susan P Lambeth, Corrine K Lutz, Sarah D Breaux, Michael L Lammey, Andrea N Franklin, Kim A Neu, Jaine E Perlman, Lisa A Reamer, Mary C Mareno, Steven J Schapiro, Maribel Vazquez, Sabrina R Bourgeois
Chimpanzees demand specialized housing and care and the highest degree of attention to animal welfare. The current project used a survey method to collate information on chimpanzee housing and behavioral indices of welfare across all 6 of the chimpanzee research facilities in the United States. Data were compiled on 701 chimpanzees ranging from 2 to 62 y old (mean age, 26.0 y). All chimpanzees except for one were socially housed; the median group size was 7 animals, and group sizes ranged from 1 to 14. All of the subjects had access to outdoor spaces each day...
February 14, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Caterina Branca, Giovanna D'Angelo
HYPOTHESIS: Although several researches have explored the dynamics of pluronic aqueous solutions under different conditions, little is known about the dynamical properties of pluronic copolymers in presence of nanoparticles. Knowing and understanding the fundamental dynamical behavior of such systems is crucial to optimize the formulation of high performance multifunctional structures. EXPERIMENTS: In the present work, dynamic light scattering (DLS) is used to investigate the temperature dependence of the dynamical properties of Pluronic F127 aqueous solutions in presence of intercalated chitosan/clay nanocomposites; for comparison, the pluronic aqueous solution and the binary systems pluronic/chitosan and pluronic/montmorillonite having the same copolymer concentration were also investigated...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Youngho Seo, Yoonsuk Huh, Shih-Ying Huang, J Miguel Hernandez-Pampaloni, Randall A Hawkins, W Clay Gustafson, Kieuhoa T Vo, Katherine K Matthay
PURPOSE: Radiation dose calculated on tumors for radiopharmaceutical therapy varies significantly from tumor to tumor and from patient to patient. Accurate estimation of radiation dose requires multiple time-point measurements using radionuclide imaging modalities such as SPECT or PET. In this report, we show our technical development of reducing the number of scans needed for reasonable estimation of tumor and normal organ dose in our pretherapy imaging and dosimetry platform of 124 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) PET/CT for 131 I-MIBG therapy of neuroblastoma...
February 13, 2019: Medical Physics
Anna Sonja Müller, Milot Gashi, Klara Janjić, Michael Edelmayer, Andreas Moritz, Hermann Agis
Thixotropic clays have favorable properties for tissue regeneration. Hypoxia mimetic agents showed promising results in pre-clinical models for hard and soft tissue regeneration. It is unclear if clays can be used as carrier for hypoxia mimetic agent in a periodontal regenerative setting. Here, we tested the response of human fibroblasts of the periodontal soft tissue to synthetic clay hydrogels and assessed hypoxia mimetic agent release. Cells were cultured on synthetic clay hydrogels (5.00%-0.15%). We assessed viability and differentiation capacity with resazurin-based toxicity assays, MTT staining, Live-Dead staining, and alkaline phosphatase staining...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Olabiyi Obayomi, Nirit Bernstein, Menahem Edelstein, Ahuva Vonshak, Lusine Ghazayarn, Meni Ben-Hur, Christoph C Tebbe, Osnat Gillor
World-wide water scarcity is urging the use of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation but this practice may have adverse effects on soil and crop contamination due to the introduction of potential microbial pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential health risks caused by TWW irrigation of soils differing in their texture, i.e., soil particle fractions including sand, silt and clay. We predicted that the presence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens would not be linked to TWW irrigation, yet their abundance would be favored by the smallest soil fraction (~2 nm, e...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Beatrice Giannetta, Claudio Zaccone, César Plaza, Matthew G Siebecker, Pere Rovira, Costantino Vischetti, Donald L Sparks
Soil organic matter (SOM) protection, stability and long-term accumulation are controlled by several factors, including sorption onto mineral surfaces. Iron (Fe) has been suggested as a key regulator of SOM stability, both in acidic conditions, where Fe(III) is soluble, and in near-neutral pH environments, where it precipitates as Fe(III) (hydr)oxides. The present study aimed to probe, by sorption/desorption experiments in which Fe was added to the system, the mechanisms controlling Fe(III)-mediated organic carbon (C) stabilization; fine silt and clay (FSi + Cl) and fine sand (FSa) SOM fractions of three soils under different land uses were tested...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Weiwei Yu, Banghao Du, Lun Yang, Zhi Zhang, Chun Yang, Shaochun Yuan, Minne Zhang
Natural steroid estrogens (NSEs), including free estrogens (FEs) and conjugated estrogens (CEs), are of emerging concern globally among public and scientific community due to their recognized adverse effects on human and wildlife endocrine systems in recent years. In this review, the properties, occurrence, sorption process, and transformation pathways of NSEs are clarified in the environment. The work comprehensively summarizes the occurrence of both free and conjugated estrogens in different natural and built environments (e...
February 13, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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