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Zinc oxide

Devaraj Bharathi, R Ranjithkumar, B Chandarshekar, V Bhuvaneshwari
The surface coating of metal oxide nanoparticles using biopolymer chitosan has evolved to become an important area of polymer nanotechnology. Herein, we report the preparation of chitosan coated zinc oxide (CS-ZnO) nanocomposite for the first time by a green chemistry approach using bioflavonoid rutin. The formation of CS-ZnO nanocomposite was preliminarily confirmed by color change and UV-Visible spectroscopy. FE-SEM images revealed agglomeration of CS-ZnO nanocomposite having predominant rod shaped structure...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Francesco Gucci, Fabiana D'Isanto, Ruizhi Zhang, Michael J Reece, Federico Smeacetto, Milena Salvo
Two commercial hybrid coatings, cured at temperatures lower than 300 °C, were successfully used to protect magnesium silicide stannide and zinc-doped tetrahedrite thermoelectrics. The oxidation rate of magnesium silicide at 500 °C in air was substantially reduced after 120 h with the application of the solvent-based coating and a slight increase in power factor was observed. The water-based coating was effective in preventing an increase in electrical resistivity for a coated tethtraedrite, preserving its power factor after 48 h at 350 °C...
February 14, 2019: Materials
Suok Lee, Sang Hee Jung, A-Rang Jang, Seong In Yoon, Hyeon Suk Shin, Hyun Uk Lee, Jaejong Lee
One-dimensional and three-dimensional residue-free metal oxide patterns are directly fabricated over large areas using liquid transfer imprint lithography (LTIL) with an ultraviolet (UV)-curable metal oxide precursor resist. A one-dimensional line or pillar array of metal oxides nano-patterns without a residual layer is formed by LTIL and annealing processes. A three-dimensional layer-by-layer nanomesh structure is successfully constructed by repeating the LTIL method without a complex etching process. In addition, it is possible to form a hierarchical structure in which zinc oxide nanowires are selectively grown on a desired zinc oxide (ZnO) seed pattern formed by LTIL via a hydrothermal method...
February 15, 2019: Nanotechnology
Łukasz Lamch, Julita Kulbacka, Magda Dubińska-Magiera, Jolanta Saczko, Kazimiera A Wilk
Targeted and effective drug transport is becoming an attractive option in cancer therapy since it can improve drug efficacy and reduce drugs' side effects in normal tissues. In addition to using specific surface ligand molecules, the selective drug delivery can be accomplished via enhanced permeability and retention effect. Therefore, in our studies, we entrapped zinc (II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) - a second generation photosensitizer - in folate-functionalized micelles of the biocompatible, FDA-approved for biomedical application diblock copolymer methoxypoly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(L-lactide) (mPEG-b-PLLA) and its derivative with folate (FA) attached to the end of PEG chain (FA-PEG-b-PLLA)...
February 12, 2019: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Yoshihisa Ishihara, Takaichi Fukuda, Fumi Sato
The subiculum is one of output structures of the hippocampal formation and plays a pivotal role in learning and memory. Because its morphological features are less investigated than those of the hippocampus proper, we explored the internal structure of the rat subiculum using immunohistochemistry. The septal subiculum comprised one region, whereas the temporal subiculum consisted of two subregions, the distal subiculum (Sub1) and proximal subiculum (Sub2). The Sub2 contained four layers: (1) molecular layer, (2) superficial cell layer containing three types of pyramidal neurons immunolabeled for either nitric oxide synthase, Purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4), or calbindin, (3) middle cell layer where boutons labeled for zinc transporter 3 and those for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 accumulated in the proximal and distal part of the Sub2, respectively, and (4) deep cell layer containing PCP4positive pyramidal cells, apical dendrites of which showed a characteristic bundling pattern...
February 12, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Mikako Shimoda, Misato Kasai, Mayumi Ikeda, Yu Ishima, Masahiro Kawahara
Zinc (Zn) plays an important role in many organisms in various physiological functions such as cell division, immune mechanisms and protein synthesis. However, excessive Zn release is induced in pathological situations and causes neuronal cell death. Previously, we reported that copper ions (Cu2+) markedly exacerbates Zn2+-induced neuronal cell death by potentiating oxidative stress and the ER stress response. In contrast, the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) signaling pathway is important in neuronal cell death...
February 15, 2019: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Kevin Woo, Rosemary Hill, Kimberly LeBlanc, Gregory Schultz, Terry Swanson, Dot Weir, Dieter O Mayer
Products that provide a protective skin barrier play a vital role in defending the skin against the corrosive effect of bodily fluids, including wound exudate, urine, liquid faeces, stoma output and sweat. There are many products to choose from, which can be broadly categorised by ingredients. This article describes the differences in mechanisms of action between barrier products comprising petrolatum and/or zinc oxide, silicone film-forming polymers and cyanoacrylates, and compares the evidence on them. The literature indicates that all types of barrier product are clinically effective, with little comparative evidence indicating that any one ingredient is more efficacious than another, although film-forming polymers and cyanoacrylates have been found to be easier to apply and more cost-effective...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Wound Care
Jae-Ok Shin, Kyung-Ho Ko, Yoon-Hyuk Huh, Lee-Ra Cho, Chan-Jin Park
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of 3 tray designs and 3 commonly used impression materials on the displacement of flabby tissue during maxillary edentulous impression by superimposition of 3D digital models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen maxillary edentulous casts with simulated flabby tissue were fabricated by modifying a standard maxillary edentulous acrylic resin cast. Three types of impression trays were fabricated: trays with conventional relief, trays with additional relief, and trays with an open window...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Dong-Yung Kim, Jun-Hyung Kim, Jae-Chul Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Se-Ran Yang, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Myung-Bok Wie
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been recognized as both useful tools and potentially toxic materials in various industrial and medicinal fields. Previously, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs that are neurotoxic to human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells are mediated by lipoxygenase (LOX), not cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Here, we examined whether human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are different from neuroblastoma cells, might exhibit COX-2- and/or LOX-dependent cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Su Young Lee, Soo Ho Cho, Yoo Shin Cho, Sung Joon Kim, Sang Ho Kim
Carbon black and titanium interlayers were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) anode layers using radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. On top of them, Zinc oxide (ZnO) photo anode layers were prepared using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. ZnO high binding energy as well as good breakdown strength, cohesion, and stability used as a photo electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), but it does not have a good electrical contact to the FTO anode. To solve this problem, the carbon black and titanium interlayers were deposited...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Weicong Kuang, Qing Zhong, Xiaoli Ye, Yayuan Yan, Yunhua Yang, Jingxian Zhang, Langhuan Huang, Shaozao Tan, Qingshan Shi
Due to secondary pollution from bactericidal substances, the importance of eliminating microbial contamination has become a controversial topic. Three antibacterial nanorod materials of carbon quantum dots-zinc oxide (1/3CQDs-ZnO, CQDs-ZnO, and 2CQDs-ZnO), in which ZnO nanorods are surrounded by carbon quantum dots (CQDs), were successful prepared via in-situ sol-gel chemistry. Antibacterial nanorods of CQDs-ZnO had strong antibacterial activity under visible light irradiation, and a concentration of 0.1 mg/L was able to kill more than 96% of bacteria...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Amrit Kaphle, Elena Echeverria, David N Mcllroy, Kenneth Roberts, Parameswar Hari
Thermo-optical and structural properties of cobalt-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition were investigated. The average nanorods diameter was found to increase with cobalt doping. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis confirm the substitution of cobalt into ZnO lattice without forming any impurities at higher doping and preserving the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Variations in the absorption spectrum, band gap, photoluminescence, electronic structure by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and index of refraction were analyzed at different cobalt doping levels and annealing temperatures...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
SooHo Cho, SungJoon Kim, YooShin Jo, SangHo Kim
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a commonly used material for the front contact layer of thin film solar cells based on chalcopyrite CuInGaSe₂ (CIGS), since it satisfies the optical and electrical properties with low cost and is abundantly available. For high-performance, the front contact electrode in the CIGS solar cell should have low resistivity and high transmittance. Hence, efforts to improve ZnO's electrical and optical properties have been widely carried out. The corrosion resistance of the front contact film, however, has not been studied well...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Jian Li, Qi Zhu, Yingying Su, Dongdong Wang, Zipeng Xing, Lei Fang
After depositing nano zinc oxide on the surface of red mud granule material by one-step hydrothermal method, a layer of cationic polyelectrolyte diallyldimethylammonium chloride is coated to obtain nano zinc oxide-cation polyelectrolyte diallyl dimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) modified red mud granule material. The modified granule material were characterized and tested. The results showed that the modified granule material has significant antibacterial activity against E. coli. And maintain a good antibacterial effect in multiple rounds of antibacterial cycle experiments...
February 5, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jae-Won Eom, Tae-Youn Kim, Bo-Ra Seo, Hwangseo Park, Jae-Young Koh, Yang-Hee Kim
We recently reported that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) contributes to zinc-induced neuronal death by inducing Bim, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain 3-only protein, in a liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-dependent manner. Current data suggest AMPK plays key roles in excitotoxicity and ischemic brain injury, with zinc neurotoxicity representing at least one mechanism of ischemic neuronal death. Inhibition of AMPK could be a viable therapeutic strategy to prevent ischemic brain injury following stroke. This prompted our search for novel inhibitors of AMPK activity and zinc-induced neuronal death using cultured mouse cortex and a rat model of brain injury after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
February 14, 2019: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Shuen-Fuh Lin, Cheng-Ke Li, Yi-Pei Chung
Lactobionic acid ( O -β-galactosyl-(1-4)-gluconic acid) (LBA) is a high-value lactose derivative, produced via oxidation of the reducing terminal of lactose. LBA can be produced by fermentation using certain microorganisms, although subsequent purification is challenging. Therefore, we have attempted to identify an enzyme for possible use in LBA production. Here, we purified a novel lactose oxidase (LOD) to homogeneity from a wheat bran culture of a soil-isolated fungal strain, Myrmecridium flexuosum NUK-21...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Aishwarya Jain, Santosh Kumar, Sahadevan Seena
Nanoparticles (NPs) continue to be extensively produced by many industries, which ultimately leads to its release into the aquatic environment. It is crucial to estimate the impact of low concentrations of NPs which are environmentally relevant. Litter decomposition is a key ecological process in forested streams; microbes like fungi and bacteria are recognised to play a vital role in litter decomposition. In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO2 ), silver loaded ZnO (Ag/ZnO) and silver loaded TiO2 (Ag/TiO2 ) NPs were synthesized, and impacts of low concentrations (0, 2...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Izabela Jośko
Increased use of nano-products results in the release of nano-constituents into various environmental media, including soils. The metal components of inorganic nanoparticles are subject to partitioning during the various soil phases. The aim of the study presented here was to estimate Zn and Cu distribution in different soils after treatment with nano-ZnO and nano-CuO (10 mg kg-1 ) under various moisture conditions (30, 50 and 80% of water holding capacity). Samples were incubated for 24 h, 3 and 24 months...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Mariappan Yazhiniprabha, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Avinash Sonawane, Ananyaashree Behera
Murraya koenigii berry extract based zinc oxide nanoparticles (Mk-ZnO NPs) were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method and examined for bacteriostatic and larvicidal efficiency. Synthesized Mk-ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy at 336 nm. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) showed crystalline nature as hexagonal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum exhibited strong peak at 3442.80 cm-1 . Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed hexagonal shape of the particle...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Jessica F Wilhelm, Daniel J Bain, Mark B Green, Kathleen F Bush, William H McDowell
Mobilization of trace metals from soils to surface waters can impact both human and ecosystem health. This study resamples a water sample archive to explore the spatial pattern of streamwater total concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc and their associations with biogeochemical controls in northern New England. Road deicing appears to result in elevated trace metal concentrations, as trace metal concentrations are strongly related to sodium concentrations and are most elevated when the sodium: chloride ratio is near 1...
2019: PloS One
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