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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767342/paediatric-safety-signals-identified-in-vigibase-methods-and-results-from-uppsala-monitoring-centre
#1
Kristina Star, Lovisa Sandberg, Tomas Bergvall, Imti Choonara, Pia Caduff-Janosa, I Ralph Edwards
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to uncover previously unrecognised risks of medicines in paediatric pharmacovigilance reports and thereby advance a safer use of medicines in paediatrics. METHODS: Individual case safety reports (ICSRs) with ages less than 18 years were retrieved from VigiBase, the World Health Organization (WHO) global database of ICSRs, in September 2014. The reports were grouped according to the following age spans: 0 to 27 days; 28 days to 23 months; 2 to 11 years; and 12 to 17 years...
February 15, 2019: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762472/can-eeg-predict-response-to-atomoxetine-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-at-1-week
#2
Gurmukh Singh, Priti Arun, Subhash Das, Damanjeet Kaur
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to predict the early changes in electroencephalography (EEG) at 1 week and its correlation to clinical response at 6 weeks after treatment with atomoxetine in children with ADHD. METHOD: In 50 children (6-14 years) with ADHD ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [5th ed.; DSM-5]), Vanderbilt ADHD Parent Rating Scale (VADPRS) and Vanderbilt ADHD Teachers Rating Scale (VADTRS) were applied at baseline, 1, 4, and 6 weeks...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738032/behavioral-responses-to-anxiogenic-tasks-in-young-adult-rats-with-neonatal-dopamine-depletion
#3
Masanori Ogata, Hisanao Akita, Hitoshi Ishibashi
The dopaminergic neural system plays a crucial role in motor regulation as well as regulation of anxiety-related behaviors. Although rats with neonatal dopamine depletion exhibit motor hyperactivity and have been utilized as animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, characterization of their behavior under anxiogenic conditions is lacking. In the present study, we investigated behavioral responses to anxiogenic stimuli in young adult rats with neonatal dopamine depletion using the open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), and light/dark (L/B) box tests...
February 6, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30693779/b-c-6-f-5-3-catalyzed-c-h-alkylation-of-n-alkylamines-using-silicon-enolates-without-external-oxidant
#4
Jessica Z Chan, Yejin Chang, Masayuki Wasa
An efficient method for the coupling of N-alkylamines with silicon enolates to generate β-amino carbonyl compounds is disclosed. These reactions proceed by activation of α-amino C-H bonds by B(C6 F5 )3 , which likely generates a "frustrated" acid/base complex in the presence of large N-alkylamines. The transformation requires no external oxidant and releases hydrosilane as a byproduct. The utility of this method is demonstrated in the late-stage functionalization of bioactive molecules such as citalopram, atomoxetine, and fluoxetine...
January 29, 2019: Organic Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690006/differential-effects-of-adhd-medications-on-impulsive-action-in-the-mouse-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#5
Ciarán M Fitzpatrick, Jesper T Andreasen
Aberrant impulsivity is found in a number of psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is a paradigm commonly used to assess impulsive control. We recently developed a protocol to habituate mice to a variable intertrial interval (vITI) schedule before assessing pharmacological effects on "waiting" impulsivity. This study aimed to develop on that initial investigation by testing the effects of three conventional ADHD medications...
January 25, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30687936/pharmacotherapies-for-cannabis-dependence
#6
REVIEW
Suzanne Nielsen, Linda Gowing, Pamela Sabioni, Bernard Le Foll
BACKGROUND: Globally, cannabis use is prevalent and widespread. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in the Cochrane Library in Issue 12, 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or no pharmacotherapy (supportive care) for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use...
January 28, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30656365/effect-of-adhd-medication-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice-performing-the-rodent-continuous-performance-test
#7
M Caballero-Puntiverio, L S Lerdrup, M Grupe, C W Larsen, A G Dietz, J T Andreasen
RATIONALE: The rodent Continuous Performance Test (rCPT) is a novel rodent paradigm to assess attention and impulsivity that resembles the human CPT. This task measures the rodents' ability to discriminate between target and non-target stimuli. The effect of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication on rCPT performance in mice remains to be fully characterized. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive validity of the mouse rCPT by studying the effects of ADHD medication methylphenidate, atomoxetine, amphetamine, guanfacine, and modafinil in four behavioral subgroups based on performance and impulsivity levels...
January 17, 2019: Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30653855/atomoxetine-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Suravi Patra, Naresh Nebhinani, Anand Viswanathan, Richard Kirubakaran
Atomoxetine is prescribed to children with autism spectrum disorder having symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We sought to examine the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine in this population. After screening for inclusion criteria, we identified three randomized placebo controlled trials involving 241 children. We assessed internal validity using standard Cochrane Risk of bias tool for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We used Revman 5.3 for meta-analysis and GRADE approach to create summary of findings with grading of the quality of evidence...
January 17, 2019: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30571543/synergistic-pressor-effect-of-atomoxetine-and-pyridostigmine-in-patients-with-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension
#9
Luis E Okamoto, Cyndya A Shibao, Alfredo Gamboa, André Diedrich, Satish R Raj, Bonnie K Black, David Robertson, Italo Biaggioni
Patients with autonomic failure are characterized by disabling orthostatic hypotension because of impaired sympathetic activity, but even severely affected patients have residual sympathetic tone which can be harnessed for their treatment. For example, norepinephrine transporter blockade with atomoxetine raises blood pressure (BP) in autonomic failure patients by increasing synaptic norepinephrine concentrations; acetylcholinesterase inhibition with pyridostigmine increases BP by facilitating ganglionic cholinergic neurotransmission to increase sympathetic outflow...
January 2019: Hypertension
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30552041/effects-of-nicotine-and-atomoxetine-on-brain-function-during-response-inhibition
#10
Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Nadine Petrovsky, Pia-Magdalena Schmidt, Peter Trautner, Bernd Weber, Birgitta Sträter, Ulrich Ettinger
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine and the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor atomoxetine are widely studied substances due to their propensity to alleviate cognitive deficits in psychiatric and neurological patients and their beneficial effects on some aspects of cognitive functions in healthy individuals. However, despite growing evidence of acetylcholine-noradrenaline interactions, there are only very few direct comparisons of the two substances. Here, we investigated the effects of nicotine and atomoxetine on response inhibition in the stop-signal task and we characterised the neural correlates of these effects using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T...
December 12, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30536198/patients-in-medical-treatment-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-are-they-at-risk-in-drug-screening
#11
Christina Mohr Jensen, Torben Breindahl
The use of medicines to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased worldwide, including the use of amphetamine-based medicines or prodrugs that metabolise to amphetamine in vivo. At the same time, drugs-of-abuse testing by non-specific, point-of-care immunoassay methods ('quick tests') has increased. This article discusses the risk of 'false positive' results or post-analytical misinterpretations of results when immunoassays are used to analyse biological samples from ADHD patients...
December 7, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30531411/cardiovascular-effects-of-drugs-used-to-treat-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-part-2-impact-on-cardiovascular-events-and-recommendations-for-evaluation-and-monitoring
#12
Thomas B Fay, Martin A Alpert
A variety of psychostimulant and non-psychostimulant medications have proven to be successful in reducing inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with (ADHD). Psychostimulants used to treat ADHD include methylphenidate and related drugs and various amphetamine preparations. Non-psychostimulant medications used to treat ADHD include atomoxetine and two alpha-2 adrenergic agonists; guanfacine extended-release and clonidine extended-release. The psychostimulants and atomoxetine have been shown, on average, to increase heart rate (HR) by 3-10 beats/min, systolic blood pressure by 3-8 mmHg, and diastolic BP by 2-14 mmHg...
December 7, 2018: Cardiology in Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30529642/involvement-of-catecholaminergic-and-gabaaergic-mediations-in-the-anxiety-related-behavior-in-long-term-powdered-diet-fed-mice
#13
Fukie Yaoita, Masahiro Tsuchiya, Yuichiro Arai, Takeshi Tadano, Koichi Tan-No
Dietary habits are important factors which affect metabolic homeostasis and the development of emotion. We have previously shown that long-term powdered diet feeding in mice increases spontaneous locomotor activity and social interaction (SI) time. Moreover, that diet causes changes in the dopaminergic system, especially increased dopamine turnover and decreased dopamine D4 receptor signals in the frontal cortex. Although the increased SI time indicates low anxiety, the elevated plus maze (EPM) test shows anxiety-related behavior and impulsive behavior...
December 7, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30503361/noradrenaline-reuptake-inhibition-increases-control-of-impulsive-action-by-activating-d-1-like-receptors-in-the-infralimbic-cortex
#14
Hitomi Sasamori, Yu Ohmura, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Higher impulsivity is a risk factor for criminal involvement, substance abuse, and suicide. However, only a few drugs are clinically available for the treatment of deficient impulse control. We recently proposed a strategy for identifying potential drugs to treat such disorders by investigating clinically available drugs that increase extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex and stimulate dopamine D1 -like receptors without increasing extracellular dopamine levels in the ventral striatum...
November 29, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30462746/the-kcnh3-inhibitor-asp2905-shows-potential-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Shinji Takahashi, Makoto Ohmiya, Sokichi Honda, Keni Ni
N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N'-phenyl-N"-(pyrimidin-2-ylmethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine [ASP2905] is a potent and selective inhibitor of the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 3 (KCNH3) that was originally identified in our laboratory. KCNH3 is concentrated in the forebrain, and its overexpression in mice leads to cognitive deficits. In contrast, Kcnh3 knockout mice exhibit enhanced performance in cognitive tasks such as attention. These data suggest that KCNH3 plays important roles in cognition...
2018: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30365404/cardiovascular-effects-of-drugs-used-to-treat-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-part-1-epidemiology-pharmacology-and-impact-on-hemodynamics-and-ventricular-repolarization
#16
Thomas B Fay, Martin A Alpert
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. It is most commonly encountered in children and adolescents, but may persist into adulthood. A variety of psychostimulant and non-psychostimulant medications have proven to be successful in reducing inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in those with ADHD. Psychostimulants used to treat ADHD include methylphenidate and related drugs and various amphetamine preparations...
October 25, 2018: Cardiology in Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30346335/the-role-of-atomoxetine-for-parkinson-disease-related-executive-dysfunction-a-systematic-review
#17
Carly B Warner, Andreina A Ottman, Jamie N Brown
BACKGROUND: Atomoxetine selectively inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine. Given the noradrenergic system's role in executive function, pharmacotherapy options that affect norepinephrine are of particular clinical interest in Parkinson disease-related executive dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine for Parkinson disease-related executive dysfunction. METHODS: MEDLINE (1946 to May 2018) and EMBASE (1947 to May 2018) were queried using the search term combination: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson disease, inhibition, impulse behavior, impulse control disorder, executive function, executive dysfunction, cognition, cognitive dysfunction, cognitive defect, response inhibition, strategic planning, strategy, or verbal fluency and atomoxetine hydrochloride or atomoxetine...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30332620/light-up-adhd-ii-neuropharmacological-effects-measured-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-is-there-a-biomarker
#18
REVIEW
Silvia Grazioli, Maddalena Mauri, Alessandro Crippa, Eleonora Maggioni, Massimo Molteni, Paolo Brambilla, Maria Nobile
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in self-controlling attention, behavior, and emotions. In recent years, noninvasive optical techniques, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), have been used to measure the neural correlates of pharmacological-therapy outcomes in children and adolescents with ADHD. METHODS: We reviewed a short series of articles that investigated the results of functional NIRS (fNIRS) on developmental-age ADHD...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30314873/facial-nerve-palsy-associated-with-atomoxetine-induced-hypertension
#19
Hironobu Kobayashi, Katsunori Fujii, Masayo Kobayashi, Naoki Saito, Kentaro Okunushi, Ryota Ebata, Tadashi Shiohama, Daisuke Sawada, Naoki Shimojo
BACKGROUND: Peripheral facial nerve palsy is characterized by unilateral facial paresis due to ipsilateral facial nerve dysfunction. Most cases are idiopathic; however, some have specific etiologies, such as herpesvirus infection, immunological disorders, and hypertension. Atomoxetine is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This drug is known to cause adverse effects, such as nausea, appetite loss, headache, insomnia, and hypertension...
October 9, 2018: Brain & Development
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30267796/atomoxetine-prevents-working-memory-loss-in-hyperactive-rats-mediating-plastic-changes-in-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons
#20
Néstor I Martínez-Torres, David González-Tapia, Nallely Vázquez-Hernández, Ignacio González-Burgos
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) causes impaired visuospatial working memory (VWM), which primarily maps to the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the synaptic processes underlying cognitive loss in ADHD, or those ultimately involved in the preventive effect observed through the clinical use of Atomoxetine (ATX). To investigate the plasticity underlying ADHD related cognitive loss, and that potentially involved in the preventive action of Atomoxetine, allocentric VWM was assessed, as well as the dendritic spine number and proportional density on pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cerebral cortex layer III of neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats...
December 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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