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Hordeum AND Water

Bruno Contreras-Moreira, Roberto Serrano-Notivoli, Naheif E Mohamed, Carlos P Cantalapiedra, Santiago Beguería, Ana M Casas, Ernesto Igartua
Landraces are local populations of crop plants adapted to a particular environment. Extant landraces are surviving genetic archives, keeping signatures of the selection processes experienced by them until settling in their current niches. This study intends to establish relationships between genetic diversity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces collected in Spain and the climate of their collection sites. A high-resolution climatic dataset (5x5 km spatial, 1-day temporal grid) was computed from over 2,000 temperature and 7,000 precipitation stations across peninsular Spain...
January 7, 2019: Molecular Ecology
Lirong Han, Meng Meng, Mingzhu Guo, Dai Cheng, Lei Shi, Xu Wang, Chunling Wang
A water-soluble polysaccharide (BP-1) was extracted and purified from highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and its average molecular weight was about 6.7 × 104 Da. In this study, the immunomodulatory activity of BP-1 on the immunosuppressive BALB/c mice model and its molecular mechanism were elucidated. It was found that the weight indexes of spleen and thymus were significantly increased by BP-1 (80 mg kg-1 and 160 mg kg-1) treatment in the immunosuppressive mice model. The results showed that BP-1 (80 mg kg-1 and 160 mg kg-1) could significantly increase the number of bone marrow cells (BMC) and peripheral blood white blood cells (WBC) in the immunosuppressive mice model...
December 21, 2018: Food & Function
Nicolai Koebernick, Keith R Daly, Samuel D Keyes, Anthony G Bengough, Lawrie K Brown, Laura J Cooper, Timothy S George, Paul D Hallett, Muhammad Naveed, Annette Raffan, Tiina Roose
Soil adjacent to roots has distinct structural and physical properties from bulk soil, affecting water and solute acquisition by plants. Detailed knowledge on how root activity and traits such as root hairs affect the 3D pore structure at a fine scale is scarce and often contradictory. Roots of hairless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv 'Optic') mutant (NRH) and its wildtype (WT) parent were grown in tubes of sieved (<250 μm) sandy loam soil under two different water regimes. The tubes were scanned with synchrotron based X-ray CT to visualise pore structure at the soil-root interface...
October 5, 2018: New Phytologist
Huseyin Tombuloglu, Guzin Tombuloglu, Yassine Slimani, Ismail Ercan, Hüseyin Sozeri, Abdulhadi Baykal
The main objective of this study was to assess the uptake and translocation of MnFe2 O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Hydrothermally synthesized and well characterized MNPs (average crystallite size of 14.5 ± 0.5 nm) with varied doses (62.5, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 mg L-1 ) were subjected to the plants at germination and early growing stages (three weeks). The tissues analyzed by vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the uptake and translocation of MNPs, as well as their internalization in the leaf cells...
December 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shumaila Muzammil, Asis Shrestha, Said Dadshani, Klaus Pillen, Shahid Siddique, Jens Léon, Ali Ahmad Naz
Water scarcity is a critical threat to global crop production. Here, we used the natural diversity of barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) to dissect the genetic control of proline (Pro) mediated drought stress adaptation. Genetic mapping and positional cloning of a major drought-inducible quantitative trait locus ( QPro.S42-1H ) revealed unique allelic variation in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase ( P5cs1 ) between the cultivated cultivar Scarlett (ssp. vulgare ) and the wild barley accession ISR42-8 (ssp. spontaneum )...
October 2018: Plant Physiology
Eyal Galkin, Ahan Dalal, Alex Evenko, Eyal Fridman, Iddo Kan, Rony Wallach, Menachem Moshelion
Regulation of the rate of transpiration is an important part of plants' adaptation to uncertain environments. Stomatal closure is the most common response to severe drought. By closing their stomata, plants reduce transpiration to better their odds of survival under dry conditions. Under mild to moderate drought conditions, there are several possible transpiration patterns that balance the risk of lost productivity with the risk of water loss. Here, we hypothesize that plant ecotypes that have evolved in environments characterized by unstable patterns of precipitation will display a wider range of patterns of transpiration regulation along with other quantitative physiological traits (QPTs), compared to ecotypes from less variable environments...
August 7, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Tino Kreszies, Nandhini Shellakkutti, Alina Osthoff, Peng Yu, Jutta A Baldauf, Viktoria V Zeisler-Diehl, Kosala Ranathunge, Frank Hochholdinger, Lukas Schreiber
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is more drought tolerant than other cereals, thus making it an excellent model for the study of the chemical, transcriptomic and physiological effects of water deficit. Roots are the first organ to sense soil water deficit. Therefore, we studied the response of barley seminal roots to different water potentials induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000. We investigated changes in anatomical parameters by histochemistry and microscopy, quantitative and qualitative changes in suberin composition by analytical chemistry, transcript changes by RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), and the radial water and solute movement of roots using a root pressure probe...
July 28, 2018: New Phytologist
Orla Coffey, Ronan Bonfield, Florine Corre, Jane Althea Sirigiri, Delong Meng, Wieland Fricke
Background and Aims: Limited supply of mineral nutrients often reduces plant growth and transpirational water flow while increasing the ratio of water-absorbing root to water-losing shoot surface. This could potentially lead to an imbalance between water uptake (too much) and water loss (too little). The aim of the present study was to test whether, as a countermeasure, the hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity, Lp) of roots decrease at organ and cell level and whether any decreases in Lp are accompanied by decreases in the gene expression level of aquaporins (AQPs) or increases in apoplastic barriers to radial water movement...
June 29, 2018: Annals of Botany
Kornelia Gudys, Justyna Guzy-Wrobelska, Agnieszka Janiak, Michał A Dziurka, Agnieszka Ostrowska, Katarzyna Hura, Barbara Jurczyk, Katarzyna Żmuda, Daria Grzybkowska, Joanna Śróbka, Wojciech Urban, Jolanta Biesaga-Koscielniak, Maria Filek, Janusz Koscielniak, Krzysztof Mikołajczak, Piotr Ogrodowicz, Karolina Krystkowiak, Anetta Kuczyńska, Paweł Krajewski, Iwona Szarejko
Drought is one of the most adverse abiotic factors limiting growth and productivity of crops. Among them is barley, ranked fourth cereal worldwide in terms of harvested acreage and production. Plants have evolved various mechanisms to cope with water deficit at different biological levels, but there is an enormous challenge to decipher genes responsible for particular complex phenotypic traits, in order to develop drought tolerant crops. This work presents a comprehensive approach for elucidation of molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in barley at the seedling stage of development...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Eswarayya Ramireddy, Seyed A Hosseini, Kai Eggert, Sabine Gillandt, Heike Gnad, Nicolaus von Wirén, Thomas Schmülling
Root size and architecture are important crop plant traits, as they determine access to water and soil nutrients. The plant hormone cytokinin is a negative regulator of root growth and branching. Here, we generated transgenic barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) plants with an enlarged root system by enhancing cytokinin degradation in roots to explore the potential of cytokinin modulations in improving root functions. This was achieved through root-specific expression of a CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE gene. Enhanced biomass allocation to roots did not penalize shoot growth or seed yield, indicating that these plants were not source limited...
July 2018: Plant Physiology
Margaux Even, Marine Sabo, Delong Meng, Tino Kreszies, Lukas Schreiber, Wieland Fricke
Background and Aims: Night-time transpiration accounts for a considerable amount of water loss in crop plants. Despite this, there remain many questions concerning night-time transpiration - its biological function, regulation and response to stresses such as salinity. The aim of the present study was to address these questions on 14- to 18-d-old, hydroponically grown barley plants. Methods: Plants were either stressed for the last 4-7 d prior to, and during subsequent continuous (24 h), diurnal gravimetric transpiration analyses; or subjected to salt stress just before analyses; or stressed for 4-7 d and then transferred to control medium before analyses...
September 24, 2018: Annals of Botany
Svetlana Sushkova, Irina Deryabkina, Elena Antonenko, Ridvan Kizilkaya, Vishnu Rajput, Galina Vasilyeva
The involvement of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) one of the most toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil-plant system causes its potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity for human health. The aim of this article is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) degradation and bioaccumulation in soil-plant system under artificial contamination in model experiment with Haplic Chernozem and that spiked with various doses of BaP (20, 200, 400 and 800μgkg-1 ) equivalent to 1, 10, 20 and 40 levels of maximal permissible concentrations (MPC) planted with spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum)...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Koan Sik Woo, Hyun-Joo Kim, Ji Hae Lee, Jee Yeon Ko, Byong Won Lee, Byoung Kyu Lee
This study aimed to compare the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of barley at different proportion (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%), and using different cooking methods. The grains used in this experiment are barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Huinchalssal) and Samkwang rice. The rice-barley mixture was cooked using general and high pressure cooking methods with and without fermented alcohol. The quality characteristics such as water binding capacity, pasting characteristic, water solubility, and swelling power of different proportions of barley were evaluated...
March 2018: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Sameh Dbira, Mohamad Al Hassan, Pietro Gramazio, Ali Ferchichi, Oscar Vicente, Jaime Prohens, Monica Boscaiu
Due to its high tolerance to abiotic stress, barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) is cultivated in many arid areas of the world. In the present study, we evaluate the tolerance to water stress (drought) in nine accessions of "Ardhaoui" barley landraces from different regions of Tunisia. The genetic diversity of the accessions is evaluated with six SSR markers. Seedlings from the nine accessions are subjected to water stress by completely stopping irrigation for three weeks. A high genetic diversity is detected among the nine accessions, with no relationships between genetic distance and geographical or ecogeographical zone...
March 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Visnja Orescanin, Robert Kollar, Karlo Nad, Ivan Halkijevic, Marin Kuspilic
The purpose of this study was development of the optimal conditions for the inertization of the polluted marine sediments using groundwater treatment sludge highly enriched in iron and aluminum. For that purpose fine-grained sediment (>85% clay and silt fraction) highly enriched in copper and zinc was amended with the waste sludge (from 10% to 50%). The sample with the optimum percentage of the waste sludge was further subjected the thermal treatment at 200-800°C. The efficiency of the treatment was determined by the leaching tests and toxicity testing using Hordeum vulgare L...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Joanna Jaskowiak, Oliver Tkaczyk, Michal Slota, Jolanta Kwasniewska, Iwona Szarejko
Barley is one of the cereals that are most sensitive to aluminum (Al). Al in acid soils limits barley growth and development and, as a result, its productivity. The inhibition of root growth is a widely accepted indicator of Al stress. Al toxicity is affected by many factors including the culture medium, pH, Al concentration and the duration of the treatment. However, Al can act differently in different species and still Al toxicity in barley deserves study. Since the mechanism of Al toxicity is discussed we cytogenetically describe the effects of different doses of bioavailable Al on the barley nuclear genome-mitotic activity, cell cycle profile and DNA integrity...
2018: PloS One
Aurora Gitto, Wieland Fricke
The cellular and molecular basis of a reduction in root water uptake in plants exposed to heavy metals such as zinc (Zn) is poorly studied. The aim of the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare) was to test whether any reduction in root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) in response to Zn treatment is accompanied by a reduction in cell Lp and gene expression level of aquaporin (AQP) isoforms. Plants were grown in the presence of 0.25 μM, (control), 0.1 and 1 mM Zn in the root medium and analysed when they were 16-18 days old...
October 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Lianne Merchuk-Ovnat, Roi Silberman, Efrat Laiba, Andreas Maurer, Klaus Pillen, Adi Faigenboim, Eyal Fridman
Increasing crop productivity under conditions of climate change requires the identification, selection, and utilization of novel alleles for breeding. In this study, we analysed the genotype and field phenotype of the barley HEB-25 multi-parent mapping population under well-watered and water-limited environments for two years. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for genotype × environment interactions was performed for 10 traits including flowering time (heading time, HEA) and plant grain yield (PGY). Comparison of the GWAS for traits per se (i...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mark A Adams, Thomas N Buckley, William T Salter, Nina Buchmann, Carola H Blessing, Tarryn L Turnbull
In nonagricultural systems, the relationship between intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi ) and leaf nitrogen (Narea ) is known to be stronger for legumes than for nonlegumes. We tested whether these relationships are retained for major agricultural legumes and nonlegumes. We compared the response to N nutrition of WUEi (and its component parts, photosynthesis (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gs )) for legumes Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lupinus alba and Vicia faba, nonlegume dicots Brassica napus and Helianthus annus, and nonlegume cereals Hordeum vulgare and Triticum aestivum...
March 2018: New Phytologist
Qifei Wang, Genlou Sun, Xifeng Ren, Jibin Wang, Binbin Du, Chengdao Li, Dongfa Sun
BACKGROUND: Seedling characteristics play significant roles in the growth and development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including stable stand establishment, water and nutrients uptake, biotic resistance and abiotic stresses, and can influence yield and quality. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying seedling characteristics in barley are largely unknown and little research has been done. In the present work, 21 seedling-related characteristics are assessed in a barley double haploid (DH) population, grown under hydroponic conditions...
November 7, 2017: BMC Genetics
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