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Stress concentration

Rosa Freitas, Francesca Coppola, Silvana Costa, Carlo Pretti, Luigi Intorre, Valentina Meucci, Amadeu M V M Soares, Montserrat Solé
Little is known about the consequences of exposure to pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in elevated temperatures associated with climate change. To increase the knowledge on this topic, Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels were exposed to 1.0μg/L of either the antimicrobial Triclosan (TCS) or the anti-inflammatory drug Diclofenac (DIC), at control (17°C) and 4°C raised (21°C) temperatures for 28days. Triclosan and DIC concentrations in the water and tissues were subsequently measured and related to biomarker responses including: energy metabolism (electron transport system (ETS) activity, glycogen and protein reserves), oxidative stress markers, glutathione balance between the reduced and the oxidised form (GSH/GSSG), and damage to proteins and lipids...
January 16, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Minling Gao, Yujuan Yang, Zhengguo Song
Graphene oxide (GO) is extensively used in various fields because of its versatility. The presence of GO in the environment enhances the toxicity of toxicants or pollutants. Cadmium (Cd) and GO pollution is a problem in aquatic environment, which should be solved. We investigated the toxic effects of Cd on photosynthesis and oxidative stress in wheat seedlings in the presence of GO, by measuring seedling biomass, Cd content, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, antioxidant enzyme activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content...
February 13, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yilu Xu, Balaji Seshadri, Nanthi Bolan, Binoy Sarkar, Yong Sik Ok, Wei Zhang, Cornelia Rumpel, Donald Sparks, Mark Farrell, Tony Hall, Zhaomin Dong
Soil microorganisms are an important indicator of soil fertility and health. However, our state of knowledge about soil microbial activities, community compositions and carbon use patterns under metal contaminations is still poor. This study aimed to evaluate the influences of heavy metals (Cd and Pb) on soil microorganisms by investigating the microbial community composition and carbon use preferences. Metal pollution was approached both singly and jointly with low (25 and 2500 mg kg-1 ) and high (50 and 5000 mg kg-1 ) concentrations of Cd and Pb, respectively, in an artificially contaminated soil...
February 13, 2019: Environment International
Daniel N Meijles, Georgia Zoumpoulidou, Thomais Markou, Kerry A Rostron, Rishi Patel, Kenneth Lay, Balvinder S Handa, Bethany Wong, Peter H Sugden, Angela Clerk
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in development of heart failure but, at a cellular level, their effects range from cytoprotection to induction of cell death. Understanding how this is regulated is crucial to develop novel strategies to ameliorate only the detrimental effects. Here, we revisited the fundamental hypothesis that the level of ROS per se is a key factor in the cellular response by applying different concentrations of H2 O2 to cardiomyocytes. High concentrations rapidly reduced intracellular ATP and inhibited protein synthesis...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Vittoria Cammisotto, Roberto Carnevale, Cristina Nocella, Lucia Stefanini, Simona Bartimoccia, Antonio Coluccia, Romano Silvestri, Pasquale Pignatelli, Daniele Pastori, Francesco Violi
Factor Xa (FXa) has been reported to activate platelet via interaction with glycoprotein (GP) VI but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. We investigated if Nox2-derived oxidative stress is implicated in FXa-induced platelet aggregation (PA), and the effect of a FXa inhibitor, namely rivaroxaban, with or without aspirin (ASA), on PA. We performed an in vitro study measuring convulxin-induced PA, thromboxane (Tx) B2 and isoprostanes biosynthesis, soluble Nox2-dp (sNox2-dp), a marker of Nox2 activation, soluble GPVI (sGPVI) and PLA2 activation in platelets from healthy subjects (n=5) added with and without a Nox2 inhibitor...
February 13, 2019: Biochemical Pharmacology
Lu Bai, Chunying Sun, Huifen Zhai, Chen Chen, Xiaotian Hu, Xiulin Ye, Min Li, Yan Fang, Weimin Yang, Haoyan Wang, Shibo Sun
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease seriously threatening individual health, which results in serious complications such as hypertension and stroke. These complications are associated with oxidative stress triggered by intermittent hypoxia in OSA. Sestrin2 is a crucial factor involved in oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to investigate if a relationship exists between OSA and Sestrin2. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 71 subjects, and 16 patients of them with severe OSA completed 4 weeks of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy...
February 15, 2019: Lung
Hsiaoju S Lee, Austin R Pantel, Rong Zhou, David A Mankoff
[18 F]FSPG was shown to provide an indirect measure of the cellular redox state and may be used as an early indicator of therapy response to cancer therapies that cause oxidative stress. A somewhat paradoxical finding was that reduced [18 F]FSPG cellular uptake was associated with either lower cellular concentrations of cystine or glutamate, despite opposing the transport of these substances in the Xc- antiporter, for which [18 F]FSPG is also a substrate. Further studies of the kinetics of [18 F]FSPG will help elucidate the factors mediating a decline in [18 F]FSPG with oxidative stress...
February 15, 2019: Cancer Research
Inmaculada Coleto, Izargi Vega-Mas, Gaetan Glauser, María Begoña González-Moro, Daniel Marino, Idoia Ariz
Nitrogen is an essential element for plant nutrition. Nitrate and ammonium are the two major inorganic nitrogen forms available for plant growth. Plant preference for one or the other form depends on the interplay between plant genetic background and environmental variables. Ammonium-based fertilization has been shown less environmentally harmful compared to nitrate fertilization, because of reducing, among others, nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions. However, ammonium nutrition may become a stressful situation for a wide range of plant species when the ion is present at high concentrations...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Janusz Juraszek
Non-destructive tests of gantry cranes by means of the residual magnetic field (RMF) method were carried out for a duration of 7 years. Distributions of the residual magnetic field tangential and the normal components of their gradients were determined. A database of magnetograms was created. The results show that the gradients of tangential components can be used to identify and localize stress concentration zones in gantry crane beams. Special attention was given to the unsymmetrical distribution of the tangential component gradient on the surface of the crane beam No...
February 14, 2019: Materials
Pavla Sehonova, Nina Tokanova, Nikola Hodkovicova, Hana Kocour Kroupova, Jitka Tumova, Jana Blahova, Petr Marsalek, Lucie Plhalova, Veronika Doubkova, Radka Dobsikova, Petr Chloupek, Petra Dolezalova, Martin Faldyna, Zdenka Svobodova, Caterina Faggio
The purpose of our experiment was to evaluate the effect of enrofloxacin on biotransformation, oxidative stress and mRNA expression of related genes in fish as a non-target organisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) juveniles were treated with enrofloxacin at concentrations of 5, 10 and 500 μg/L for 14 days. A three-day-long test caused changes of catalytic activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Moreover, lipid peroxidation was observed at the highest concentration. No significant changes either in catalytic activity of antioxidant enzymes or elevated lipid peroxidation were observed from sampling day 7 on...
February 6, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Paul Johan Høl, Nils R Gjerdet, Torbjörn Jonung
Intra-arterial stenosis due to atherosclerosis is often treated with endovascular balloon dilatation with a metal stent. Restenosis is common and is frequently treated with a new stent placed inside the existing one or the stents are placed with overlap to cover a larger area of the vessels. Observations of stent fractures, stent compression, accumulation of immunocompetent cells around stents have suggested the possibility of immunologic reactions to substances released from stents. An accelerated corrosion model was developed to study corrosion behaviour of commonly used surgical peripheral stents...
February 4, 2019: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Xingxing He, Changjian Xie, Yuhui Ma, Lin Wang, Xiao He, Weiqun Shi, Xiaodong Liu, Ying Liu, Zhiyong Zhang
Thorium (Th) is a natural radioactive element present in the environment and has the potential to be used as a clean nuclear fuel. Relatively little is known about the aquatic toxicity of Th, especially in nanoparticulate form, which may be the main chemical species of Th in the natural waters. In this study, impacts of ThO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with two different sizes (52 ± 5 nm, s-ThO2 vs. 141 ± 6 nm, b-ThO2 ) on a green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) were evaluated. Results indicated that C...
February 5, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Chao Wang, Xing Chen, Qin Yao, Dan Long, Xing Fan, Houyang Kang, Jian Zeng, Lina Sha, Haiqin Zhang, Yonghong Zhou, Yi Wang
The uptake and translocation of non-essential heavy metals in plant are always through metal transporters for essential micronutrient transport, such as NRAMP (Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein). NRAMPs from different species exhibit different biological functions, although their sequences are highly identical. In the present study, a NRAMP6 was isolated from Ailanmai (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum). TtNRAMP6, localized on chromosome 3B, mainly expressed in roots, followed by other tissues varied with different growth stages...
February 12, 2019: Gene
Lei Zhang, Yingying Guo, Heying Wang, Lili Zhao, Zhulin Ma, Tao Li, Jiao Liu, Man Sun, Yating Jian, Li Yao, Yun Du, Guilian Zhang
AIMS: Edaravone potentially alleviates cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism of edaravone in suppressing AD progression remains unclear. We aim to investigate the mechanism of edaravone in suppressing oxidative stress-mediated AD progression in vitro. MAIN METHODS: Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with different concentrations of edaravone prior to the induction by Aβ25-35 . Cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, and expression of antioxidative response elements (ARE) including Nrf2, SOD, and HO-1 were assessed...
February 12, 2019: Life Sciences
Yasukazu Takanezawa, Ryosuke Nakamura, Miho Hamaguchi, Kanae Yamamoto, Yuka Sone, Shimpei Uraguchi, Masako Kiyono
Fish consumption has both the risk of methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning and the benefit of obtaining n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). However, the cellular interaction between MeHg and PUFAs remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MeHg and n-3 PUFA exposure on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The results showed that EPA had a negligible effect on MeHg-induced cell death, whereas DHA promoted it...
February 12, 2019: Toxicology Letters
Pochuen Sheih, Chung-Ren Jan, Wei-Zhe Liang
Malathion is one of the most widely used organophosphorus insecticides in agriculture. However, malathion may be involved in the etiology of human brain dysfunction. Induction of ROS has been proposed as a mechanism of malathion-induced poisoning cases, but there are few data regarding the effects of malathion on oxidative stress-associated neurotoxicity in human glial cells. The aim was to explore the mechanism underlying effects of malathion on neurotoxicity in Gibco® Human Astrocytes (GHA cells) and evaluate the protective effects of the antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine, NAC)...
February 12, 2019: Toxicology
Abdur Rehman, Rizwan Ullah, Imran Uddin, Iram Zia, Lubna Rehman, S M A Abidi
In order to ensure global food security a rationale approach is required to control all those factors which directly or indirectly affect the food productivity. The neglected helminthic diseases alone are responsible for huge economic losses to the agrarian stakeholders. The problem is further compounded by the emerging drug resistance in flukes against the commonly used anthelmintics like triclabendazole. Therefore, the search for alternatives including the nano-based approaches has become a necessity to develop future control strategies...
February 12, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Grażyna Wójcicka, Mariusz Zaręba, Anna Warpas, Anna Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Marta Rusek, Grażyna Czechowska, Jerzy Bełtowski
Inflammation and oxidative stress are the two processes crucial in atherogenesis. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), a plasma lipoprotein-associated enzyme, degrades pro-inflammatory lipids generated within oxidatively modified lipoproteins. Extensive evidence shows that incretin-based drugs, a new class of anti-diabetic agents, can provide cardiovascular protection that cannot be attributed to their glucose-lowering effects. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the antiatherogenic effects of the GLP-1(glucagon-like peptide-1) receptor agonist (exenatide) and DPP-4(dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitors (sitagliptin) may occur via the regulation of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity/mass and inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in the fructose-fed rats...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jakub Rok, Zuzanna Rzepka, Michalina Respondek, Artur Beberok, Dorota Wrześniok
Tetracyclines belong to antimicrobial classes with the highest consumption in veterinary medicine and agriculture, which leads to the contamination of the environment and food products, as well as to antibiotic resistance and adverse drug reactions. Chloro-derivatives of tetracyclines are thought to be relatively more phototoxic than others and belong to the most frequently cited drugs as photosensitizers. Melanins are heterogenous biopolymers determining skin, hair and eye colour. They are biosynthesized in a multistep process in melanocytes...
February 12, 2019: Chemico-biological Interactions
N Rafiee Tari, E Arranz, M Corredig
An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that differences in protein composition in the food matrix can significantly affect its biological functionality. The present research hypothesized that a matrix containing the same level of dairy protein, but with different composition, even when showing similar properties during digestion, may have a different biological functionality. To test this hypothesis, three matrices, containing 2.8% protein and similar amounts of fat and solid were prepared, either with 100% whey proteins, or with a ratio of caseins to whey protein of 40 : 60, but differing in β-casein ratio...
February 15, 2019: Food & Function
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