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Health And Lifestyle

Jeffrey I Mechanick, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Yehuda Handelsman, W Timothy Garvey
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) has created a dysglycemia-based chronic disease (DBCD) multimorbidity care model consisting of four distinct stages along the insulin resistance-prediabetes-type 2 diabetes (T2D) spectrum that are actionable in a preventive care paradigm to reduce the potential impact of T2D, cardiometabolic risk, and cardiovascular events. The controversy of whether there is value, cost-effectiveness, or clinical benefit of diagnosing and/or managing the prediabetes state is resolved by regarding the problem, not in isolation, but as an intermediate stage in the continuum of a progressive chronic disease with opportunities for multiple concurrent prevention strategies...
November 2018: Endocrine Practice
Shenae Calleja, Fakir M Amirul Islam, Jonathan Kingsley, Rachael McDonald
INTRODUCTION: Adults living with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can experience many factors that may impact their everyday lives. Striving for optimal health and enduring a healthy lifestyle comes with the ability to access appropriate healthcare services, yet adults with ASD have unmet healthcare needs. The barriers and enablers of healthcare access for adults with ASD remain unclear. We will conduct a systematic review to explore what is currently known about healthcare access for adults with ASD, this will determine the level and appropriateness of access to healthcare services to better support the lives of adults with ASD...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Fanny Petermann-Rocha, Anne Sillars, Rosemary Brown, Lauren Sweeney, Claudia Troncoso, Antonio García-Hermoso, Ana María Leiva, María Adela Martínez, Ximena Diaz-Martínez, Felipe Poblete-Valderrama, Alex Garrido-Mendez, Ximena Cataldo, José Iturra Gonzalez, Carlos Salas, José Lara, Stuart R Gray, Carlos Celis-Morales
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile. DESIGN: Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka's formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression...
February 14, 2019: Public Health Nutrition
Natalie Jo Hawes, Amanda T Wiggins, Deborah B Reed, Frances Hardin-Fanning
BACKGROUND: Farmers' work schedules can result in inconsistent sleep patterns which negatively impact health. PURPOSE: To explore the relationships between sleep, obesity, and depression in working, older farmers and their spouses. Covariates included body mass index (BMI), age, and gender. METHODS: Sleep quality, BMI, and depression were assessed in farmers (n = 1,394) 50 years and older. Bivariate associations among all covariates (i...
February 13, 2019: Public Health Nursing
Stuart J Ritchie, W David Hill, Riccardo E Marioni, Gail Davies, Saskia P Hagenaars, Sarah E Harris, Simon R Cox, Adele M Taylor, Janie Corley, Alison Pattie, Paul Redmond, John M Starr, Ian J Deary
Polygenic scores can be used to distil the knowledge gained in genome-wide association studies for prediction of health, lifestyle, and psychological factors in independent samples. In this preregistered study, we used fourteen polygenic scores to predict variation in cognitive ability level at age 70, and cognitive change from age 70 to age 79, in the longitudinal Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. The polygenic scores were created for phenotypes that have been suggested as risk or protective factors for cognitive ageing...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
Judith G M Jelsma, Lidewij R Renaud, Maaike A Huysmans, Jennifer K Coffeng, Anne Loyen, Femke van Nassau, Judith E Bosmans, Erwin M Speklé, Allard J van der Beek, Hidde P van der Ploeg
BACKGROUND: Large volumes of sitting time have been associated with multiple health risks. To reduce sitting time of office workers working for a Dutch insurance company, the Dynamic Work intervention was developed. The primary objective of this paper is to describe the study protocol of the Dynamic Work study, which aims to evaluate if this multicomponent intervention is (cost-)effective in reducing total sitting time on the short-term (≈3 months) and longer-term (≈12 months) compared to usual practice...
February 13, 2019: BMC Public Health
Helle Spindler, Kasper Leerskov, Katrine Joensson, Gitte Nielsen, Jan Jesper Andreasen, Birthe Dinesen
Telerehabilitation (TR) has gained attention as a promising rehabilitation format. Our study examined how patients responded to TR and whether it provided adequate support for their lifestyle changes and self-care efforts when compared to conventional rehabilitation (CR). Cardiac patients ( n = 136) were randomly assigned to a TR or CR group. The TR group was provided with relevant health care technology for a period of three months, and both groups filled in questionnaires on their motivation for lifestyle changes and self-care psychological distress, and quality of life at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chris J Sidey-Gibbons, Helen Brooks, Judith Gellatly, Nicola Small, Karina Lovell, Penny Bee
BACKGROUND: People living with serious mental health conditions experience increased morbidity due to physical health issues driven by medication side-effects and lifestyle factors. Coordinated mental and physical healthcare delivered in accordance with a care plan could help to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. Efforts to develop new models of care are hampered by a lack of validated instruments to accurately assess the extent to which mental health services users and carers are involved in care planning for physical health...
2019: PloS One
Christoph Höchsmann, Denis Infanger, Christopher Klenk, Karsten Königstein, Steffen P Walz, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity (PA) is an essential component of a successful type 2 diabetes treatment. However, despite the manifest evidence for the numerous health benefits of regular PA, most patients with type 2 diabetes remain inactive, often due to low motivation and lack of PA enjoyment. A recent and promising approach to help overcome these PA barriers and motivate inactive individuals to change their PA behavior is PA-promoting smartphone games. While short-term results of these games are encouraging, the long-term success in effectively changing PA behavior has to date not been confirmed...
February 13, 2019: JMIR Serious Games
Ida Rask Moustsen, Anne Sofie Friberg, Signe Benzon Larsen, Anne Katrine Duun-Henriksen, Anne Tjønneland, Susanne K Kjaer, Klaus Brasso, Christoffer Johansen, Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton
BACKGROUND: High socioeconomic position is associated with better prognosis in prostate cancer patients but it is unknown if part of this association may be explained by socioeconomic differences in severe late effects. We investigated the association between education as an indicator for socioeconomic position and cardiovascular events after prostate cancer and if such associations were mediated by differences in lifestyle, cardiovascular risk factors and prostate cancer treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 1980 men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1993 to 2014 among participants in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study...
February 13, 2019: Acta Oncologica
Gaohua Li, Hua Liu, Chunlian Ma, Yanfang Chen, Jinju Wang, Yi Yang
Exosomes contain regulatory signals such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids which can be transferred to adjacent or remote cells to mediate cell-to-cell communication. Exercise is a positive lifestyle for metabolic health and a nonpharmacological treatment of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. Moreover, exercise is a stressor that induces cellular responses including gene expression and exosome release in various types of cells. Exosomes can carry the characters of parent cells by their modified cargoes, representing novel mechanisms for the effects of exercise...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Chris Rissel, Santosh Khanal, Jane Raymond, Vanessa Clements, Kit Leung, Michael Nicholl
Objectives Get Healthy in Pregnancy (GHiP) is a telephone based lifestyle coaching service for pregnant women, in New South Wales, Australia. GHiP had two service options; a telephone-based health coaching program consisting of up to 10 calls and information only (including one call). This study sought to compare the outcomes of the two GHiP options, to determine the characteristics of women likely to use the service and to explore the feedback from women and health professionals. Methods A pragmatic stratified clustered randomised controlled trial was conducted...
February 12, 2019: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Silpi Chanda, Raj Kumar Tiwari, Arun Kumar, Kuldeep Singh
Nutraceuticals are the pharmaceutically blended products that possess both nutritional as well as the medicinal value. Such a product is designed to improve the physical health, fight against day-to-day challenges such as stress, increase longevity, etc. Nowadays, emphasis is given to those herbs which are used as food and medicine due to its greater acceptance. Due to dynamic action, the popularity of nutraceuticals among people as well as healthcare providers has been increased over medicines and health supplements...
2019: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Sergio A Useche, Luis V Montoro, José I Ruiz, César Vanegas, Jaime Sanmartin, Elisa Alfaro
INTRODUCTION: Correctional employees typically work under adverse conditions that may enhance the occurrence of different negative psychological states. Burnout constitutes a high-risk phenomenon that may affect people's physical/mental health and welfare, especially in vulnerable occupational groups. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the burnout profile of correctional officers, and to associate their burnout profile with health issues and lifestyle factors...
2019: PloS One
Jiageng Chen, Xiyue Jing, Xiaoqian Liu, Anna-Mari Volkmann, Yunfeng Chen, Yuanyuan Liu, Dandan Li, Duolan Han, Yuting Guo, Fei Gao, Na Han, Xuying Wang, Haozuo Zhao, Xinjun Shi, Yanan Dong, Liming Chen, David Napier, Jun Ma
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the local levels of vulnerability among patients with Type-II diabetes (T2DM) in Tianjin. The study was aimed at curbing the rise of T2DM in cities. METHODS: 229 participants living with T2DM were purposively sampled from hospitals in Tianjin. Collected data were coded and analysed following well-established thematic analysis principles. RESULTS: Twelve themes involving 29 factors were associated with diabetes patients' vulnerability: 1...
2019: PloS One
Xinyan Wang, Xueli Yang, Jianxin Li, Fangchao Liu, Jichun Chen, Xiaoqing Liu, Jie Cao, Chong Shen, Ling Yu, Fanghong Lu, Xianping Wu, Liancheng Zhao, Xigui Wu, Ying Li, Dongsheng Hu, Jianfeng Huang, Xiangfeng Lu, Dongfeng Gu
BACKGROUND: Although cancer has become one of the leading health burdens, to the authors' knowledge, evidence regarding its relationship with a healthy lifestyle in the Chinese population remains limited. METHODS: The authors evaluated the association between clustering of healthy lifestyle factors and cancer risk using 3 prospective cohort studies with 101,208 Chinese adults from the general population. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidential intervals (95% CIs) related to healthy lifestyle factors were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models, and population-attributable risk percentages were estimated further...
February 12, 2019: Cancer
Elena A Boccalandro, Giuseppe Dallari, Pier Mannuccio Mannucci
In persons with haemophilia (PWH), the importance of comprehensive disease management to prevent bleeding, joint damage and secondary diseases has been well established. However, because haemophilia is a chronic disease, intervention programmes carried out for prolonged periods of time may create problems of patient adherence. Driven by continuous technological innovation, telemedicine is being increasingly proposed as a way to provide PWH with a range of services designed to improve their health, saving the time and cost involved in going to the treatment centre, and increasing therapeutic adherence...
February 4, 2019: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Mahmoud Al Rifai, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Michael J Blaha, Kelly Arps, David A Wood, Roger S Blumenthal, John W McEvoy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss a new paradigm for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention that is focused on cultivating cardiovascular wellness through the promotion of "health factors." RECENT FINDINGS: Cardiovascular prevention efforts have contributed to falling rates of ASCVD over the past five decades. However, contemporary increases in obesity and diabetes have led to a recent slowing in the annual decline of ASCVD death rates...
February 12, 2019: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Sang Joon Jung, Si Hyung Lee
PURPOSE: To investigate the associations between blood heavy metal concentrations and dry eye disease using a Korean population-based survey. METHODS: This study included 23,376 participants >40 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. Blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury were measured in all participants. The associations between blood heavy metal concentrations and dry eye disease were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses...
February 2019: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Asma Ben Abdelaziz, Hajer Nouira, Meriem Mili, Mouna Safer, Férid Zaafrane, Nabil Sakly, Ahmed Ben Abdelaziz
BACKGROUND: Studies conducted on characteristics of alcohol consumption and associated risk factors among health occupations students are scarce in the southern shore of the Mediterranean. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol use and misuse across a large sample of college students in Monastir university. METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed between April 2013 and September 2013. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was filled out by health occupations students from pharmacy, dentistry and medicine faculties ...
October 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
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