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Song Cui, Qiang Fu, Chongguo Tian, Zulin Zhang, Rupert Hough, Zhenxing Shen, Jianmin Ma, Lihui An, Yi-Fan Li
The Chinese Gridded Industrial Pollutants Emission and Residue Model (ChnGIPERM) was used to investigate potential fractionation effects and atmospheric transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) derived from single-source emissions in China. Modeling the indicative PCBs (CB28, CB101, CB153, and CB180) revealed spatiotemporal trends in atmospheric transport, gas/particle partitioning, and primary and secondary fractionation effects. These included the inference that the Westerlies and East Asian monsoons affect atmospheric transport patterns of PCBs by influencing the atmospheric transport time (ATT)...
February 10, 2019: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Xindie Zhou, Jin Li, Lifeng Jiang, Dong Zhou, Lidong Wu, Yong Huang, Nanwei Xu
BACKGROUND: Serum amyloid A (SAA1) is an apolipoprotein that maintains glucose and lipid homeostasis. Its polymorphisms are associated with risks of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease. METHODS: However, little is known about the associations of these polymorphisms with susceptibility to osteoporosis, which we evaluated in this hospital-based case-control study involving 300 osteoporosis patients and 350 controls. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs183978373, rs12218, and rs10832915) were genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
February 8, 2019: Bioscience Reports
Nitin Bansal, Nandini Sethuraman, Ram Gopalakrishnan, V Ramasubramanian, D Suresh Kumar, P Senthur Nambi, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: Many patients with histoplasmosis are treated with anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) in tuberculosis endemic regions as diagnosis of histoplasmosis requires invasive sampling. We sought to study the utility of urinary Histoplasma antigen detection test. METHODS: Case records of patients with a diagnosis of histoplasmosis prior to (Period A) and after (Period B) introduction of urinary Histoplasma antigen detection test were analysed in this single centre retrospective study RESULTS: Thirty seven patients (18 in period A, and 19 patients in period B) were studied...
February 8, 2019: Mycoses
Leonardo Gil-Santana, Luís A B Cruz, María B Arriaga, Pryscila F C Miranda, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Paulo S Silveira-Mattos, Elisangela C Silva, Marina G Oliveira, Eliene D D Mesquita, Anneloek Rauwerdink, Frank Cobelens, Martha M Oliveira, Afranio Kritski, Bruno B Andrade
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is associated with chronic inflammation and anemia. How anemia impacts systemic inflammation in PTB patients undergoing antitubercular therapy (ATT) is not fully understood. In the present study, data on several blood biochemical parameters were retrospectively analyzed from 118 PTB patients during the first 60 days of ATT. Multidimensional statistical analyses were employed to perform detailed inflammatory profiling of patients stratified by anemia status prior to treatment. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels <12...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Saurabh Kedia, Prasenjit Das, Kumble Seetharama Madhusudhan, Siddhartha Dattagupta, Raju Sharma, Peush Sahni, Govind Makharia, Vineet Ahuja
Differentiating Crohn's disease (CD) and intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) has remained a dilemma for most of the clinicians in the developing world, which are endemic for ITB, and where the disease burden of inflammatory bowel disease is on the rise. Although, there are certain clinical (diarrhea/hematochezia/perianal disease common in CD; fever/night sweats common in ITB), endoscopic (longitudinal/aphthous ulcers common in CD; transverse ulcers/patulous ileocaecal valve common in ITB), histologic (caseating/confluent/large granuloma common in ITB; microgranuloma common in CD), microbiologic (positive stain/culture for acid fast-bacillus in ITB), radiologic (long segment involvement/comb sign/skip lesions common in CD; necrotic lymph node/contiguous ileocaecal involvement common in ITB), and serologic differences between CD and ITB, the only exclusive features are caseation necrosis on biopsy, positive smear for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and/or AFB culture, and necrotic lymph node on cross-sectional imaging in ITB...
January 28, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Anna Karla de Oliveira Tito Borba, Ilma Kruze Grande Arruda, Ana Paula de Oliveira Marques, Márcia Carréra Campos Leal, Alcides da Silva Diniz
This study aimed to assess the knowledge about diabetes, the attitude for self-care and associated factors through a cross-sectional study, the baseline of a randomized clinical trial with elderly diabetic in primary health care in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. We used the Diabetes Knowledge Scale (DKN-A) and Diabetes Attitudes Questionnaire (ATT-19). Of the 202 elderly, 77.7% had insufficient knowledge of the disease, especially for ketonuria, food replacement and were unaware of the causes and care of hypoglycemia...
January 2019: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
William J Connors, Dina A Fisher, Dennis Y Kunimoto, Julie M Jarand
BACKGROUND: Erythema induratum of Bazin (EIB) - nodular vasculitis associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) - and Tuberculosis-Associated Ocular Inflammation (TB-AOI) represent uncommon manifestations of TB. There is limited data and a lack of diagnostic and treatment standards for these conditions. METHODS: Eleven-year retrospective review of EIB and TB-AOI cases managed in a provincial TB program with prospective phone-based follow-up of anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) recipients...
January 29, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Alberto Pérez-García, Juan Ramon Esteban-Vico, Jose María García-Sánchez, José Baeza, Francisco Martínez Soriano, Alfonso Amador Valverde Navarro, Álvaro García-Granero, Eduardo Simón-Sanz
Disruption of patellar tendon after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a devastating complication. If associated with infection or soft tissue defect, knee arthrodesis is usually indicated. The purpose of this study is to analyze, by means of an anatomical study, the feasibility of our novel technique for reconstruction of extensor apparatus after TKA infections with skin defects, combining gracilis (G) and semitendinosus (ST) tendon autografts and chimeric medial gastrocnemius-sural artery perforator (SAP) flap...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Knee Surgery
Florian B Imhoff, Julian Mehl, Brendan J Comer, Elifho Obopilwe, Mark P Cote, Matthias J Feucht, James D Wylie, Andreas B Imhoff, Robert A Arciero, Knut Beitzel
PURPOSE: Posterior tibial slope (PTS) represents an important risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft failure, as seen in clinical studies. An anterior closing wedge osteotomy for slope reduction was performed to investigate the effect on ACL-graft forces and femoro-tibial kinematics in an ACL-deficient and ACL-reconstructed knee in a biomechanical setup. METHODS: Ten cadaveric knees with a relatively high native slope (mean ± SD): (slope 10° ± 1...
January 28, 2019: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Daniel Nthiwa, Silvia Alonso, David Odongo, Eucharia Kenya, Bernard Bett
Livestock-wildlife interactions promote the transmission of a wide range of infectious diseases that constraint livestock production. We used a participatory appraisal approach to find out and rank infectious diseases of concern to pastoralists in a zone of intense wildlife-livestock interaction and another zone with limited interactions. Four villages were selected purposively in areas with intensive cattle-wildlife interactions (zone 1), and another two in areas with low to moderate cattle-wildlife interactions (zone 2)...
January 25, 2019: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Keith Markolf, Kent Yamaguchi, Justin Matthew, David McAllister
Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can occur during landing from a jump or changing direction during a cutting maneuver. In these instances the knee is subjected to combined forces and moments as it flexes under tibiofemoral compression force (TCF). We hypothesized that TCF would increase ACL forces and tibiofemoral motions under isolated and combined modes of loading relevant to knee injury. ACL force and knee kinematics were recorded in human cadaveric specimens during knee flexion from 0° to 50° under the following test conditions (alone and in combination): 2 N-m internal tibial torque (IT), 5 N-m valgus moment (VM), and 45N anterior tibial force (AF)...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Justin Arockiaraj, Rajiv Karthik, Joy Sarojini Michael, Rohit Amritanand, Kenny Samuel David, Venkatesh Krishnan, Gabriel David Sundararaj
Study Design: Retrospective study. Purpose: To report the prevalence of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tubercular spondylodiscitis and their outcomes. Additionally, to assess the role of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in early detection of MDR tuberculosis. Overview of Literature: MDR tuberculosis is increasing globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) has strongly recommended Xpert MTB/RIF assay for early detection of tuberculosis. Methods: From 2006 to 2015, a retrospective study was conducted on patients treated for MDR tuberculosis of the spine...
January 24, 2019: Asian Spine Journal
Jia Yang, Yehong Yang, Yongfei Wang, Shuo Zhang, Haixia Cheng, Shuyang Wang, Liang Ge, Yiming Li, Hongying Ye
PURPOSE: We investigated the expression of vasopressin receptor 2 and 3 on corticotrophin tumor cells, their role in regulating ACTH secretion, and their potential therapeutic implications. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 52 hospitalized patients with pathologically confirmed ACTH-secreting tumors. The expression of vasopressin receptor 2 and 3 was explored via qualitative and quantitative immunohistochemistry analyses. The role of vasopressin receptors in regulating ACTH secretion was further studied in the AtT-20 cell line...
January 22, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Dominique A Cadilhac, Helen M Dewey, Sonia Denisenko, Christopher F Bladin, Atte Meretoja
BACKGROUND: Hospital costs for stroke are increasing and variability in care quality creates inefficiencies. In 2007, the Victorian Government (Australia) employed clinical facilitators for three years in eight public hospitals to improve stroke care. Literature on the cost implications of such roles is rare. We report changes in the costs of acute stroke care following implementation of this program. METHODS: Observational controlled before-and-after cohort design...
January 18, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
Hiroyasu Ogawa, Kazu Matsumoto, Haruhiko Akiyama
PURPOSE: This study examined the influence of the mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA) on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) degeneration following open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). It was hypothesised that an excessive increase in MPTA would be associated with ACL degeneration following OWHTO. METHODS: Seventy-four knees treated with OWHTO were retrospectively examined. Arthroscopic ACL grading [0 (intact) to 4 (complete rupture)], anterior tibial translation (ATT) test at the time of OWHTO with the index arthroscopy and at plate removal with the second-look arthroscopy, clinical assessments using the Knee Society Score (KSS), and radiographic evaluations of MPTA were performed...
January 17, 2019: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Katelyn B Detweiler, Fei He, Heather F Mangian, Gary M Davenport, Maria R C de Godoy
Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in companion animal nutrition as a means to manage pet obesity and improve gut and host health. Soybean hulls (SBH), a co-product of the soybean oil extraction process, is an accessible and economical fiber source. However, limited research is available on the use of SBH in feline nutrition. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of a high SBH inclusion level on daily food intake, apparent total tract (ATT) macronutrient digestibility, fecal quality, and fecal fermentative end-products in diets of adult cats...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Christopher C Conlin, Gwenael Layec, Christopher J Hanrahan, Nan Hu, Michelle T Mueller, Vivian S Lee, Jeff L Zhang
The primary goal of this study was to evaluate arterial transit time (ATT) in exercise-stimulated calf muscles as a promising indicator of muscle function. Following plantar flexion, ATT was measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in young and elderly healthy subjects and patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). In the young healthy subjects, gastrocnemius ATT decreased significantly (P < 0.01) from 4.3 ± 1.5 to 2.4 ± 0.4 sec when exercise load increased from 4 lbs to 16 lbs. For the same load of 4 lbs, gastrocnemius ATT was lower in the elderly healthy subjects (3...
January 2019: Physiological Reports
Andrea Santangeli, Marco Girardello, Evan Buechley, Andre Botha, Enrico Di Minin, Atte Moilanen
The prosperity and wellbeing of human societies relies on healthy ecosystems and the services they provide. However, the biodiversity crisis is undermining ecosystems services and functions. Vultures are among the most imperiled taxonomic groups on Earth, yet they have a fundamental ecosystem function. These obligate scavengers rapidly consume large amounts of carrion and human waste, a service that may aid in both disease prevention and control of mammalian scavengers, including feral dogs, which in turn threaten humans (e...
January 15, 2019: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Manisha Agarwal, Lagan Paul, Chanda Gupta, Padmaja Kumari Rani
Tubercular uveitis is a common manifestation of tuberculosis (TB) in TB-endemic countries. Due to lack of gold standard diagnostic tests for confirming intraocular TB, it is often either underdiagnosed or rarely over diagnosed. We report a case of a 28-year-old woman with diminution of vision in the left eye. She was started on antitubercular treatment (ATT) and steroids but she did not comply with the treatment. She developed progressive painful loss of vision consequently and was treated with vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade...
January 14, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
He Huang, Changsheng Chai, Sheng Yang, Weihong Jiang, Yang Gu
The real value of gas-fermenting clostridia, capable of using CO and CO2 , resides in their potential of being developed into cell factories to produce various bulk chemicals and fuels. This process requires rapid chromosomal integration of heterologous chemical biosynthetic pathways, which is impeded by the absence of genetic tools competent for efficient genome engineering in these anaerobes. Here, we developed a phage serine integrase-mediated site-specific genome engineering technique in Clostridium ljungdahlii, one of the major acetogenic gas-fermenting microbes...
January 8, 2019: Metabolic Engineering
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