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Deborah J Pain, Ian Dickie, Rhys E Green, Niels Kanstrup, Ruth Cromie
A proposed European Union (EU)-wide restriction on the use of lead gunshot for shooting in and over wetlands estimated that the societal benefits of a restriction outweighed costs, despite few identified benefits being quantified economically. A subsequent Annex XV Investigation Report on the evidence of impacts of lead ammunition in terrestrial environments concluded that additional measures to control its use are warranted, although to date this has not been further evaluated. To help inform this process, we review the literature and undertake new analyses to estimate the costs of continued use of lead ammunition associated with impacts on wildlife, people and the environment...
March 16, 2019: Ambio
Zhenyu Zhai, Aem Nuylert, Kimiyasu Isobe, Yasuhisa Asano
A hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) from the millipede Chamberlinius hualienensis has high potential for industrial use in the synthesis of cyanohydrins. However, obtaining sufficient amounts of millipedes is difficult, and the production of the Chamberlinius hualienensis HNL (ChuaHNL) in E. coli has not been very successful. Therefore, we investigated the conditions required for high-yield heterologous production of this enzyme using Pichia pastoris. When we employed P. pastoris to express His-ChuaHNL, the yield was very low (22...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
P Saranya, P K Selvi, G Sekaran
Bacillus pumilus, the thermophilic microorganism, was used to biosynthesise lipase of specific activity 5173 U. The purified lipase was highly stable in the pH range from 1 to 7 and temperature at 50 °C. The functionalized nanoporous activated carbon matrix was used for the immobilization of lipase at the optimum conditions and was used for the hydrolysis of palm oil-containing wastewater at optimum time, 3 h, pH 7, and at temperature 50 °C. The hydrolyzed palm oil wastewater was treated in an upflow anaerobic reactor for the removal of soluble COD at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days...
March 16, 2019: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Carlo Lancia, Jakob K Anninga, Matthew R Sydes, Cristian Spitoni, Jeremy Whelan, Pancras C W Hogendoorn, Hans Gelderblom, Marta Fiocco
PURPOSE: There is lack of consensus on the prognostic value of received high dose intensity in osteosarcoma survivorship. Many studies have not shown a clear survival benefit when dose intensity is increased. The aim of this study is to go beyond chemotherapy intensification by arm-wide escalation of intended dose and/or compression of treatment schedule, while conversely addressing the relationship between treatment intensity and survival at the patient level. The study focusses on the difference in outcome results, based on a novel, progressively more individualised approach to dose intensity...
March 16, 2019: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Mayuko Kinoshita, Kiyohito Naito, Kenji Goto, Yoichi Sugiyama, Nana Nagura, Hiroyuki Obata, Yoshiyuki Iwase, Kazuo Kaneko
PURPOSE: In this study, using an ultrasonography, we investigated the positional relationship between the volar bone cortex of distal radius and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon in the distal radius of healthy subjects. METHODS: The subjects were 32 healthy volunteers (56 wrists) (Age 32.9 ± 8.5, 16 males and 16 females). Their wrists were imaged by an ultrasonography. The distances between the watershed line (WS) and FPL (A), between the distal margin of pronator quadratus (DMPQ) and FPL (B), between the FPL and volar radial bone cortex at the maximum muscle belly of the PQ muscle right below the sliding region of the FPL tendon (C), and between the WS and DMPQ (D) were measured...
March 16, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Fredrike Blokzijl, Saskia Houterman, Bart H M van Straten, Edgar Daeter, George J Brandon Bravo Bruinsma, Willem Dieperink, Michiel F Reneman, Frederik Keus, Iwan C C van der Horst, Massimo A Mariani
OBJECTIVES: In this study, our aim was to explore how coronary artery bypass grafting affects quality of life, and how this varies with age, particularly with patients at risk of deterioration. METHODS: In a retrospective, multicentre cohort study, patients with isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and electively operated between January 2011 and January 2015 with pre- and postoperative quality-of-life data were included. Patients were classified into 3 age groups: <65, 65-79 and ≥80 years...
March 15, 2019: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Omayma Alshaarawy, James C Anthony
BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical studies indicate increased food intake and weight gain as cannabinoid effects. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies, however, indicate lower prevalence of obesity among cannabis users. Here, we aim to study the weight-gain research question in the prospectively conducted National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). METHODS: NESARC was designed to produce nationally representative estimates for the US population...
March 16, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Emilie C Risom, Katrine B Buggeskov, Ulla B Mogensen, Martin Sundskard, Jann Mortensen, Hanne B Ravn
OBJECTIVES: Although reduced lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with higher risk of death following cardiac surgery, preoperative spirometry is not performed routinely. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between preoperative lung function and postoperative complications in all comers for cardiac surgery irrespective of smoking or COPD history. METHODS: Preoperative spirometry was performed in elective adult cardiac surgery patients...
March 15, 2019: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Daniel F Manvich, Alyssa K Petko, Rachel C Branco, Stephanie L Foster, Kirsten A Porter-Stransky, Kristen A Stout, Amy H Newman, Gary W Miller, Carlos A Paladini, David Weinshenker
The dopamine D3 receptor (D3 R) has emerged as a promising pharmacotherapeutic target for the treatment of several diseases including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and substance use disorders. However, studies investigating the D3 R's precise role in dopamine neurotransmission or how it may be exploited to modulate responses to drugs of abuse have produced contrasting results, in part because most D3 R-targeted compounds often also interact with D2 receptors (D2 R). To resolve this issue, we set out to systematically characterize and compare the consequences of selective D2 R or D3 R antagonists on the behavioral-stimulant properties of cocaine in mice, and to identify putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying their behavior-modifying effects...
March 16, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Worrawat Engchuan, Alexandros C Dimopoulos, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Francisco Félix Caballero, Albert Sanchez-Niubo, Holger Arndt, Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Josep Maria Haro, Somnath Chatterji, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
BACKGROUND Studies on the effects of sociodemographic factors on health in aging now include the use of statistical models and machine learning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the determinants of health in aging using machine learning methods and to compare the accuracy with traditional methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS The health status of 6,209 adults, age <65 years (n=1,585), 65-79 years (n=3,267), and >80 years (n=1,357) were measured using an established health metric (0-100) that incorporated physical function and activities of daily living (ADL)...
March 17, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Frances Humby, Myles Lewis, Nandhini Ramamoorthi, Jason A Hackney, Michael R Barnes, Michele Bombardieri, A Francesca Setiadi, Stephen Kelly, Fabiola Bene, Maria DiCicco, Sudeh Riahi, Vidalba Rocher, Nora Ng, Ilias Lazarou, Rebecca Hands, Désirée van der Heijde, Robert B M Landewé, Annette van der Helm-van Mil, Alberto Cauli, Iain McInnes, Christopher Dominic Buckley, Ernest H Choy, Peter C Taylor, Michael J Townsend, Costantino Pitzalis
OBJECTIVES: To unravel the hierarchy of cellular/molecular pathways in the disease tissue of early, treatment-naïve rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and determine their relationship with clinical phenotypes and treatment response/outcomes longitudinally. METHODS: 144 consecutive treatment-naïve early RA patients (<12 months symptoms duration) underwent ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy before and 6 months after disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) initiation...
March 16, 2019: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Diana Martins Oliveira, Catarina Correia, Flávia Cunha, Patrícia Dias
An 89-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 1-month history of upper right quadrant pain, worsened in the last 3 days and accompanied by fever and chills. On physical examination, he had scleral icterus and right upper quadrant tenderness. Laboratory findings showed hyperbilirubinemia, elevated liver enzymes and C reactive protein. The patient was admitted, suspecting of an acute cholangitis and started on antibiotics. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed the presence of a juxtapapillary diverticulum in the second portion of the duodenum, which was confirmed by a magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, along with upstream biliary tract ectasia...
March 16, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
A Della-Flora, R Wielens Becker, S Frederigi Benassi, A Theodoro Toci, G A Cordeiro, M Ibáñez, T Portolés, F Hernández, M Boroski, C Sirtori
In this work, a comprehensive investigation on the occurrence of pesticides in the Paraná 3 hydrographic basin of Paraná State, Brazil, was made by application of wide-scope screening based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) both coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS). The use of two complementary techniques, such as GC-QTOF MS and LC-QTOF MS, allowed screening a large number of compounds with different polarity and volatility. This screening approach was applied to 17 samples, enabling the detection of fifty-two pesticides and six metabolites...
February 28, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jiaxin Lv, Xuemin Liu, Peicong Li, Wei Jin, Jiang Xu, Yaping Zhao
Bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) is a narrow band gap semiconductor which can be driven by visible irradiation. In order to efficiently separate photo-generated carriers and utilization of visible light, a facile solvothermal approach was used to synthesize a novel AgI loading BiOI 3D hierarchical composite (AgI-BiOI). The AgI-BiOI with Ag and Bi molar ratio of 1:8 (AgI-BiOI (1-8)) showed great enhancement for photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) with pseudo-first degradation rate constant about 3.7 or 14...
March 7, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Shusuke Miyata, Takashi Gomi, Roy C Sidle, Marino Hiraoka, Yuichi Onda, Kazukiyo Yamamoto, Toshiro Nonoda
We assessed spatial distribution of infiltration capacity under forest canopies to simulate runoff processes in a steep small catchment in Japan. High resolution LiDAR data were used to assess light availability to understory vegetation, which in turn was converted into an understory vegetation cover ratio. Spatially distributed infiltration capacities based on data from field rainfall-runoff experiments were incorporated into the TopoTube model using a relationship between infiltration capacity and vegetation cover...
March 7, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ziyi Wang, Kun Liang, Siu-Wai Chan, Yuanyuan Tang
With widely reported antibacterial potential, the copper-containing nanoparticles have become attractive antibacterial agents to prohibit the undesirable bacterial adhesion and growth. However, after applying the copper-containing agents in the environment, the potential leaching and bioaccumulation of copper ions may cause severe environmental contamination and irreversible health problems. Therefore, the nano CuAl2 O4 spinel was fabricated as a novel copper-stabilized antibacterial agent with much minimized copper leachability...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Xue-Feng Lu, Yang Zhou, Yu-Peng Ren, Jian Zhang
This work reports the development and application of a multi-compound analysis method for the determination of 17 flavonoids and polyphenols in sweet potato leaves. Samples were processed by microwave-enhanced accelerated solvent extraction under low pressure at 120 °C for 10 min. Salting-out homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction was used to remove water and water-soluble impurities from the extract before ultra performance convergence chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. By using the supercritical fluid (CO2 and methanol) as the mobile phase, the 17 components and the internal standard were well separated in 10 min without obvious matrix effect...
March 4, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
J Vinoth Arul Raj, B Bharathiraja, B Vijayakumar, S Arokiyaraj, J Iyyappan, R Praveen Kumar
In this present work nanocomposite composed of Mn-ZnO capped with Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) was utilized as heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification of oil extracted from Nannochloropsis oculata into biodiesel using methanol as an acyl acceptor. The synthesized Mn-ZnO novel nanocomposite capped with Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) was characterized by using SEM and XRD. Lipid contents from the microalgae were extracted by sonication and biphasic solvent method. The process parameters involved for heterogeneous catalysis of N...
March 7, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Rohan Borschmann, Denise Becker, Elizabeth Spry, George J Youssef, Craig A Olsson, Delyse M Hutchinson, Edmund Silins, Joseph M Boden, Margarita Moreno-Betancur, Jake M Najman, Louisa Degenhardt, Richard P Mattick, Helena Romaniuk, L John Horwood, George C Patton
AIMS: To determine the extent to which the transition to parenthood protects against heavy and problematic alcohol consumption in young men and women. DESIGN: Integrated participant-level data analysis from three population-based prospective Australasian cohort studies. SETTING: General community; participants from the Australian Temperament Study, the Christchurch Health and Development Study, and the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study...
February 13, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Huaying Fan, Zhenfang Gao, Kai Ji, Xin Li, Jingbao Wu, Yue Liu, Xuekai Wang, Haiyue Liang, Yanan Liu, Xiaoting Li, Pan Liu, Daquan Chen, Feng Zhao
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the intestines and is difficult to cure once diagnosed. The efficacy of the current clinical treatment for UC is limited. Common anti-inflammatory drugs are prone to adverse effects, while novel biological agents are expensive, although tolerated by patients. Therefore, an urgency exists to find more safe and effective drugs to treat UC. Osthole is an active constituent isolated from the fruit of Cnidium monnieri (L...
February 18, 2019: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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