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Citrate crrt

J Jonckheer, H Spapen, M L N G Malbrain, T Oschima, E De Waele
BACKGROUND: Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure in critically ill patients However, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a formal contraindication for IC use. AIMS: To discuss specific issues that hamper or preclude an IC-based assessment of energy expenditure and correct caloric prescription in CRRT-treated patients. METHODS: Narrative review of current literature. RESULTS: Several relevant pitfalls for validation of IC during CRRT were identified...
February 23, 2019: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Tibor Fülöp, Lajos Zsom, Rafael D Rodríguez, Jorge O Chabrier-Rosello, Mehrdad Hamrahian, Christian A Koch
Cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) are common complications of acute brain injury. Hypertonic solutions are routinely used in acute brain injury as effective osmotic agents to lower ICP by increasing the extracellular fluid tonicity. Acute kidney injury in a patient with traumatic brain injury and elevated ICP requiring renal replacement therapy represents a significant therapeutic challenge due to an increased risk of cerebral edema associated with intermittent conventional hemodialysis...
March 8, 2019: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
George Alvarez, Carla Chrusch, Terry Hulme, Juan G Posadas-Calleja
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as an abrupt decrease in kidney function, with the most severe form requiring some method of renal replacement therapy (RRT). The use of RRT is required in 5-10% of critically ill patients who develop severe AKI. Renal replacement therapy can be provided as either intermittent hemodialysis or one of the various modes of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), with CRRT potentially conferring an advantage with respect to renal recovery and dialysis independence. There is no difference in mortality when comparing low (< 25 mL·kg-1 ·hr-1 ) vs high (> 40 mL·kg-1 ·hr-1 ) RRT dosing...
February 6, 2019: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Yin Zheng, Zhongye Xu, Qichen Fan, Qiuyu Zhu, Shuai Ma, Jianxin Lu, Feng Zhuang, Guihua Hao, Wei Lu, Feng Ding
INTRODUCTION: Calcium supplementation is one of the most important factors in maintaining the safety and efficacy of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The aims of this study were to assess the determinants of calcium requirements in RCA-CVVH and to simplify the calcium supplementation approach. METHODS: Our study consisted of two parts. The first part was a discovery phase to determine the key factors of calcium supplementation...
February 4, 2019: Hemodialysis International
Wei Zhang, Ming Bai, Yan Yu, Lu Li, Lijuan Zhao, Shiren Sun, Xiangmei Chen
BACKGROUND: Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is a widely used strategy for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Most of the current guidelines recommend liver failure as one of the contraindications for citrate anticoagulation. However, some studies suggested that the use of citrate for CRRT in liver failure patients did not increase the risk of citrate-related complications. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the current evidences on the safety and efficacy of RCA for CRRT in liver failure patients...
January 24, 2019: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Melanie Meersch, Mira Küllmar, Carola Wempe, Detlef Kindgen-Milles, Stefan Kluge, Torsten Slowinski, Gernot Marx, Joachim Gerss, Alexander Zarbock
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-recognised complication of critical illness which is of crucial importance for morbidity, mortality and health resource utilisation. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) inevitably entails an escalation of treatment complexity and increases costs for those patients with severe AKI. However, it is still not clear whether regional citrate anticoagulation or systemic heparin anticoagulation for continuous RRT (CRRT) is most appropriate. We hypothesise that, in contrast to systemic heparin anticoagulation, regional citrate anticoagulation for CRRT prolongs filter life span and improves overall survival in a 90-day follow-up period (coprimary endpoints)...
January 21, 2019: BMJ Open
Joop Jonckheer, Klaar Vergaelen, Herbert Spapen, Manu L N G Malbrain, Elisabeth De Waele
INTRODUCTION: Nutrition is an important part of treatment in critically ill children. Clinical guidelines for nutrition adaptations during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are lacking. We collected and evaluated current knowledge on this topic and provide recommendations. METHODS: Questions were produced to guide the literature search in the PubMed database. RESULTS: Evidence is scarce and extrapolation from adult data was often required...
December 20, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Giulia Roveri, Mattia Busana, Andrea Clarissa Lusardi, Federica Ferrari, Giacomo Trevisan, Luca Di Girolamo, Marco Dei Poli, Marco Vittorio Resta
During citrate-based Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT), an infusion of calcium is necessary to replace the calcium lost in the effluent. The replacement takes place through a central venous catheter (CVC) that is primed with saline solution. Thus, we hypothesized a potential systemic anticoagulation because of unchelated citrate reaching the patient at the start of CRRT because of 0.42 ml of line dead space. In this pilot study, two subpopulations of 7 patients who underwent Continuous Veno-Venous Hemodiafiltration (150 ml/min of blood flow, 1500 ml/h dialysate, 1500 ml/h of citrate predilution) were studied...
November 7, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Erin M Nystrom, Andrea M Nei
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the modality of choice in critically ill patients with hemodynamic instability requiring renal replacement therapy. The goal of this review is to discuss an overview of CRRT types, components, and important considerations for nutrition support provision. Evidence basis for guidelines and our recommendations are reviewed. Nutrition support-related implications include the possibility of calorie gain with citrate-based anticoagulation, calorie loss with glucose-free replacement fluids and dialysate, and significant amino acid losses in effluent...
December 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Q Q Ning, Q H Meng, Y K Zhu
Currently, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is one of the most important means of organ support methods in critical care medicine. Anticoagulation is an essential part of the treatment process due to its prolonged duration. Patients with liver failure often have coagulation dysfunction and heparin anticoagulant can increase the risk of bleeding, but without heparin anticoagulant, coagulation can easily occur. In addition, an increased volumetric load, hemodynamic instability, nursing workload and other problems are major issues...
July 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Detlef Kindgen-Milles, Timo Brandenburger, Thomas Dimski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The delivery of an effective dialysis dose in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) depends on adequate anticoagulation of the extracorporeal circuit. In most patients, either systemic heparin anticoagulation (SHA) or regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is used. This review will outline the basics and rationale of RCA and summarize data on safety and efficacy of both techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: The basic principle of RCA is to reduce the level of ionized calcium in the extracorporeal circuit via infusion of citrate...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Matteo Ferrario, Antonio Apicella, Mauro Della Morte, Enrico Beretta
Metformin is an antidiabetic drug; used to treat type II diabetes mellitus, metformin associated lactic acidosis has an incidence of 2-9 cases / 100,000 patients / year with high mortality (30%). We have had the case of a 75-year-old woman with metabolic acidosis as a result of metformin assumption, treated by renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). RESULTS: after a short treatment period there was a reduction in Lactates (from 16.8 mmol/L to 12...
September 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Chun Zhang, Ting Lin, Jingyao Zhang, Huan Liang, Ying Di, Na Li, Jie Gao, Wenjing Wang, Sinan Liu, Zheng Wang, Hongli Jiang, Chang Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effect and safety of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for acute kidney injury (AKI) after hepatectomy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of all patients with AKI after hepatectomy for CRRT admitted to surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from January 19th, 2013 to January 19th, 2018 was performed...
August 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Ying Yu, Sheng Peng, Zhongran Cen, Jing Cai, Wei Wang, Ying Tang, Meng Du, Zhanguo Liu, Ping Chang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a treatment for acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. It has become a controversy about whether patients with liver dysfunction should perform CRRT with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA). METHODS: This retrospective observational study enrolled 145 AKI patients (275 CRRT sessions) who received CRRT with RCA and had no history of chronic liver disease. Circuit survival time, blood pressure, trans-membrane pressure (TMP), acid-base and electrolyte status were recorded and analyzed...
2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Bo Shen, Jiarui Xu, Yimei Wang, Wuhua Jiang, Jie Teng, Xiaoqiang Ding
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is one of the most predominant forms of renal replacement therapy (RRT) currently in use now, this therapy being the initial RRT modality in most critically ill patients. However, in general, the quality of CRRT is still suboptimal. The quality of CRRT is affected by many factors, including the optimal prescription and precision delivery, the CRRT providers' professional level, and the CRRT device used. Establishment of a comprehensive quality control system covering all the aspects and procedures of CRRT is essential...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
Florent Sigwalt, Axelle Bouteleux, François Dambricourt, Théo Asselborn, Florent Moriceau, Thomas Rimmelé
The various complications of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are mostly preventable. Hemodynamic disturbances are dominated by hypotension due to the modification of volume status, myocardial dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmia, or modification of systemic vascular resistances, which are correlated with body temperature changes. Metabolic complications remain at the forefront and have profoundly changed with the use of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA). RCA may lead to two distinct situations: citrate overload and citrate accumulation, respectively, responsible for metabolic alkalosis and metabolic acidosis...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
Patrick M Honore, Herbert D Spapen
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an important and widely used adjuvant treatment in critically ill patients. However, any CRRT protocol can be adhered to only when the technique is correctly installed and functioning properly. Within this context, an appropriate vascular access and a safe and effective circuit anticoagulation method are key requisites. The right internal jugular (RIJ) vein is the preferred route for insertion with the tip of the catheter placed in the right atrium. Both femoral veins offer a valuable alternative access, but catheters must be longer to avoid recirculation and circuit blood flow is lower as compared with that of the RIJ approach...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
Mira Küllmar, Alexander Zarbock
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in critically ill patients and is associated with a worse short- and long-term outcome. The KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) guidelines suggest to implement preventive strategies in high-risk patients. Definition and classification of acute kidney injury according to the KDIGO criteria are based on an increase in serum creatinine and/or a decrease in urinary output. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is the only supportive measure in patients with severe AKI...
February 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Martin Siebeck, Thomas Dimski, Timo Brandenburger, Torsten Slowinski, Detlef Kindgen-Milles
Continuous renal replacement therapy is a standard treatment in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. All CRRT techniques provide a high low-molecular weight clearance but even with hemofiltration, clearance of middle molecules is low. We investigated whether a new super high-flux hemofilter provides effective and sustained middle molecule clearance during citrate-anticoagulated continuous venovenous hemodialysis for up to 72 h. We included 14 critically ill patients with AKI-KDIGO-III in a prospective observational trial...
February 8, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Timo Brandenburger, Thomas Dimski, Torsten Slowinski, Detlef Kindgen-Milles
Today, up to 20% of all intensive care unit patients require renal replacement therapy (RRT), and continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) are the preferred technique. In CRRT, effective anticoagulation of the extracorporeal circuit is mandatory to prevent clotting of the circuit or filter and to maintain filter performance. At present, a variety of systemic and regional anticoagulation modes for CRRT are available. Worldwide, unfractionated heparin is the most widely used anticoagulant. All systemic techniques are associated with significant adverse effects...
September 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
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