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Oxygen reserve index

Walid K Abdelbasset, Gaber S Soliman, Ahmed A Elshehawy, Saud M Alrawaili
Background: Impairment of peripheral skeletal muscle function is a common phenomenon in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in addition to great clinical connotations, such as lack of exercise tolerance and decrease of health-related quality of life. There is very limited data on the effects of maximal exercise on muscle fatiguability and exercise capacity in children with cystic fibrosis. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of progressive maximal exercise training of the lower extremities on exercise capacity and muscle fatiguability in children with cystic fibrosis...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
Bruna Romana-Souza, Andréa Monte-Alto-Costa
OBJECTIVE: Chronic stress-induced oxidative damage and protease synthesis cause a loss of extracellular matrix components promoting human skin aging. The administration of antioxidant compounds, such as those observed in olive oil, may attenuate stress-induced aging signs in human skin. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive oil administration in ex vivo stressed human skin. METHODS: Explants of human skin were treated with high levels of epinephrine (as observed in stressed patients) and olive oil in medium for 13 days...
February 10, 2019: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Mirela Bojan
A primary goal of improving neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass has been making the circuit smaller and reduce the blood contacting surfaces. As bypass circuit size has decreased, bloodless surgery has become possible even in neonates. Since transfusion guidelines are difficult to construct based on existing literature, these technical advances should be taken advantage of in conjunction with an individualized transfusion scheme, based on monitoring of oxygen availability to the tissues. For the majority of neonatal heart operations, several centres have shifted towards normothermic bypass even for complex neonatal surgeries, in order to avoid the adverse effects of hypothermia...
February 3, 2019: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Muhammad Amjad, Nuzhat Ameen, Behzad Murtaza, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Shahid, Ghulam Abbas, Muhammad Asif Naeem, Sven-Erik Jacobsen
Plant tolerance against a combination of abiotic stresses is a complex phenomenon, which involves various mechanisms. Physiological and biochemical analyses of salinity (NaCl) and nickel (Ni) tolerance in two contrasting tomato genotypes were performed in a hydroponics experiment. The tomato genotypes selected were proved to be tolerant (Naqeeb) and sensitive (Nadir) to both salinity and Ni stress in our previous experiment. The tomato genotypes were exposed to combinations of NaCl (0, 75 and 150 mM) and Ni (0, 15, and 20 mg L-1 ) for 28 days...
January 26, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Julien Fessler, Jacques Thes, Romain Pirracchio, Mathieu Godement, Edouard Sage, Antoine Roux, François Parquin, Charles Cerf, Marc Fischler, Morgan Le Guen
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the prognostic role of the arterial oxygen partial pressure / fractional inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) measured at the end of double-lung transplantation (DLT). METHODS: This was a monocentric cohort study of all consecutive DLT patients between January 1st, 2012 and January 1st, 2016 except patients with pre-operative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), intraoperative cardiopulmonary bypass, post-operative ECMO, large patent foramen ovale, redo transplantation during the study period, and multiorgan transplantation...
January 22, 2019: Clinical Transplantation
Juliane Spiegler, Robert Eves, Marina Mendonça, Dieter Wolke
AIM: To evaluate the association of physical activity (PA) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak oxygen consumption (pVO2), body mass index (BMI) and body composition in preterm born individuals. METHODS: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, AMED, ERIC, Web of Science and PsycInfo were searched with no restriction on language and date of publication from inception to January 2018. Data were extracted comparing preterm born individuals with different frequencies of PA and the outcome of interest...
January 21, 2019: Acta Paediatrica
R Ye, X J Wu, L Zhao, L H Zhu, C H Wang, Y Z Gao, Y Wang
Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of exercise ventilation and gas exchange in obese and extremely obese patients by Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX). Methods: Restrospective anal-ysis of subjects who underwent CPET in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from June 2014 to June 2017. A total of 74 subjects were enrolled. According to the body mass index (BMI), 74 subjects were divided into control group(18.5 kg/m(2)≤BMI<23.9 kg/m(2)) ( n= 21), obese group (28.0 kg/m(2)≤BMI<40...
January 12, 2019: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Mateusz Sobczyk, Agnieszka Pajdak-Stós, Edyta Fiałkowska, Wioleta Kocerba-Soroka, Joanna Starzycka-Giża, Janusz Fyda
Biological microscopic analysis is a popular method employed in wastewater treatment plants worldwide for evaluating activated sludge condition. However, many operators still have reservations regarding its reliability. In this study, we evaluated and compared two methods of microscopic sludge investigation: the sludge index (SI) and the Eikelboom-van Buijsen method (EB). We investigated 79 activated sludge samples from nine treatment plants located in southern Poland over a 1-year period. For each sample, sludge volume index values were calculated and compared with the results of evaluation made on the basis of microscopic analysis...
December 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Taylor Elyse Schlotman, Ltc Kevin S Akers, Col Shawn C Nessen, Victor A Convertino
Women generally display lower tolerance to acute central hypovolemia than men. The measurement of compensatory reserve (CRM) is a novel metric that provides information about the sum total of all mechanisms that together work to compensate for relative blood volume deficit. Hemodynamic decompensation occurs with depletion of the CRM (i.e., 0% CRM). In the present study, we hypothesized that the lower tolerance to progressive central hypovolemia reported in females can be explained by a faster reduction rate in CRM compared with males rather than sex differences in absolute integrated compensatory responses...
December 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Thomas Wyss, Lilian Roos, Fabian Studer, Urs Mäder, Christiane Beuchat, Kaspar Staub
From 1980 to 2000, physical fitness decreased and body mass index (BMI) increased in the population of many industrialised countries. Little is known about these trends after the year 2000. The present study aimed to investigate physical fitness performance, physical activity (PA) behaviour and BMI of young, male Swiss adults between 2006 and 2015. For this purpose, results from the Swiss Armed Forces mandatory recruitment were used. 306,746 male conscripts provided complete fitness test data, mean±SD (range from 5th to 95th -percentile): 20±1 (18-21)yrs...
December 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Qiang-Qiang Xiong, Tian-Hua Shen, Lei Zhong, Chang-Lan Zhu, Xiao-Song Peng, Xiao-Peng He, Jun-Ru Fu, Lin-Juan Ouyang, Jian-Min Bian, Li-Fang Hu, Xiao-Tang Sun, Jie Xu, Hui-Ying Zhou, Hao-Hua He, Xiao-Rong Chen
Abrupt drought-flood alternation (T1) is a meteorological disaster that frequently occurs during summer in southern China and the Yangtze river basin, often causing a significant loss of rice production. In this study, the response mechanism of yield decline under abrupt drought-flood alternation stress at the panicle differentiation stage were analyzed by looking at the metabolome, proteome as well as yield and physiological and biochemical indexes. The results showed that drought and flood stress caused a decrease in the yield of rice at the panicle differentiation stage, and abrupt drought-flood alternation stress created a synergistic effect for the reduction of yield...
December 18, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Ankit B Shah, Mary Z Bechis, Marcel Brown, Jennifer Michaud Finch, Garrett Loomer, Erich Groezinger, Rory B Weiner, Meagan M Wasfy, Michael H Picard, Michael A Fifer, Gregory B Lewis, Aaron L Baggish
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: Intense physical activity, a potent stimulus for sympathetic nervous system activation, is thought to increase the risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). As a result, the majority of patients with HCM deliberately reduce their habitual physical activity after diagnosis and this lifestyle change puts them at risk for sequelae of a sedentary lifestyle; weight gain, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, coronary artery disease and increased morbidity and mortality...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Antonello D'Andrea, Anna Agnese Stanziola, Rajan Saggar, Rajeev Saggar, Simona Sperlongano, Marianna Conte, Michele D'Alto, Francesco Ferrara, Luna Gargani, Patrizio Lancellotti, Eduardo Bossone
BACKGROUND: The most important determinant of long-term survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the right ventricular (RV) adaptation to the increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Our aim was to explore RV contractile reserve during stress echocardiography in early-stage IPF. METHODS: Fifty early-stage patients with IPF and 50 healthy control patients underwent rest and stress echocardiography, including RV two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography...
December 10, 2018: Chest
Masato Furuhashi, Megumi Matsumoto, Takayo Murase, Takashi Nakamura, Yukimura Higashiura, Masayuki Koyama, Marenao Tanaka, Norihito Moniwa, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Shigeyuki Saitoh, Kazuaki Shimamoto, Tetsuji Miura
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a rate-limiting and catalyzing enzyme of uric acid formation in the purine metabolism, is involved in an increase in reactive oxygen species. Plasma XOR activity has been shown to be associated with obesity, smoking, liver dysfunction, hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The association between plasma XOR activity measured by using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry and levels of adipokines, including adiponectin, fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), were investigated in 282 subjects (male/female: 126/156) with no medication of the Tanno-Sobetsu Study...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Laetitia Desplanque, Florent Hamaide-Defrocourt, Ilham Berkia, Tiffany Tourneur, Souha Albinni, Mirela Bojan
Measurement of lactate concentrations during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a reliable monitoring tool for the assessment of the adequacy of perfusion, and a predictor of poor outcome. However, increased lactate production, which is multifactorial (anaerobic metabolism, hyperglycemia), increased lactate load by packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions, and decreased lactate clearance may all result in hyperlactatemia. The aim of this study was to estimate the clearance of lactate in infants undergoing surgery with CPB, using the lactate load from the PRBCs transfusions received during CPB...
December 4, 2018: Artificial Organs
João D Mattos, Monique O Campos, Marcos P Rocha, Daniel E Mansur, Helena N M Rocha, Vinicius P Garcia, Gabriel Batista, Thiago S Alvares, Gustavo V Oliveira, Mônica V Souza, Rogério L R Videira, Natalia G Rocha, Niels H Secher, Antonio C L Nóbrega, Igor A Fernandes
KEY POINTS: It is unknown whether excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production drives the isocapnic hyperoxia (IH)-induced decline in human cerebral blood flow (CBF) via reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or neural-parenchymal damage. Cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMR <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msub> <mml:mrow/> <mml:msub> <mml:mi>O</mml:mi> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:msub> </mml:msub> </mml:math> ) and transcerebral exchanges of NO end-products, oxidants, antioxidants and neural-parenchymal damage markers were simultaneously quantified under IH with intravenous saline and ascorbic acid infusion...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Lisa M Walter, Knarik Tamanyan, Aidan J Weichard, Margot J Davey, Gillian M Nixon, Rosemary Sc Horne
KEY POINT SUMMARY: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) affects 4 - 11% of children and is associated with adverse neurocognitive, behavioural and cardiovascular outcomes, including reduced autonomic control. The relationship between heart rate variability (HRV; a measure of autonomic control), and age found in non-snoring control children was absent during sleep in children with SDB. Age significantly predicted increasing cerebral oxygenation during wake in non-snoring control children, whereas during sleep, HRV significantly predicted decreasing cerebral oxygenation...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Julien Fessler, Mathieu Godement, Romain Pirracchio, Jean-Yves Marandon, Jacques Thes, Edouard Sage, Antoine Roux, François Parquin, Charles Cerf, Marc Fischler, Morgan Le Guen
OBJECTIVE: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is usually used during lung transplantation despite controversial postoperative benefits. Our group chose to administer iNO systematically during the procedure and stop at end of surgery. This study aims to describe the features of patients who cannot be weaned from iNO, the reasons for this and its impact on postoperative outcomes. METHODS: This is a monocentric cohort study comprised all consecutive patients who underwent double-lung transplantation (DLT) between January 1st, 2012 and January 1, 2016...
November 17, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Zdenek Provaznik, Christoph Unterbuchner, Alois Philipp, Maik Foltan, Marcus Creutzenberg, Simon Schopka, Daniele Camboni, Christof Schmid, Bernhard Floerchinger
The use of minimized cardiopulmonary bypass support to reduce the side effects of extracorporeal circulation is still contradictorily discussed. This study compares perfusion operated by conventional (CCPB) and minimized (MCPB) cardiopulmonary bypass support during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: This study includes the data of 5164 patients treated at our department between 2004 and 2014. Tissue perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass support and cardiac arrest was assessed by means of body mass index, hemodilution, blood pressure with corresponding pump flow and venous oxygen saturation, serum lactate, and serum pH...
November 9, 2018: Artificial Organs
Jacqueline Huvanandana, Cindy Thamrin, Murray Hinder, Alistair McEwan, Mark B Tracy
AIM: To evaluate cerebral autoregulation changes in preterm infants receiving a loading dose of caffeine base. METHODS: In a cohort of 30 preterm infants, we extracted measures of cerebral autoregulation using time and frequency domain techniques to determine the correlation between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) signals. These measures included the cerebral oximetry index (COx), cross-correlation and coherence measures, and were extracted prior to caffeine loading and in the 2 hours following administration of 10 mg/kg caffeine base...
November 7, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
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