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b Glucan

Shumei Hu, Jin Wang, Fahui Li, Pengbo Hou, Jiayu Yin, Zixun Yang, Xiaoqian Yang, Ting Li, Bin Xia, Guanghai Zhou, Min Liu, Weiguo Song, Shoudong Guo
Water extracts of the edible mushroom Cordyceps militaris possess a lipid-lowering effect. However, the types of components and how they exert this effect are not clear. In this study, two novel polysaccharides, CM1 and CMS, were isolated, and their cholesterol efflux improving capacity was investigated in vitro. The molecular weight of CM1 was approximately 700 kDa, and its main chain was consisted of (1 → 4)-β-D-Glcp and (1 → 2)-α-D-manp branched at the O-6 positions of (1 → 2,6)-α-D-manp with (1 → 2) linked-β-D-galf, (1 → 2)-α-D-manp or methyl and terminated with β-D-Galf and α-D-Manp...
March 12, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Dinglong Yang, Yijing Han, Lizhu Chen, Yongliang Liu, Ruiwen Cao, Qing Wang, Jianmin Zhao
In the present study, a scavenger receptor class B type I (designed as RpSR-BI) was cloned and characterized from manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The full-length cDNA of RpSR-BI was of 2000 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1515 bp. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that RpSR-BI was a member of the scavenger receptors family. The mRNA transcript of RpSR-BI was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, and mainly expressed in hepatopancreas and hemocytes...
March 8, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Alecia M Blaszczak, Valerie P Wright, Kajol Anandani, Joey Liu, Anahita Jalilvand, Stephen Bergin, Sarah M Nicoloro, Michael P Czech, William Lafuse, Tuo Deng, David Bradley, Willa A Hsueh
Macrophages, B cells, and adipocytes are among the adipose tissue (AT) APCs that differentiate and activate naive CD4+ T cells. Mice with adipocyte loss of MHC class II (MHC II) are more insulin sensitive. Because macrophages are professional APCs, mice with genetic myeloid MHC II depletion (myeloid MHC II knockout [mMHCII-/- ]) were created and metabolically characterized. FITC+ glucan-coated particles (glucan-encapsulated small interfering RNA [siRNA] particles [GeRPs]) were also used to target MHC II knockout specifically in AT macrophages (ATMs)...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Vikram Mehraj, Rayoun Ramendra, Stéphane Isnard, Franck P Dupuy, Bertrand Lebouché, Cecilia Costiniuk, Réjean Thomas, Jason Szabo, Jean-Guy Baril, Benoit Trottier, Pierre Coté, Roger LeBlanc, Madéleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Ido Kema, Yonglong Zhang, Malcolm Finkelman, Cécile Tremblay, Jean-Pierre Routy
Background: CXCL13 is preferentially secreted by Follicular Helper T cells (TFH ) to attract B cells to germinal centers. Plasma levels of CXCL13 have been reported to be elevated during chronic HIV-infection, however there is limited data on such elevation during early phases of infection and on the effect of ART. Moreover, the contribution of CXCL13 to disease progression and systemic immune activation have been partially defined. Herein, we assessed the relationship between plasma levels of CXCL13 and systemic immune activation...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Christian Sonnendecker, Wolfgang Zimmermann
Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases (CGTases) convert α-1,4-glucans to cyclic oligosaccharides (cyclodextrins, CD), which have found applications in the food and the pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we used two CGTases with different cyclization activities, product specificities, and pH and temperature optima to construct chimeric variants for the synthesis of large-ring CD. We used (a) a synthetic thermostable CGTase mainly forming α- and β-CD (CD6 and CD7) derived from Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1/NO2 (GeoT), and (b) a CGTase with lower cyclization activity from the alkaliphilic Bacillus sp...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Suresh Ambati, Aileen R Ferarro, S Earl Kang, Jianfeng Lin, Xiaorong Lin, Michelle Momany, Zachary A Lewis, Richard B Meagher
Aspergillus species cause pulmonary invasive aspergillosis resulting in nearly 100,000 deaths each year. Patients at the greatest risk of developing life-threatening aspergillosis have weakened immune systems and/or various lung disorders. Patients are treated with antifungals such as amphotericin B (AmB), caspofungin acetate, or triazoles (itraconazole, voriconazole, etc.), but these antifungal agents have serious limitations due to lack of sufficient fungicidal effect and human toxicity. Liposomes with AmB intercalated into the lipid membrane (AmB-LLs; available commercially as AmBisome) have severalfold-reduced toxicity compared to that of detergent-solubilized drug...
February 13, 2019: MSphere
Ellen C Giese, Robert F H Dekker, Aneli M Barbosa-Dekker
The ascomycetous fungus, Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05, secretes a (1→3)(1→6)-β-D-glucan, and the scaled-up production of this β-glucan results in large amounts of mycelial biomass being produced that represent a potentially cost-effective biosorbent for rare-earth elements. High sorption capacities for both La(III) and Sm(III) were demonstrated for viable and autoclaved lyophilized fungal mycelium. FT-IR absorption spectra and the point of zero charge were similar for the viable and inactive fungal mycelia...
February 9, 2019: Biotechnology Progress
Somanjana Khatua, Krishnendu Acharya
In our previous research, Russula alatoreticula was demonstrated as a novel species, ethnic myco-food and reservoir of hot water extractable polysaccharides. However, residue after the hydrothermal process still offer plenty of medicinal carbohydrates that could easily be extracted by using alkali solvent. Thus, the present work was attempted to prepare crude polysaccharide using remainder of the conventional method and subsequently a β-glucan enriched fraction, RualaCap, was isolated. The bio-polymers displayed pronounced therapeutic efficacy as evident by radical scavenging, chelating ability, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity...
February 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
Vika Gabe, Tomas Kacergius, Saleh Abu-Lafi, Povilas Kalesinskas, Mahmud Masalha, Mizied Falah, Basheer Abu-Farich, Andrius Melninkaitis, Mouhammad Zeidan, Anwar Rayan
This study aimed to test the effectiveness of ethyl gallate (EG) against S. mutans biofilm formation on solid surfaces (polystyrene, glass) and acidogenicity, and to examine the effect on expression of related genes. The biofilm that is formed by S. mutans bacteria was evaluated using colorimetric assay and optical profilometry, while the pH of the biofilm growth medium was measured with microelectrode. The expression of genes encoding glucan binding protein B ( gbpB ), glucosyltranferases B, -C, -D ( gtfB, -C, -D ) and F-ATPase ( atpD , atpF ) was assessed using a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
February 1, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tian Chen, Joseph W Jackson, Robert N Tams, Sarah E Davis, Timothy E Sparer, Todd B Reynolds
Candida albicans is among the most common causes of human fungal infections and is an important source of mortality. C. albicans is able to diminish its detection by innate immune cells through masking of β (1,3)-glucan in the inner cell wall with an outer layer of heavily glycosylated mannoproteins (mannan). However, mutations or drugs that disrupt the cell wall can lead to exposure of β (1,3)-glucan (unmasking) and enhanced detection by innate immune cells through receptors like Dectin-1, the C-type signaling lectin...
January 31, 2019: PLoS Genetics
Maartje C P Cleophas, Jacqueline M Ratter, Siroon Bekkering, Jessica Quintin, Kiki Schraa, Erik S Stroes, Mihai G Netea, Leo A B Joosten
Sodium butyrate is well-known for its immune-modulatory properties. Studies until now only focused on the in vitro effects of butyrate or assessed local effects in the gut upon butyrate administration. In this trial, we studied the systemic anti-inflammatory effects induced by sodium butyrate supplementation in humans. Nine healthy (Lean) and ten obese (metabolic syndrome group, MetSyn) males were given 4 grams sodium butyrate daily for 4 weeks. PBMCs were isolated before and after supplementation for direct stimulation experiments and induction of trained immunity by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), β-glucan, or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG)...
January 28, 2019: Scientific Reports
Hideharu Hagiya, Tetsuo Maeda, Shinsuke Kusakabe, Keisuke Kawasaki, Yumiko Hori, Keigo Kimura, Akiko Ueda, Nori Yoshioka, Atsuko Sunada, Isao Nishi, Eiichi Morii, Yuzuru Kanakura, Kazunori Tomono
Exophiala dermatitidis is a dematiaceous fungus that is increasingly becoming the cause of fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. However, the risk factors and optimal treatment modality for E. dermatitidis infection are unknown to date. Herein, we present a fatal case of E. dermatitidis infection in an adult patient that developed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. The dematiaceous fungus caused a breakthrough fungemia despite prophylactic administration of micafungin...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Thomas J Walsh, Aspasia Katragkou, Tempe Chen, Christine M Salvatore, Emmanuel Roilides
This paper reviews recent advances in three selected areas of pediatric invasive candidiasis: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Although the epidemiological trends of pediatric invasive candidiasis illustrate a declining incidence, this infection still carries a heavy burden of mortality and morbidity that warrants a high index of clinical suspicion, the need for rapid diagnostic systems, and the early initiation of antifungal therapy. The development of non-culture-based technologies, such as the T2Candida system and (1→3)-β-d-glucan detection assay, offers the potential for early laboratory detection of candidemia and CNS candidiasis, respectively...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Matthew H Foley, Guillaume Déjean, Glyn R Hemsworth, Gideon J Davies, Harry Brumer, Nicole M Koropatkin
Dietary fiber is an important food source for members of the human gut microbiome. Members of the dominant Bacteroidetes phylum capture diverse polysaccharides via the action of multiple cell surface proteins encoded within Polysaccharide Utilization Loci (PUL). The independent activities of PUL-encoded glycoside hydrolases (GH) and surface glycan-binding proteins (SGBPs) for the harvest of various glycans have been studied in detail, but how these proteins work together to coordinate uptake is poorly understood...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Molecular Biology
Estefanía Butassi, Laura A Svetaz, Maximiliano A Sortino, Ariel D Quiroga, Vanessa S D Carvalho, Juan C G Cortés, Juan C Ribas, Susana A Zacchino
BACKGROUND: In our previous study the synergism of four combinations of Zuccagnia punctata (ZpE) and Larrea nitida (LnE) exudates with the reliable statistical-based MixLow method was assessed, and the markers of the most anti-C. albicans synergistic ZpE-LnE bi-herbal combination were quantified according to European Medicines Agency (EMA). PURPOSE: To study the mechanisms of action as well as the cytotoxic properties of the ZpE-LnE most synergistic combination found in the previous work...
July 6, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Pallavi Kaila, Gurkaran Singh Mehta, Neeraj Dhaunta, Purnananda Guptasarma
Pyrococcus furiosus exoamylase-cum-4-α-glucanotransferase (4-α-GTase; PF0272; PfuAmyGT) is reported to both (i) act upon starch, and (ii) catalyze 'disproportionation' of maltooligosaccharides (with glucose as the smallest product). PfuAmyGT shares ∼65% sequence identity with a homo-dimeric Thermococcus litoralis 4-α-GTase, for which structures are available in complex with a non-hydrolysable analog of maltotetraose (acarbose) bound to one subunit and maltose (of unknown origin) bound to the other subunit...
January 11, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
L Fredriksen, R Stokke, M S Jensen, B Westereng, J-K Jameson, I H Steen, V G H Eijsink
A two-domain GH10 xylanase encoding gene (a mor_gh10a ) was discovered from a metagenomic dataset, generated after in situ incubation of a lignocellulosic substrate in hot sediments on the sea floor of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). AMOR_GH10A comprises a signal peptide, a carbohydrate-binding module belonging to a previously uncharacterized family, and a catalytic glycosyl hydrolase (GH10) domain. The enzyme shares the highest sequence identity (42%) with a hypothetical protein from Verrucomicrobia bacterium, and its GH10 domain shares low identity (24-28%) with functionally characterized xylanases...
January 11, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ha-Yan Park, Hee-Kyung Yoon, Jong-Yeup Kim, Seok-Rae Park
Dectin-1 is a major receptor that recognizes fungal cell wall β-glucan. We previously reported that heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HKSC), a Dectin-1 agonist, selectively induces IgG1 class switching in mouse B cells. Dectin-1 is also expressed on human B cells; however, Dectin-1 function in human B cells remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the direct effect of in vitro stimulation using HKSC on Ig class switching in human B cells. HKSC selectively induced the expression of germline γ4 transcripts (GLTγ4) by human B cell line 2E2, and HKSC significantly augmented GLTγ4 promoter activity...
December 2018: Immune Network
Thea Magrone, Matteo Antonio Russo, Emilio Jirillo
Fish despite their low collocation in the vertebrate phylum possess a complete immune system. In teleost fish both innate and adaptive immune responses have been described with melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) equivalent to mammalian germinal centers. Primary lymphoid organs are represented by the thymus and kidney, while spleen and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues act as secondary lymphoid organs. Functions of either innate immune cells (e.g., macrophages and dendritic cells) or adaptive immune cells (T and B lymphocytes) will be described in detail, even including their products, such as cytokines and antibodies...
January 4, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Xi Wang, E David Peebles, Aaron S Kiess, Kelley G S Wamsley, Wei Zhai
Effects of the coccidial vaccination and dietary antimicrobial alternatives on growth performance, internal organ development, and intestinal morphology of male broilers subjected to an Eimeria challenge were determined. A total of 1,120 one d-old Ross × Ross 708 male broilers were randomly distributed to 80 floor pens (10 treatments, 8 replication pens/treatment, and 14 chicks/pen). A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to determine the main and interaction effects of the coccidial vaccination (vaccinated or non-vaccinated) and the dietary additive [1) corn and soybean-meal basal diet, 2) basal diet + antimicrobials (bacitracin and salinomycin), 3) basal diet + probiotics (3 Bacillus subtilis strains), 4) basal diet + prebiotics (mannan-oligosaccharides and β-glucans), and 5) basal diet + probiotics + prebiotics]...
December 22, 2018: Poultry Science
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