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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771308/pre-existing-fibroblasts-of-epicardial-origin-are-the-primary-source-of-pathological-fibrosis-in-cardiac-ischemia-and-aging
#1
Pearl Quijada, Adwiteeya Misra, Lissette S Velasquez, Ryan M Burke, Janet K Lighthouse, Deanne M Mickelsen, Ronald A Dirkx, Eric M Small
Serum response factor (SRF) and the SRF co-activators myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are essential for epicardium-derived progenitor cell (EPDC)-mobilization during heart development; however, the impact of developmental EPDC deficiencies on adult cardiac physiology has not been evaluated. Here, we utilize the Wilms Tumor-1 (Wt1)-Cre to delete Mrtfs or Srf in the epicardium, which reduced the number of EPDCs in the adult cardiac interstitium. Deficiencies in Wt1-lineage EPDCs prevented the development of cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in aged mice...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770786/oocyte-derived-e-cadherin-acts-as-a-multiple-functional-factor-maintaining-the-primordial-follicle-pool-in-mice
#2
Hao Yan, Jia Wen, Tuo Zhang, Wenying Zheng, Meina He, Kun Huang, Qirui Guo, Qian Chen, Yi Yang, Guangcun Deng, Jinrui Xu, Zhiqing Wei, Hua Zhang, Guoliang Xia, Chao Wang
In mammals, female fecundity is determined by the size of the primordial follicle (PF) pool, which is established during the perinatal period. As a non-renewable resource, the preservation of dormant PFs is crucial for sustaining female reproduction throughout life. Although studies have revealed that several oocyte-derived functional genes and pathways, such as newborn ovary homeobox (NOBOX) and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1, participate in maintaining the PF pool, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still incomplete...
February 15, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770467/the-malate-activated-almt12-anion-channel-in-the-grass-brachypodium-distachyon-is-co-activated-by-ca-2-calmodulin
#3
Khanh Luu, Nandhakishore Rajagopalan, John C H Ching, Michele C Loewen, Matthew E Loewen
In plants, strict regulation of stomatal pores is critical for modulation of CO2 fixation and transpiration. Under certain abiotic and biotic stressors, pore closure is initiated through anionic flux, with calcium (Ca2+ ), playing a central role. The aluminum-activated malate transporter 12 (ALMT12) is a malate-activated, voltage-dependent member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter family, implicated in anionic flux from guard cells controlling stomatal aperture. Herein, we report the characterization of the regulatory mechanisms mediating channel activities of an ALMT from the grass Brachypodium distachyon (BdALMT12), with highest sequence identity to Arabidopsis thaliana ALMT12...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765684/resveratrol-reduces-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-podocytes-via-sir2-related-enzymes-sirtuins1-sirt1-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-co-activator-1%C3%AE-pgc-1%C3%AE-axis
#4
Tao Zhang, Yanqing Chi, Yunzhuo Ren, Chunyang Du, Yonghong Shi, Ying Li
BACKGROUND PGC-1α can be activated by deacetylation reactions catalyzed by SIRT1. Resveratrol is currently known as a potent activator of SIRT1. However, it is unknown whether the renal-protective effect of resveratrol is further related to activation of the podocyte SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS High glucose was used to stimulate mouse podocytes. Resveratrol and PGC-1α siRNA transfection were used to perform co-intervention treatments. The protein and mRNA expression levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, and TFAM were detect by immunofluorescence, Western blot analysis, and qRT-PCR in the podocytes, respectively...
February 15, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762089/chronic-administration-of-the-histamine-h-3-receptor-agonist-immepip-decreases-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesias-in-6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned-rats
#5
Alberto Avila-Luna, Camilo Ríos, Arturo Gálvez-Rosas, Sergio Montes, José-Antonio Arias-Montaño, Antonio Bueno-Nava
RATIONALE: Histamine H3 receptors (H3 Rs) are co-expressed with dopamine D1 receptors (D1 Rs) by striato-nigral medium spiny GABAergic neurons, where they functionally antagonize D1 R-mediated responses. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We examined whether the chronic administration of the H3 R agonist immepip modifies dyskinesias induced by L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, L-Dopa (LIDs), in rats lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and the effect of D1 R and H3 R co-activation on glutamate and GABA content in dialysates from the dorsal striatum of naïve rats...
February 14, 2019: Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30754706/gli-proteins-regulation-in-development-and-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Paweł Niewiadomski, Sylwia M Niedziółka, Łukasz Markiewicz, Tomasz Uśpieński, Brygida Baran, Katarzyna Chojnowska
Gli proteins are transcriptional effectors of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. They play key roles in the development of many organs and tissues, and are deregulated in birth defects and cancer. We review the molecular mechanisms of Gli protein regulation in mammals, with special emphasis on posttranslational modifications and intracellular transport. We also discuss how Gli proteins interact with co-activators and co-repressors to fine-tune the expression of Hedgehog target genes. Finally, we provide an overview of the regulation of developmental processes and tissue regeneration by Gli proteins and discuss how these proteins are involved in cancer progression, both through canonical regulation via the Hedgehog pathway and through cross-talk with other signaling pathways...
February 11, 2019: Cells
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30748060/neuromuscular-control-during-gait-in-people-with-haemophilic-arthropathy
#7
Carlos Cruz-Montecinos, Sofía Pérez-Alenda, Mauricio Cerda, Huub Maas
INTRODUCTION: Effects of haemophilic arthropathy on neuromuscular control during gait are currently unknown. AIMS: (a) To assess how haemophilic arthropathy affects the complexity of neuromuscular control during gait; (b) To investigate the relationship between complexity of neuromuscular control and joint impairment. METHODS: Thirteen control subjects (CG) walked overground at their preferred and a slow velocity and thirteen people with haemophilic arthropathy (PWHA) walking at their preferred velocity...
February 12, 2019: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740854/sfp1-links-torc1-and-cell-growth-regulation-to-the-yeast-saga-complex-component-tra1-in-response-to-polyq-proteotoxicity
#8
Yuwei Jiang, Matthew D Berg, Julie Genereaux, Khadija Ahmed, Martin L Duennwald, Christopher J Brandl, Patrick Lajoie
Chromatin remodeling regulates gene expression in response to the accumulation of misfolded polyQ proteins associated with Huntington's disease (HD). Tra1 is an essential component of both the SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 transcription co-activator complexes and is linked to multiple cellular processes, including protein trafficking and signaling pathways associated with misfolded protein stress. Cells with compromised Tra1 activity display phenotypes distinct from deletions encoding components of the SAGA and NuA4 complexes, indicating a potentially unique regulatory role of Tra1 in the cellular response to protein misfolding...
February 10, 2019: Traffic
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733605/the-orbitofrontal-cortex-modulates-parenting-stress-in-the-maternal-brain
#9
Madoka Noriuchi, Yoshiaki Kikuchi, Kumiko Mori, Yoko Kamio
Many mothers are adaptive, deploying successful coping strategies that mitigate the deleterious effects of parenting stress on caregiving, nevertheless, the neural mechanisms underlying these adaptive responses remain unclear. We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activity in 28 healthy mothers of typically developing, 2-to-3-year-old children in response to the feeding behavior of their own children versus that of other children. We then examined the correlation between maternal brain activation and subjective feelings of parenting stress...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732857/maml1-regulates-emt-markers-expression-through-notch-independent-pathway-in-breast-cancer-cell-line-mcf7
#10
Seyedeh Mahya Shariat Razavi, Mohammad Mahdi Forghanifard, Dor Mohammad Kordi-Tamandani, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan
Tumor relapse is the main cause of breast cancer related deaths and metastasis due to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) having a critical role in this process. MAML1 is the main co activator of NOTCH signaling pathway and its role in EMT remains unknown. In this study, this role was evaluated through overexpression and knockdown study of MAML1 in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. MAML1 overexpression up regulated the epithelial and down regulated the mesenchymal markers. In addition, MAML1 silencing decreased epithelial and increased mesenchymal markers...
February 4, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723975/quality-of-life-in-caregivers-compared-with-dialysis-recipients-the-co-active-sub-study-of-the-active-dialysis-trial
#11
Nicholas A Gray, Li Zuo, Daqing Hong, Smyth Brendan, Jun Min, Janak De Zoysa, Kha Vo, Kirsten Howard, Jing Wang, Chunlai Lu, Zhangsuo Liu, Alan Cass, Vlado Perkovic, Meg Jardine
AIM: To compare quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of dialysis patients with the cared for patients and population norms. METHODS: The ACTIVE Dialysis study randomised participants to extended (median 24 hours/week) or standard (median 12 hours/week) haemodialysis hours for 12 months. A subgroup of participants and their nominated caregivers completed QOL questionnaires including the EuroQOL-5 Dimension-3 Level (EQ5D-3L), Short Form-36 (SF-36, also allowing estimation of the SF-6D), as well as a bespoke questionnaire and the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI)...
February 5, 2019: Nephrology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719975/differential-regulation-of-the-drosophila-sleep-homeostat-by-circadian-and-arousal-inputs
#12
Jinfei D Ni, Adishthi S Gurav, Weiwei Liu, Tyler H Ogunmowo, Hannah Hackbart, Ahmed Elsheikh, Andrew A Verdegaal, Craig Montell
One output arm of the sleep homeostat in Drosophila appears to be a group of neurons with projections to the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB neurons) of the central complex in the brain. However, neurons that regulate the sleep homeostat remain poorly understood. Using neurogenetic approaches combined with Ca2+ imaging, we characterized synaptic connections between dFB neurons and distinct sets of upstream sleep-regulatory neurons. One group of the sleep-promoting upstream neurons is a set of circadian pacemaker neurons that activates dFB neurons via direct glutaminergic excitatory synaptic connections...
February 5, 2019: ELife
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717258/yap-and-taz-heterogeneity-in-primary-liver-cancer-an-analysis-of-its-prognostic-and-diagnostic-role
#13
Matthias Van Haele, Iván M Moya, Ruçhan Karaman, Guy Rens, Janne Snoeck, Olivier Govaere, Frederik Nevens, Chris Verslype, Baki Topal, Diethard Monbaliu, Georg Halder, Tania Roskams
Primary liver cancer comprises a diverse group of liver tumors. The heterogeneity of these tumors is seen as one of the obstacles to finding an effective therapy. The Hippo pathway, with its downstream transcriptional co-activator Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), has a decisive role in the carcinogenesis of primary liver cancer. Therefore, we examined the expression pattern of YAP and TAZ in 141 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma keratin 19 positive (HCC K19⁺), hepatocellular carcinoma keratin 19 negative (HCC K19- ), combined hepatocellular⁻cholangiocarcinoma carcinoma (cHCC-CCA), or cholangiocarcinoma (CCA)...
February 1, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716610/exploring-distinct-default-mode-and-semantic-networks-using-a-systematic-ica-approach
#14
Rebecca L Jackson, Lauren L Cloutman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Resting-state networks (RSNs; groups of regions consistently co-activated without an explicit task) are hugely influential in modern brain research. Despite this popularity, the link between specific RSNs and their functions remains elusive, limiting the impact on cognitive neuroscience (where the goal is to link cognition to neural systems). Here we present a series of logical steps to formally test the relationship between a coherent RSN with a cognitive domain. This approach is applied to a challenging and significant test-case; extracting a recently-proposed semantic RSN, determining its relation with a well-known RSN, the default mode network (DMN), and assessing their roles in semantic cognition...
January 14, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716474/histone-h3k9-demethylase-jmjd1a-is-a-co-activator-of-erythropoietin-expression-under-hypoxia
#15
Zhantao Tian, Lv Yao, Yongqing Shen, Xiaoqiang Guo, Xianglin Duan
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a secreted hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells, and the level of EPO is increased under hypoxia. The expression of EPO is regulated not only by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) but also partly through epigenetic modifications, including histone acetylation and methylation. In this study, we report that histone H3K9 demethylase JMJD1 A is regulated by HIF-2α in HepG2 cells under hypoxia. Knockdown or over-expression of JMJD1 A can decrease or increase EPO expression, respectively...
February 1, 2019: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716312/irs-1-targets-taz-to-inhibit-adipogenesis-of-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-pi3k-akt-and-mek-erk-pathways
#16
Na Wang, Yukun Li, Ziyi Li, Jianxia Ma, Xuelun Wu, Runzhou Pan, Yan Wang, Liu Gao, Xiaoxue Bao, Peng Xue
Gene modification of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offers a promising approach for clinical stem cell therapy. Transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) plays a vital role in MSCs' differentiation. We aim to explore the interaction of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) with TAZ to regulate MSCs' adipogenesis in this study. Initially, IRS-1 and TAZ followed similar decreasing expression pattern at the early stage of adipogenesis. And, overexpression of IRS-1 decreased the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and peroxi-some proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression with TAZ upregulation...
February 1, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698350/one-step-conversion-of-glutamic-acid-into-2-pyrrolidone-on-supported-ru-catalyst-in-hydrogen-atmosphere-remarkable-effect-of-co-activation
#17
Satoshi Suganuma, Akihiro Otani, Shota Joka, Hiroki Asako, Rika Takagi, Etsushi Tsuji, Naonobu Katada
Glutamic acid, an abundant non-essential amino acid, was converted into 2-pyrrolidone in the presence of a Ru-supported catalyst under pressurized hydrogen atmosphere. This reaction pathway proceeded through the dehydration of glutamic acid into pyroglutamic acid, subsequent hydrogenation, and the dehydrogenation-decarbonylation of pyroglutaminol into 2-pyrrolidone. In the conversion of pyroglutaminol, Ru/Al2O3 exhibited extremely higher activity than Pt-, Pd-, and Rh-supported catalysts. Infrared (IR) analysis revealed that Ru can hydrogenate formed CO through dehydrogenation-decarbonylation of hydroxymethyl groups in pyroglutaminol, and also can easily desorb CH4 from active sites on Ru...
January 30, 2019: ChemSusChem
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696983/age-associated-antigen-presenting-cell-alterations-promote-dry-eye-inducing-th1-cells
#18
Fang Bian, Yangyan Xiao, Flavia L Barbosa, Rodrigo G de Souza, Humberto Hernandez, Zhiyuan Yu, Stephen C Pflugfelder, Cintia S de Paiva
Aging is a significant risk factor for dry eye. Here we used a murine aging model to investigate the effects of aging on antigen presenting cells (APCs) and generation of pathogenic T helper (Th)-1 cells. Our results showed that APCs from aged mice accumulate at the conjunctiva, have higher levels of co-activation marker CD86 and lower aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Using topical ovalbumin peptide as a surrogate antigen, we observed an increased number of antigen-loaded APCs in the draining cervical lymph nodes in the aged group and loss of tight junction protein occludin in the conjunctiva...
January 29, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691485/znf326-promotes-malignant-phenotype-of-glioma-by-up-regulating-hdac7-expression-and-activating-wnt-pathway
#19
Xinmiao Yu, Minghao Wang, Jingjing Wu, Qiang Han, Xiupeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Zinc-finger protein-326 (ZNF326) was initially found in the NIH3T3 cell line to regulate cell growth, however, the expression and underlying role of ZNF326 in human tumours, especially in glioma, is not fully understood. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression of ZNF326 in glioma tissues, and statistical analysis was used to analyse the relationship between ZNF326 expression and clinicopathological factors. The effect of ZNF326 on glioma cells proliferation and invasion was conducted by functional experiments both in vivo and in vitro...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30681271/evaluation-of-sumo1-and-pou2af1-in-whole-blood-from-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-and-at-risk-relatives
#20
Maria Fernanda Romo-García, Hilda Susana Nava-Ramírez, Martin Zapata-Zúñiga, Noe Macías-Segura, David Santiago-Algarra, Jose Dionisio Castillo-Ortiz, Yadira Bastián, Cesar Ramos-Remus, Jose Antonio Enciso-Moreno, Julio Enrique Castañeda-Delgado
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic and symmetrical inflammation of synovial tissue with subsequent joint destruction. SUMO1 is an important regulator of apoptosis through non-canonical mechanism in synovial fibroblasts, and POU2AF1 is a known B-cell transcriptional co-activator. The specific objective of this study was to measure the expression of SUMO1 and POU2AF1 on first-degree relatives of patients with RA and also in the preclinical and clinical stages of RA and describe their possible role in RA physiopathology...
January 25, 2019: International Journal of Immunogenetics
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