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Medical Application

S Shanmugasundar, N Kannan, E Sundaravadivel, Sarang Zsolt, K S Mukunthan, J Manokaran, J Narendranath, V P Kamalakannan, P Kavitha, V Prabhu, N Balasubramanian
BACKGROUND: The application of polymeric materials in medical industry has grown drastically in the last two decades due to their various advantages compared to existing materials. The present research work emphases on the sol-gel technique to formulate the polymethyl methyl acrylate/polystyrene/silica composite membrane. METHODS: The characteristic of the composite was investigated through modern state art of instrumentation. RESULTS: The functional groups attached to the polymer was absorbed by FTIR...
2019: PloS One
Steven G Schauer, Patrick C Ng, Michael D April, Guyon J Hill, Allyson A Arana, Vikhyat S Bebarta
BACKGROUND: Vascular access in critically ill pediatric patients can be challenging with delays potentially leading to worse outcomes. Intraosseous (IO) access has a low rate of complications and can be utilized to administer lifesaving medications. Combat medics are trained to treat adults but may also be required to treat children in the deployed setting. Vascular access in children can be challenging, especially in a hypovolemic state. There are limited data on prehospital lifesaving interventions in children in the combat setting...
March 19, 2019: Pediatric Emergency Care
Fiona E Gallahue, Katherine M Hiller, Steven B Bird, Mary Rose Calderone Haas, Nicole M Deiorio, H Gene Hern, Zachary J Jarou, Ava Pierce, Thomas Geiger, Laura Fletcher
PURPOSE: To evaluate how emergency medicine (EM) residency programs perceived and used Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) SVI total scores and videos during the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) 2018 cycle. METHOD: Study 1 (November 2017) used a program director survey to evaluate user reactions to the SVI following the first year of operational use. Study 2 (January 2018) analyzed program usage of SVI video responses using data collected through the AAMC Program Director's Workstation...
March 19, 2019: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
José Antonio Chehuen Neto, Lucas Assis Costa, Gabriela Mazorque Estevanin, Tomás Costa Bignoto, Camila Isabela Ribeiro Vieira, Frederico Afonso Rios Pinto, Renato Erothildes Ferreira
Functional Health Literacy (FHL) is the ability to retrieve, process and understand information in order to make appropriate decisions regarding self-care, defined by the World Health Organization as a social determinant of health. Its evaluation is important especially between patients with noncommunicable chronic diseases, given the need of permanent health care. This paper aims to evaluate the FHL in patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases and possible implications to the understanding of the disease and medical instructions and adherence to the measures proposed by health professionals...
March 2019: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Huijun Ding, Xiaolan Shu, Yukun Jin, Taojian Fan, Han Zhang
Acoustic devices are widely applied in telephone communication, human-computer voice interaction systems, medical ultrasound examination, and other applications. However, traditional acoustic devices are hard to integrate into a flexible system and therefore it is necessary to fabricate light weight and flexible acoustic devices for audible sound generation and detection. Recent advances in acoustic devices have greatly overcome the limitations of conventional acoustic sensors in terms of sensitivity, tunability, photostability, and in vivo applicability by employing nanomaterials...
March 20, 2019: Nanoscale
Silvan Staufert, Harun Torlakcik, Salvador Pane, Christofer Hierold
Parylene-C is a frequently used polymeric thinfilm coating in medical applications and is known for its excellent biocompatibility and flexible deposition process. However, its use in long-term implants is limited due to its poor adhesion to metals in liquid environments. In this work we present a strategy to anchor Parylene-C to medical grade titanium (Ti) by means of nanostructuring the Ti substrates surface prior to Parylene coating. We observe that, after aging in physiological salt solution for 3 days, Parylene coating lose their adhesion to bare titanium surfaces...
March 15, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Junpeng Wang, Liang Gou, Wei Zhang, Hao Yang, Han-Wei Shen
Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have been extensively used in multiple disciplines due to their superior performance. However, in most cases, DNNs are considered as black-boxes and the interpretation of their internal working mechanism is usually challenging. Given that model trust is often built on the understanding of how a model works, the interpretation of DNNs becomes more important, especially in safety-critical applications (e.g., medical diagnosis, autonomous driving). In this paper, we propose DeepVID, a Deep learning approach to Visually Interpret and Diagnose DNN models, especially image classifiers...
March 15, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Florian Heinrich, Fabian Joeres, Kai Lawonn, Christian Hansen
Augmented reality (AR) is a promising tool to improve instrument navigation in needle-based interventions. Limited research has been conducted regarding suitable navigation visualizations. In this work, three navigation concepts based on existing approaches were compared in a user study using a projective AR setup. Each concept was implemented with three different scales for accuracy-to-color mapping and two methods of navigation indicator scaling. Participants were asked to perform simulated needle insertion tasks with each of the resulting 18 prototypes...
March 15, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Andreas Heinrich, Jens Dorschel, Mushtaq Mohammad Mashoor, Felix Guttler, Ulf Teichgraber
OBJECTIVE: The ASTM F2213 standard describes the measurement of the magnetically induced torques by means of a torsional spring method. As this method is highly complex, it has been rarely ever employed. The purpose was to develop an easy-to-handle measuring setup for the reproducible, fast and precise measurement of magnetically induced torques, following ASTM F2213, at a static magnetic field (B0 ) of 1.5 T and 3 T. METHODS: An MR-safe measuring platform was developed according to the ASTM F2213 standard and combined with a precision balance...
March 15, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Sara De Bruyn, Edwin Wouters, Koen Ponnet, Guido Van Hal
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing attention in both popular and scientific circles to the misuse of prescription stimulants by students. However, it is unclear which student groups are most vulnerable and what environmental factors could influence this misuse. Medical students might be more at risk because of high levels of competition and related stress in medical school, making them a relevant population to explore these interrelationships. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to answer two research questions: (1) Does competition lead to higher stress and greater likelihood of misuse? and (2) Do the levels of and interrelationships between competition, stress and misuse vary between students with different post-graduate aspirations? METHODS: In total, 3159 Flemish medical students (48...
March 20, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Ricardo Victor Soares Pereira, Marcos Kubrusly, Ingrid Correia Nogueira, Victor José Timbó Gondim, Edgar Marçal
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the process of construction, use, and field evaluation of a mobile application for teaching in the anesthesiology area. METHOD: The application was built by using the Co-Design Methodology, which consists of five phases (scoping, shared understanding, brainstorming, refinement and implementation). A one-week case study was carried out in a hospital involving 20 participants (medical students and residents)...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Daniele Fioretto, Silvia Caponi, Francesca Palombo
Brillouin spectroscopy has emerged as a novel analytical tool for biophotonic research and applications. It operates on a microscopic scale and in the GHz spectral range, providing a new spatial and frequency window for the analysis of the materials elasticity. Here we investigate spectral moments calculation as a means of analysing Brillouin and Raman spectra, providing rapid access to peak intensity and frequency shift, with robust application to fast scanning measurements. This work demonstrates the potential of the method, especially in the case of micro-structured samples, typical of bio-medical applications...
March 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Anastasia Y Ipatova, Pamela H Koerner, Richard T Miller, Francis Staskon, Melanie Radi
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive lung disease which results in thickening and scarring of the interstitial tissue. As the only 2 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications on the market, it is valuable to compare the impact of nintedanib and pirfenidone on clinical outcomes. Records of patients who started nintedanib or pirfenidone between calendar years 2015 and 2016 at a national specialty pharmacy were retrospectively reviewed. Data collection was derived from patient management applications and statistical data analysis was completed in SAS (SAS Institute Inc® )...
2019: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
Fatih Durgut, Omer Faruk Erkocak, Bahattin Kerem Aydin, Ali Ozdemir, Ali Gulec, Ali Ihsan Tugrul
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacies of intra-articular applications of tranexamic acid and adrenaline on postoperative bleeding after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: The single-center, retrospective, controlled study was conducted at Selcuk University , department of orthopedic surgery and comprised data of patients who underwent primary, unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty between July 2012 and December 2014. Group 1 had received tranexamic acid 1g after closure of articular capsule...
March 2019: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Kenneth V Iserson
BACKGROUND: The three U.S. Antarctic research stations' medical facilities exist in an isolated, harsh environment, typical of many such facilities throughout the world. Emergency physicians frequently staff these medical facilities; however, most who are considering this have many misconceptions about the stations and about the scope of medical practice that exists there. OBJECTIVE: This article illuminates how Antarctic medical practice is comparable with and dissimilar to other emergency medicine experiences and highlights information that any emergency physician-applicant to an isolated medical position should learn prior to accepting the position...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Emergency Medicine
JoonNyung Heo, Jihoon G Yoon, Hyungjong Park, Young Dae Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Ji Hoe Heo
Background and Purpose- The prediction of long-term outcomes in ischemic stroke patients may be useful in treatment decisions. Machine learning techniques are being increasingly adapted for use in the medical field because of their high accuracy. This study investigated the applicability of machine learning techniques to predict long-term outcomes in ischemic stroke patients. Methods- This was a retrospective study using a prospective cohort that enrolled patients with acute ischemic stroke. Favorable outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score 0, 1, or 2 at 3 months...
March 20, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Elif G Umıt, Mehmet Baysal, Volkan Bas, Ismail Asker, Onur Kırkızlar, Ahmet M Demır
PURPOSE: Multiple myeloma is a chronic, uncurable hematological cancer with the involvement of multiple organ systems. As a disease affecting older patients, the treatment of multiple myeloma should be based on individual patient characteristics. Polypharmacy is an increasing problem in the care of older patients and in patients with multiple myeloma, polypharmacy is almost inevitable. We aimed to evaluate the applicability of polypharmacy definitions and the relation of polypharmacy with disease outcomes in patients with multiple myeloma...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Catharine A Hellingman, Joris L E Logher, Quinten Kammeijer, Jerome J Waterval, Fenna A Ebbens, Erik van Spronsen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the growth rate of cholesteatoma in patients. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the growth of residual cholesteatoma in subtotal petrosectomy based on volume measured in MRI scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective case series in a Tertiary Medical Centre. Thirteen residual cholesteatomas were identified in 10 patients after subtotal petrosectomy for which a wait-and-scan policy was adopted. Volume of the residual cholesteatoma was calculated by manual segmentation as well as the 'box method'...
March 19, 2019: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Naif Alzahrani, Russell Jones, Mohamed E Abdel-Latif
Background: The attitudes of doctors and nurses toward patient safety representa significant contributing factor to hospital safety climates and medical error rates. Yet, there are very few studies of patient safety attitudes in Saudi hospitals and none conducted in hospital emergency departments. Aims : The current study aims to investigate and compare the patient safety attitudes of doctors and nurses in a Saudi hospital emergency department. Materials and Method: The study employed a qualitative research design via semi-structured interviews with Saudi and non-Saudi doctors and nurses working in a Saudi hospital emergency department to determine their attitudes and experiences about the patient safety climate...
March 18, 2019: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Sandra M Navarro Gallón, Ece Alpaslan, Mian Wang, Phillip Larese-Casanova, Martha E Londoño, Lucía Atehortúa, Juan J Pavón, Thomas J Webster
The green synthesis of biomaterials is of significant interest as it enables the safe and sustainable preparation of noble metallic nanoparticles for medical applications. Microalgae polysaccharides have received attention due to their outstanding properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and low cost. In addition, due to their variety of remarkable biological and physicochemical properties, polysaccharide-based nanoparticles have advantageous features yet to be explored. The primary objective of the current research was to investigate exopolysaccharides isolated from green microalgae Botryococcus braunii (EPBb) and Chlorella pyrenoidosa (EPCp), as both reducing and stabilizing agents, for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)...
June 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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