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autoregulation of nodulation

Juan Carlos Crespo-Rivas, Pilar Navarro-Gómez, Cynthia Alias-Villegas, Jie Shi, Tao Zhen, Yanbo Niu, Virginia Cuéllar, Javier Moreno, Teresa Cubo, José María Vinardell, José Enrique Ruiz-Sainz, Sebastián Acosta-Jurado, María José Soto
Members of Rhizobiaceae contain a homologue of the iron-responsive regulatory protein RirA. In different bacteria, RirA acts as a repressor of iron uptake systems under iron-replete conditions and contributes to ameliorate cell damage during oxidative stress. In Rhizobium leguminosarum and Sinorhizobium meliloti , mutations in rirA do not impair symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In this study, a rirA mutant of broad host range S. fredii HH103 has been constructed (SVQ780) and its free-living and symbiotic phenotypes evaluated...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Pierre Gautrat, Virginie Mortier, Carole Laffont, Annick De Keyser, Justine Fromentin, Florian Frugier, Sofie Goormachtig
The number of legume root nodules resulting from a symbiosis with rhizobia is tightly controlled by the plant. Certain members of the CLAVATA3/Embryo Surrounding Region (CLE) peptide family, specifically MtCLE12 and MtCLE13 in Medicago truncatula, act in the systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON) pathway that negatively regulates the number of nodules. Little is known about the molecular pathways that operate downstream of the AON-related CLE peptides. Here, by means of a transcriptome analysis, we show that roots ectopically expressing MtCLE13 deregulate only a limited number of genes, including three down-regulated genes encoding lysin motif receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs), among which are the nodulation factor (NF) receptor NF Perception gene (NFP) and two up-regulated genes, MtTML1 and MtTML2, encoding Too Much Love (TML)-related Kelch-repeat containing F-box proteins...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mandana Miri, Preetam Janakirama, Terry Huebert, Loretta Ross, Tim McDowell, Kathleen Orosz, Katharina Markmann, Krzysztof Szczyglowski
•During Lotus japonicas-Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis, the LOTUS HISTIDINE KINASE1 (LHK1) cytokinin receptor regulates both the initiation of nodule formation and the scope of root infection. However, the exact spatio-temporal mechanism by which this receptor exerts its symbiotic functions has remained elusive. •In this study, we performed cell type-specific complementation experiments in the hyperinfected lhk1-1 mutant background, targeting LHK1 to either the root epidermis or the root cortex. We also utilized various genetic backgrounds to characterize expression of several genes regulating symbiotic infection...
January 13, 2019: New Phytologist
Chooi-Hua Goh, Adrienne B Nicotra, Ulrike Mathesius
We investigated the role of three autoregulation of nodulation (AON) genes in regulating of root and shoot phenotypes when responding to changing nitrogen availability in the model legume, Medicago truncatula. These genes, RDN1-1 (ROOT DETERMINED NODULATION1-1), SUNN (SUPER NUMERIC NODULES) and LSS (LIKE SUNN SUPERNODULAOR), act in a systemic signaling pathway that limits nodule numbers. This pathway is also influenced by nitrogen availability, but it is not well known if AON genes control root and shoot phenotypes other than nodule numbers in response to nitrogen...
December 4, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mariel C Isidra-Arellano, María Del Rocio Reyero-Saavedra, Maria Del Socorro Sánchez-Correa, Lise Pingault, Sidharth Sen, Trupti Joshi, Lourdes Girard, Norma A Castro-Guerrero, David G Mendoza-Cozatl, Marc Libault, Oswaldo Valdés-López
Phosphate (Pi) deficiency reduces nodule formation and development in different legume species including common bean. Despite significant progress in the understanding of the genetic responses underlying the adaptation of nodules to Pi deficiency, it is still unclear whether this nutritional deficiency interferes with the molecular dialogue between legumes and rhizobia. If so, what part of the molecular dialogue is impaired? In this study, we provide evidence demonstrating that Pi deficiency negatively affects critical early molecular and physiological responses that are required for a successful symbiosis between common bean and rhizobia...
October 15, 2018: Genes
Daniela Tsikou, Zhe Yan, Dennis B Holt, Nikolaj B Abel, Dugald E Reid, Lene H Madsen, Hemal Bhasin, Moritz Sexauer, Jens Stougaard, Katharina Markmann
Nitrogen-fixing root nodules on legumes result from two developmental processes, bacterial infection and nodule organogenesis. To balance symbiosis and plant growth, legume hosts restrict nodule numbers through an inducible autoregulatory process. Here, we present a mechanism where repression of a negative regulator ensures symbiotic susceptibility of uninfected roots of the host Lotus japonicus We show that microRNA miR2111 undergoes shoot-to-root translocation to control rhizobial infection through posttranscriptional regulation of the symbiosis suppressor TOO MUCH LOVE in roots...
October 12, 2018: Science
Celine Mens, Dongxue Li, Laura E Haaima, Peter M Gresshoff, Brett J Ferguson
Cytokinins are important regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation in plant development. Here, a role for this phytohormone group in soybean nodulation is shown through the exogenous application of cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, N6 -(Δ2 -isopentenyl)-adenine and trans -zeatin) via either root drenching or a petiole feeding technique. Overall, nodule numbers were reduced by treatment with high cytokinin concentrations, but increased with lower concentrations. This was especially evident when feeding the solutions directly into the vasculature via petiole feeding...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yawen Lei, Shihao Su, Liang He, Xiaohe Hu, Da Luo
Legumes can control the number of symbiotic nodules that form on their roots, thus balancing nitrogen assimilation and energy consumption. Two major pathways participate in nodulation: the Nod factor (NF) signaling pathway which involves recognition of rhizobial bacteria by root cells and promotion of nodulation, and the autoregulation of nodulation (AON) pathway which involves long-distance negative feedback between roots and shoots. Although a handful of genes have a clear role in the maintenance of nodule number, additional unknown factors may also be involved in this process...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Attila Kereszt, Peter Mergaert, Jesús Montiel, Gabriella Endre, Éva Kondorosi
Ribosomally synthesized peptides have wide ranges of functions in plants being, for example, signal molecules, transporters, alkaloids, or antimicrobial agents. Legumes are an unprecedented rich source of peptides, which are used to control the symbiosis of these plants with the nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria. Here, we discuss the function and the evolution of these peptides playing an important role in the formation or functioning of the symbiotic organs, the root nodules. We distinguish peptides that can be either cell-autonomous or secreted short-range or long-range signals, carrying messages in or between plant cells or that can act as effectors interacting with the symbiotic bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chenglei Wang, James B Reid, Eloise Foo
Plants interact with diverse microbes including those that result in nutrient-acquiring symbioses. In order to balance the energy cost with the benefit gained, plants employ a systemic negative feedback loop to control the formation of these symbioses. This is particularly well-understood in nodulation, the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, and is known as autoregulation of nodulation (AON). However, much less is understood about the autoregulation of the ancient arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses that form between Glomeromycota fungi and the majority of land plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hanna Nishida, Takuya Suzaki
Root nodule symbiosis is one of the best-characterized mutualistic relationships between plants-microbes symbiosis, where mainly leguminous species can obtain nitrogen sources fixed by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia through the formation of symbiotic organs root nodules. In order to drive this symbiotic process, plants need to provide carbon sources that should be used for their growth. Therefore, a balance between the benefits of obtaining nitrogen sources and the costs of losing carbon sources needs to be maintained during root nodule symbiosis...
May 30, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
April H Hastwell, Leo Corcilius, James T Williams, Peter M Gresshoff, Richard J Payne, Brett J Ferguson
Legumes form root nodules to house beneficial nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria. However, nodulation is resource demanding; hence, legumes evolved a systemic signalling mechanism called autoregulation of nodulation (AON) to control nodule numbers. AON begins with the production of CLE peptides in the root, which are predicted to be glycosylated, transported to the shoot, and perceived. We synthesized variants of nodulation-suppressing CLE peptides to test their activity using petiole feeding to introduce CLE peptides into the shoot...
May 2, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Chunhong Cheng, Changman Li, Diandong Wang, Lifeng Zhai, Zhaoming Cai
GmNARK ( Glycine max nodule autoregulation receptor kinase) is the homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana CLAVATA1 ( CLV1 ) and one of the most important regulators in the process of AON (Autoregulation of Nodulation), a process that restricts excessive nodule numbers in soybean. However, except for the function in AON, little is known about this gene. Here, we report that GmNARK plays important roles in process of plant response to abiotic stresses. Bioinformatic analysis and subcellular localization experiment results showed that GmNARK was a putative receptor like kinase and located at membrane...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hanna Nishida, Takuya Suzaki
Nitrogen is an indispensable inorganic nutrient that is required by plants throughout their life. Root nodule symbiosis (RNS) is an important strategy mainly adopted by legumes to enhance nitrogen acquisition, where several key processes required for the establishment of the symbiosis, are pleiotropically controlled by nitrate availability in soil. Although the autoregulation of nodulation (AON), a systemic long-range signaling, has been suggested to be implicated in nitrate-induced control of RNS, AON alone is insufficient to fully explain the pleiotropic regulation that is induced by nitrate...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Mahboobeh Azarakhsh, Maria A Lebedeva, Lyudmila A Lutova
Cytokinins are essential for legume plants to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia. Recently, the expression level of cytokinin biosynthesis IPT s ( ISOPENTENYLTRANSFERASES ) genes was shown to be increased in response to rhizobial inoculation in Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula and Pisum sativum . In addition to its well-established positive role in nodule primordium initiation in root cortex, cytokinin negatively regulates infection processes in the epidermis. Moreover, it was reported that shoot-derived cytokinin inhibits the subsequent nodule formation through AON (autoregulation of nodulation) pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jiaxing Liu, Jie Deng, Fugui Zhu, Yuan Li, Zheng Lu, Peibin Qin, Tao Wang, Jiangli Dong
DOES NOT MAKE INFECTION 2 (MtDMI2) is a Leu rich repeat-type receptor kinase required for signal transduction in the Medicago truncatula/Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis pathway. However, the mechanisms through which MtDMI2 participates in nodulation homeostasis are poorly understood. In this study, we identified MtPUB2-a novel plant U-box (PUB)-type E3 ligase-and showed that it interacts with MtDMI2. MtDMI2 and MtPUB2 accumulation were shown to be similar in various tissues. Roots of plants in which MtPUB2 was silenced by RNAi ( MtPUB2- RNAi plants) exhibited impaired infection threads, fewer nodules, and shorter primary root lengths compared to those of control plants transformed with empty vector...
April 2018: Plant Physiology
Hanna Nishida, Sachiko Tanaka, Yoshihiro Handa, Momoyo Ito, Yuki Sakamoto, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Shigeyuki Betsuyaku, Kenji Miura, Takashi Soyano, Masayoshi Kawaguchi, Takuya Suzaki
Legumes and rhizobia establish symbiosis in root nodules. To balance the gains and costs associated with the symbiosis, plants have developed two strategies for adapting to nitrogen availability in the soil: plants can regulate nodule number and/or stop the development or function of nodules. Although the former is accounted for by autoregulation of nodulation, a form of systemic long-range signaling, the latter strategy remains largely enigmatic. Here, we show that the Lotus japonicus NITRATE UNRESPONSIVE SYMBIOSIS 1 (NRSYM1) gene encoding a NIN-LIKE PROTEIN transcription factor acts as a key regulator in the nitrate-induced pleiotropic control of root nodule symbiosis...
February 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Nijat Imin, Neha Patel, Leo Corcilius, Richard J Payne, Michael A Djordjevic
MtCLE12 and MtCLE13 encode CLAVATA3/EMBRYO-SURROUNDING REGION RELATED (CLE) peptides which regulate autoregulation of nodulation (AON) in Medicago through the shoot receptor, SUNN (SUPER NUMERIC NODULES). Genetics suggests RDN1 (ROOT-DETERMINED NODULATION 1) arabinosylates MtCLE12 to enable SUNN perception. The functional structures of MtCLE12 and MtCLE13 peptides, however, remain elusive. We combined genetic and chemical synthesis approaches to determine if glyco-modifications of three nodule-expressed CLE peptides are essential for AON...
April 2018: New Phytologist
Tessema Kassaw, Stephen Nowak, Elise Schnabel, Julia Frugoli
The combinatorial interaction of a receptor kinase and a modified CLE peptide is involved in several developmental processes in plants, including autoregulation of nodulation (AON), which allows legumes to limit the number of root nodules formed based on available nitrogen and previous rhizobial colonization. Evidence supports the modification of CLE peptides by enzymes of the hydroxyproline O -arabinosyltransferase (HPAT/RDN) family. Here, we show by grafting and genetic analysis in Medicago truncatula that, in the AON pathway, RDN1, functioning in the root, acts upstream of the receptor kinase SUNN, functioning in the shoot...
August 2017: Plant Physiology
Ashley D Crook, Elise L Schnabel, Julia A Frugoli
Autoregulation of nodulation (AON), a systemic signaling pathway in legumes, limits the number of nodules formed by the legume in its symbiosis with rhizobia. Recent research suggests a model for the systemic regulation in Medicago truncatula in which root signaling peptides are translocated to the shoot where they bind to a shoot receptor complex containing the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase SUNN, triggering signal transduction which terminates nodule formation in roots. Here we show that a tagged SUNN protein capable of rescuing the sunn-4 phenotype is localized to the plasma membrane and is associated with the plasmodesmata...
October 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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