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Atherosclerosis inflammation

Katrine Pilely, Siril S Bakke, Yaseelan Palarasah, Mikkel-Ole Skjoedt, Emil D Bartels, Terje Espevik, Peter Garred
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholesterol crystal (CC)-induced inflammation is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. CCs activate the complement system and induce an inflammatory response resulting in phagocytosis of the CCs, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of cytokines. The cyclodextrin 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin has been found to reduce CC-induced complement activation and induce regression of established atherosclerotic plaques in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, thus inhibition of complement with cyclodextrins is a potential new strategy for treatment of inflammation during atherosclerosis...
February 3, 2019: Atherosclerosis
Karin H Simons, Alwin de Jong, J Wouter Jukema, Margreet R de Vries, Ramon Arens, Paul H A Quax
The role of inflammation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now widely accepted. Immune cells, including T cells, are influenced by inflammatory signals and contribute to the onset and progression of CVD. T cell activation is modulated by T cell co-stimulation and co-inhibition pathways. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting T cell inhibition pathways have revolutionized cancer treatment and improved survival in patients with cancer. However, ICIs might induce cardiovascular toxicity via T cell re-invigoration...
February 15, 2019: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Raquel Guillamat-Prats, Martina Rami, Stephan Herzig, Sabine Steffens
Endocannabinoids are a group of arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators binding to cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. An overactivity of the endocannabinoid system plays a pathophysiological role in the development of visceral obesity and insulin resistance. Moreover, elevated circulating endocannabinoid levels are also prevalent in atherosclerosis. The pathophysiological increase of endocannabinoid levels is due to an altered expression of endocannabinoid synthesizing and degrading enzymes induced by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines or lipids...
February 15, 2019: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Chunyan Wang, Michael C Petriello, Beibei Zhu, Bernhard Hennig
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that contribute to inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, and macrophages play a key role in the overall inflammatory response. Depending on specific environmental stimuli, macrophages can be polarized either to pro-inflammatory (e.g., M1) or anti-inflammatory (e.g., M2) phenotypes. We hypothesize that dioxin-like PCBs can contribute to macrophage polarization associated with inflammation. To test this hypothesis, human monocytes (THP-1) were differentiated to macrophages and subsequently exposed to PCB 126...
February 12, 2019: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Paul Pettersson-Pablo, Torbjörn K Nilsson, Lars H Breimer, Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf
The primary aim was to appraise the relationship between body fat percentage and the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and orosomucoid in a population of young, non-smoking, healthy, Swedish adults, without any chronic diseases. A secondary aim was to compare whether these associations differed between the women using estrogen contraceptives and those who did not. We assessed the association in linear regression models between body fat percentage based on a bio-impedance measurement and plasma concentrations of CRP and orosomucoid in men and women aged 18-26 years, n = 834...
February 15, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Barathi Rajaraman, Nirupama Ramadas, Sundar Krishnasamy, Vidya Ravi, Atima Pathak, C S Devasena, Krishnan Swaminathan, Arunkumar Ganeshprasad, Ashok Ayyappa Kuppuswamy, Srinivasan Vedantham
Hyperglycaemia during pregnancy is the main reason for developing diabetes mediated vascular complications. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed due to non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids during hyperglycaemia. It has the potential to damage vasculature by modifying the substrate or by means of AGEs and receptor of AGE (RAGE) interaction. It has been linked with the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases including coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, restenosis etc...
February 14, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Madelein Hoffman, Hayley Ipp, Dineo V Phatlhane, Rajiv T Erasmus, Annalise E Zemlin
Background: E-selectin has been shown to play a role in atherosclerosis and to be increased in HIV-infected individuals due to chronic immune activation. There is a paucity of studies on E-selectin in HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals. Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether E-selectin levels were increased in HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals and whether these correlated with markers of disease severity, inflammation and coagulation to determine if this population is at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
Minsik Park, Seunghwan Choi, Suji Kim, Joohwan Kim, Dong-Keon Lee, Wonjin Park, Taesam Kim, Jiwon Jung, Jong Yun Hwang, Moo-Ho Won, Sungwoo Ryoo, Seung Goo Kang, Kwon-Soo Ha, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play an important role in maintaining vascular function. Inflammation-mediated VSMC dysfunction leads to atherosclerotic intimal hyperplasia and preeclamptic hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. We analyzed the expression levels of microRNA-155 (miR-155) in cultured VSMCs, mouse vessels, and clinical specimens and then assessed its role in VSMC function. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) elevated miR-155 biogenesis in cultured VSMCs and vessel segments, which was prevented by NF-κB inhibition...
February 15, 2019: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Rüya Mutluay, Ceyla Konca Değertekin, Emel Işıktaş Sayılar, Ülver Derici, Serap Gültekin, Sevim Gönen, Selim Turgay Arınsoy, Mahmut Şükrü Sindel
Background/aim: Fetuin-A, a circulating inhibitor of calcification, is a marker of inflammatory-nutritional state. We evaluated the association between serum fetuin-A levels and vascular calcification, intima-media thickness, and nutritional and inflammatory markers in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Materials and methods: CKD patients were sampled for calcium-phosphate parameters and nutritional and inflammatory markers [highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)], and serum fetuin-A levels...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Keenan A Walker, Rebecca F Gottesman, Aozhou Wu, David S Knopman, Alden L Gross, Thomas H Mosley, Elizabeth Selvin, B Gwen Windham
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between systemic inflammation measured during midlife and 20-year cognitive decline. METHODS: Within the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort study, inflammatory biomarkers were measured during middle adulthood. We created an inflammation composite score using 4 blood biomarkers measured at visit 1 (fibrinogen, white blood cell count, von Willebrand factor, and factor VIII); we measured C-reactive protein (CRP) at visit 2...
February 13, 2019: Neurology
Frank M Davis, Katherine Gallagher
Cardiometabolic and vascular disease, with their associated secondary complications, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society. Chronic inflammation is a common theme that underlies initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease. In this regard, monocytes/macrophages are key players in the development of a chronic inflammatory state. Over the past decade, epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and posttranslational histone processing, have emerged as important regulators of immune cell phenotypes...
February 14, 2019: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Wei Zhao, Xueyin Wang, Amy A Deik, David B Hanna, Tao Wang, Sabina A Haberlen, Sanjiv J Shah, Jason M Lazar, Howard N Hodis, Alan L Landay, Bing Yu, Deborah Gustafson, Kathryn Anastos, Wendy S Post, Clary B Clish, Robert C Kaplan, Qibin Qi
BACKGROUND: Ceramides have been implicated in the pathophysiology of HIV infection and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no study, to our knowledge, has evaluated circulating ceramide levels in association with subclinical CVD risk among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: Plasma levels of four ceramide species (C16:0, C22:0, C24:0 and C24:1) were measured among 398 women (73% HIV+) and 339 men (68% HIV+) without carotid artery plaques at baseline from the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study...
February 14, 2019: Circulation
Dorota Formanowicz, Jacek B Krawczyk, Bartłomiej Perek, Piotr Formanowicz
We propose a control-theoretic aggregate model of the progression of atherosclerosis plaque, a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, to study the basic features of this disease. In the model, we exploit the role of inflammation in the disease progression, and use statins-drugs commonly recommended in atherosclerosis-to control this progression. We use a logistic function to allow for constrained growth of plaque. In the model, both the patient's age and overall health impact the plaque growth and its sensitivity to statins...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zi-Ming Ye, Shuai Yang, Yuan-Peng Xia, Rui-Ting Hu, Shengcai Chen, Bo-Wei Li, Shao-Li Chen, Xue-Ying Luo, Ling Mao, Yanan Li, Huijuan Jin, Chao Qin, Bo Hu
Atherosclerotic cardio-cerebrovascular disease and death remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Defective efferocytosis, the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages, is thought to lead to increased inflammation and necrotic core formation in atherosclerotic lesions. However, very little is known about the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) during this process. Here we show that lncRNA myocardial infarction associated transcript (MIAT) was markedly elevated in the serum of patients with symptoms of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque and the macrophages of necrotic cores in an advanced atherosclerosis mouse model...
February 12, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
G Kanigur Sultuybek, T Soydas, G Yenmis
Aging can be defined as the progressive failure of repair and maintenance systems with a consequent accumulation of cellular damage in nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. These various types of damage promote aging by driving cellular senescence and apoptosis. NF-kB (nuclear factor-kappa B) pathway is one of the key mediators of aging and this pathway is activated by genotoxic, oxidative and inflammatory stress, and regulates expression of cytokines, growth factors, and genes that regulate apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and inflammation...
February 12, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Matej Vicen, Barbora Vitverova, Radim Havelek, Katerina Blazickova, Miloslav Machacek, Jana Rathouska, Iveta Najmanová, Eva Dolezelova, Alena Prasnicka, Magdalena Sternak, Carmelo Bernabeu, Petr Nachtigal
Our objective was to investigate the effect of cholesterol [hypercholesterolemia and 7-ketocholesterol (7K)] on endoglin (Eng) expression and regulation with respect to endothelial or vascular dysfunction in vivo and in vitro. In vivo experiments were performed in 2-mo-old atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient/LDL receptor-deficient (ApoE-/- /LDLR-/- ) female mice and their wild-type C57BL/6J littermates. In in vitro experiments, human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated with 7K. ApoE-/- /LDLR-/- mice developed hypercholesterolemia accompanied by increased circulating levels of P-selectin and Eng and a disruption of NO metabolism...
February 12, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sun-Young Lee, Deog-Yoon Kim, Mi Kyung Kwak, Seong Hee Ahn, Hyeonmok Kim, Beom-Jun Kim, Jung-Min Koh, Yumie Rhee, Chong Hwa Kim, Ki Hyun Baek, Yong-Ki Min, Seung Hun Lee, Moo-Il Kang
The inflammatory biomarkers that fully characterize the metabolically unhealthy (MU) state-which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-remain unclear. Recent studies suggest follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) could be used as a biomarker for inflammation and CVD, however there is little information on FSTL1 levels in the MU state. We aimed to evaluate the associations between FSTL1, the presence of MU state and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated FSTL1 levels and their relationship with the presence of MU state and coronary artery plaques in 230 Korean patients...
February 8, 2019: Endocrine Journal
Hanna Markstad, Andreas Edsfeldt, Ingrid Yao Mattison, Eva Bengtsson, Pratibha Singh, Michele Cavalera, Giuseppe Asciutto, Harry Björkbacka, Gunilla Nordin Fredrikson, Nuno Dias, Petr Volkov, Marju Orho-Melander, Jan Nilsson, Gunnar Engström, Isabel Gonçalves
Background When the lectinlike oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox LDL) receptor-1 ( LOX -1), a scavenger receptor for ox LDL , binds ox LDL , processes leading to endothelial dysfunction and inflammation are promoted. We aimed to study release mechanisms of LOX -1 and how circulating levels of soluble LOX -1 ( sLOX -1) relate to plaque inflammation and future risk for ischemic stroke. Methods and Results Endothelial cells and leukocytes were used to study release of sLOX -1. Plasma levels of sLOX -1 were determined in 4703 participants in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Heart Association
J A Suárez-Cuenca, A S Ruíz-Hernández, A A Mendoza-Castañeda, G A Domínguez-Pérez, A Hernández-Patricio, E Vera-Gómez, G De la Peña-Sosa, D Z Balderas-Lares, J Montoya-Ramírez, R Blas-Azotla, M Ortíz-Fernández, M Salamanca-García, A Melchor-López, P Mondragón-Terán, A Contreras-Ramos, S L Alcaraz-Estrada
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis represents a cardiovascular risk. Chronic inflammation is a key factor for atherogenic progression. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) has been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular risks. We aimed to explore whether NLR was related with surrogate pro-atherogenic promoters driving atherogenic progression, as measured by Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT). STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-one patients with obesity candidates for bariatric surgery were recruited from Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre", ISSSTE, Mexico City...
February 11, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Agha Zeeshan Mirza, Ismail I Althagafi, Hina Shamshad
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-γ) are members of the nuclear receptor super-family, acting as ligand-inducible transcription factors and play crucial roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. These are a well-known receptor for diabetic therapy, not only influence the cardiovascular systems but are also expressed in many human solid tumors. For atherosclerosis, inflammation, and hypertension, the PPARs are considered as important therapeutic targets. Furthermore, it has been suggested that careful designing of partial agonists for PPARs, may show improvement with the side effects and also increase the therapeutic value for different diseases as cancer, inflammation and cardiovascular etc...
February 1, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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