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cell and molecular and development

Satoru Matsuda, Yuka Ikeda, Mutsumi Murakami, Yukie Nakagawa, Ai Tsuji, Yasuko Kitagishi
Psychiatric illnesses may be qualified to the cellular impairments of the function for survival or death in neurons, which may consequently appear as abnormalities in the neuroplasticity. The molecular mechanism has not been well understood, however, it seems that PI3K, AKT, GSK3, and their downstream molecules have crucial roles in the pathogenesis. Through transducing cell surviving signal, the PI3K/AKT/GSK3 pathway may organize an intracellular central network for the action of the synaptic neuroplasticity...
February 13, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Syed Farhan Ahmad, Cesar Martins
Supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are extra karyotype units in addition to A chromosomes, and are found in some fungi and thousands of animals and plant species. Bs are uniquely characterized due to their non-Mendelian inheritance, and represent one of the best examples of genomic conflict. Over the last decades, their genetic composition, function and evolution have remained an unresolved query, although a few successful attempts have been made to address these phenomena. A classical concept based on cytogenetics and genetics is that Bs are selfish and abundant with DNA repeats and transposons, and in most cases, they do not carry any function...
February 13, 2019: Cells
Akinobu Takaki, Seiji Kawano, Daisuke Uchida, Masahiro Takahara, Sakiko Hiraoka, Hiroyuki Okada
Oxidative stress is recognized as a cancer-initiating stress response in the digestive system. It is produced through mitochondrial respiration and induces DNA damage, resulting in cancer cell transformation. However, recent findings indicate that oxidative stress is also a necessary anticancer response for destroying cancer cells. The oxidative stress response has also been reported to be an important step in increasing the anticancer response of newly developed molecular targeted agents. Oxidative stress might therefore be a cancer-initiating response that should be downregulated in the precancerous stage in patients at risk of cancer but an anticancer cell response that should not be downregulated in the postcancerous stage when cancer cells are still present...
February 13, 2019: Cancers
Chiara Corrado, Viviana Costa, Gianluca Giavaresi, Annalisa Calabrese, Alice Conigliaro, Riccardo Alessandro
The long non-coding RNA H19 (lncH19) is broadly transcribed in the first stage of development and silenced in most cells of an adult organism; it appears again in several tumors where, through different molecular mediators, promotes cell proliferation, motility and metastases. LncH19 has been associated with hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) activation and, in some tumors, it has proved to be necessary and required to sustain hypoxic responses. Here we propose to investigate a putative role for the lncH19 in hypoxia induced multiple myeloma (MM) progression...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qingmei Sun, Fufeng Liu, Jingcheng Sang, Miaoman Lin, Jiale Ma, Xiao Xiao, Sicheng Yan, C Benjamin Naman, Ning Wang, Shan He, Xiaojun Yan, Wei Cui, Hongze Liang
β-Amyloid (Aβ) is regarded as an important pathogenic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Aβ can assemble into oligomers and fibrils, and produce neurotoxicity. Therefore, Aβ aggregation inhibitors may have anti-AD therapeutic efficacies. It was found, here, that the marine-derived alkaloid, fascaplysin, inhibits Aβ fibrillization in vitro . Moreover, the new analogue, 9-methylfascaplysin, was designed and synthesized from 5-methyltryptamine. Interestingly, 9-methylfascaplysin is a more potent inhibitor of Aβ fibril formation than fascaplysin...
February 18, 2019: Marine Drugs
Beat Suter
Many molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive the physiological functions of cells or control the development of an animal are well conserved between vertebrates and insects [...].
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chieh-Ju Wu, Mei-Yin Chien, Nan-Hei Lin, Yi-Chiao Lin, Wen-Ying Chen, Chao-Hsiang Chen, Jason T C Tzen
Cistanche species, the ginseng of the desert, has been recorded to possess many biological activities in traditional Chinese pharmacopoeia and has been used as an anti-aging medicine. Three phenylethanoid glycosides-echinacoside, tubuloside A, and acteoside-were detected in the water extract of Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight and the major constituent, echinacoside, was further purified. Echinacoside of a concentration higher than 10-6 M displayed significant activity to stimulate growth hormone secretion of rat pituitary cells...
February 17, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marzena Wątek, Ewelina Piktel, Tomasz Wollny, Bonita Durnaś, Krzysztof Fiedoruk, Ewa Lech-Marańda, Robert Bucki
There is a rising number of evidence indicating the increased risk of cancer development in association with congenital metabolic errors. Although these diseases represent disorders of individual genes, they lead to the disruption of metabolic pathways resulting in metabolite accumulation or their deficiency. Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive sphingolipidosis. It is a rare lysosomal storage disease. A strong correlation between GD and different types of cancers, such as multiple myeloma, leukemia, and hepatocellular carcinoma, has been reported...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ali Naderi
Over the last decade there has been growing evidence that Brain Expressed X-Linked 2 (BEX2) has a significant role in the process of carcinogenesis. Collectively, available studies suggest a pro-oncogenic function for this gene in multiple malignancies, including breast, colorectal and hepatocellular cancers in addition to brain tumors. The identification of BEX2 in breast cancer resulted from gene expression microarray studies. Subsequent studies showed that BEX2 promotes breast cancer cell growth and survival by modulating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and G1 cell cycle...
February 16, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
S-Z Zhang, X-J Qiu, S-S Dong, L-N Zhou, Y Zhu, M-D Wang, L-W Jin
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major diabetic micro-vascular complication, and podocyte apoptosis induced by high glucose (HG) is a typical early feature of DN. Studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of DN. The purpose of the current study was to explore the role and molecular mechanism of miR-770-5p in podocyte apoptosis in DN. PATIENTS AND MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro podocyte model of DN was conducted by treatment conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes with HG (30 mM D-glucose)...
February 2019: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Johannes W Bagnoli, Lucas E Wange, Aleksandar Janjic, Wolfgang Enard
A major hurdle for the treatment of cancer is the incomplete understanding of its evolution through the course of its emergence, dispersal, and relapse. Genetic and epigenetic changes in combination with external cues and selective forces are the driving factors behind tumor heterogeneity. Understanding this variability within and across patients may partly explain the unpredictable outcomes of cancer treatments. Measuring the variation of gene expression levels within cells of the same tumor is a crucial part of this endeavor...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chen Ling, Zunpeng Liu, Moshi Song, Weiqi Zhang, Si Wang, Xiaoqian Liu, Shuai Ma, Shuhui Sun, Lina Fu, Qun Chu, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Zhaoxia Wang, Jing Qu, Yun Yuan, Guang-Hui Liu
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary cerebrovascular disease caused by a NOTCH3 mutation. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unidentified. Here, we generated non-integrative induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of a CADASIL patient harboring a heterozygous NOTCH3 mutation (c.3226C>T, p.R1076C). Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) differentiated from CADASIL-specific iPSCs showed gene expression changes associated with disease phenotypes, including activation of the NOTCH and NF-κB signaling pathway, cytoskeleton disorganization, and excessive cell proliferation...
February 18, 2019: Protein & Cell
J Rzemieniec, A Wnuk, W Lasoń, W Bilecki, M Kajta
There are no studies examining the effects of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) in neuronal cells subjected to ischemia. Little is also known about the roles of apoptosis and autophagy as well as AhR and ERα signaling and HDACs in DIM action. We demonstrated for the first time the strong neuroprotective capacity of DIM in mouse primary hippocampal cell cultures exposed to ischemia at early and later stages of neuronal development. The protective effects of DIM were mediated via inhibition of ischemia-induced apoptosis and autophagy that was accompanied by a decrease in AhR/CYP1A1 signaling and an increase in HDAC activity...
February 18, 2019: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Georg Gramse, Andreas Schönhals, Ferry Kienberger
We investigate the nearfield dipole mobility of protein membranes in a wide frequency range from 3 kHz to 10 GHz. The results of our nanoscale dielectric images and spectra of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) reveal Debye relaxations with time constants of τ ∼ 2 ns and τ ∼ 100 ns being characteristic of the dipole moments of the bR retinal and α-helices, respectively. However, the dipole mobility and therefore the protein biophysical function depend critically on the amount of surface water surrounding the protein, and the characteristic mobility in the secondary structure is only observed for humidity levels <30%...
February 19, 2019: Nanoscale
Anna Maria Salzano, Giovanni Renzone, Anatoly P Sobolev, Virginia Carbone, Milena Petriccione, Donatella Capitani, Monica Vitale, Gianfranco Novi, Nicola Zambrano, Maria Silvia Pasquariello, Luisa Mannina, Andrea Scaloni
Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward fruit is renowned for its micro- and macronutrients, which vary in their levels during berry physiological development and postharvest processing. In this context, we have recently described metabolic pathways/molecular effectors in fruit outer endocarp characterizing the different stages of berry physiological maturation. Here, we report on the kiwifruit postharvest phase through an integrated approach consisting of pomological analysis combined with NMR/LC-UV/ESI-IT-MSn - and 2D-DIGE/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS-based proteometabolomic measurements...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sheila Alcantara Llaguno, Daochun Sun, Alicia M Pedraza, Elsa Vera, Zilai Wang, Dennis K Burns, Luis F Parada
The contribution of lineage identity and differentiation state to malignant transformation is controversial. We have previously shown that adult neural stem and early progenitor cells give origin to glioblastoma. Here we systematically assessed the tumor-initiating potential of adult neural populations at various stages of lineage progression. Cell type-specific tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgenes were used to target glioblastoma-relevant tumor suppressors Nf1, Trp53 and Pten in late-stage neuronal progenitors, neuroblasts and differentiated neurons...
February 18, 2019: Nature Neuroscience
Guan Yang, Bianca L Artiaga, Carrie L Lomelino, Anitha D Jayaprakash, Ravi Sachidanandam, Robert Mckenna, John P Driver
Swine represent the only livestock with an established invariant NKT (iNKT) cell-CD1d system. In this study, we exploited the fact that pig iNKT cells can be purified using a mouse CD1d tetramer reagent to establish their TCR repertoire by next generation sequencing. CD1d tetramer-positive pig cells predominantly expressed an invariant Vα-Jα rearrangement, without nontemplate nucleotide diversity, homologous to the Vα24-Jα18 and Vα14-Jα18 rearrangements of human and murine iNKT cells. The coexpressed β-chain used a Vβ segment homologous to the semivariant Vβ11 and Vβ8...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Rachel L Darnell, Yoshio Nakatani, Melanie K Knottenbelt, Susanne Gebhard, Gregory M Cook
Bacitracin is a cell wall targeting antimicrobial with clinical and agricultural applications. With the growing mismatch between antimicrobial resistance and development, it is essential we understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance in order to prioritize and generate new effective antimicrobials. BcrR is a unique membrane-bound one-component system that regulates high-level bacitracin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. In the presence of bacitracin, BcrR activates transcription of the bcrABD operon conferring resistance through a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (BcrAB)...
February 19, 2019: Microbiology
Renhui Zhan, Xiaofeng Li, Wenfei Guo, Xiaojun Liu, Zhi-Xian Liu, Kehua Xu, Bo Tang
A growing body of evidence indicates that micropeptides encoded by long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) act independently or as regulators of larger proteins in fundamental biological processes, especially in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. However, due to their small size and low intracellular expression, visual monitoring of micropeptides in living cells is still a challenge. In this work, we have designed and synthesized an aptamer-based near-infrared fluorescence nanoprobe for fluorescence imaging of phospholamban (PLN), which is an intracellular micropeptide that affects calcium homeostasis, and is closely associated with human heart failure in clinic...
February 19, 2019: ACS Sensors
Robert L Morris, Victor D Vacquier
Cilia are exceptionally complicated subcellular structures involved in swimming and developmental signaling, including induction of left-right asymmetry in larval stages. We summarize the history of research on sea urchin embryonic cilia. The high salt method to isolate cilia is presented first; methods to block cilia formation and to lengthen cilia are presented in the appendix. Evidence suggests that regenerated cilia may not be as physiologically perfect as those formed normally during embryogenesis. Sea urchin embryonic cilia are valuable models for studying molecular details of cilia assembly and differentiation as well as gene activation, cell signaling, and pattern formation during development...
2019: Methods in Cell Biology
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