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High glucose concentration

Tao Wang, Hua Zhu, Shufang Yang, Xiaoqiang Fei
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), and has been demonstrated as one of the major causes of renal failure. In a previous study, it was noted that microRNA let‑7a‑5p was downregulated in DN; however, the underlying mechanism requires additional investigation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of let‑7a‑5p in the pathogenesis of DN and its associated mechanism. The renal tissues of db/db and db/m mice, and renal mesangial cells treated with high concentrations of glucose were obtained; reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blot analysis were applied to detect the expression of let‑7a‑5p and high‑mobility group AT‑hook 2 (HMGA2) in vivo and in vitro...
March 19, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ping Wang, Zhengli Quan, Dingshi Luo, Wangshan Chen, Dan Peng
Vascular calcification (VC) is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in patients with end stage renal disease and is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Clinical observations have demonstrated that hyperphosphatemia and hyperglycemia can accelerate VC. Spironolactone (SPL) has been proven to improve cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials and its protective effect on VC has been reported recently; however, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood and require further investigation...
March 15, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xing Qing, Yuedan Wang, Yang Zhang, Xingcheng Ding, Weibing Zhong, Dong Wang, Wenwen Wang, Qiongzhen Liu, Ke Liu, Mufang Li, Zhentan Lu
Fiber-based organic electrochemical transistors (FECTs) provide a new platform for the realization of ultrafast and ultrasensitive biosensor, especially for the wearable dopamine (DA) monitoring device. Here, we presented a fully filament integrated fabric, it exhibited remarkable mechanical compatibility with human body, and the minimum sensing unit was an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) based on PVA-co-PE nanofibers (NFs) and polypyrrole (PPy) nanofiber network. The introduction of NFs notably increased the specific surface area and hydrophilicity of the PA6 filament, resulting in the formation of a large area of intertwined PPy nanofiber network...
March 21, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhen Luo, Meilin Chen, Ti Chen, Pengfei She, Yong Wu
High concentration of glucose induces Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) aggregation, but the mechanism of this is still unclear. In this study, the aggregation of S. aureus strains was induced by high concentration of glucose (>7.8 mM), and which was dose- and time-dependent. In addition, the large amount of lactate acid produced during S. aureus aggregation, induced by glucose, resulted in decreased pH value. Lactic acid, the end product of glycolysis, could quickly induce S. aureus aggregation. Except for lactic acid, acetic acid and HCl also induced S...
March 20, 2019: Current Microbiology
Clelton A Santos, Mariana A B Morais, Oliver M Terrett, Jan J Lyczakowski, Letícia M Zanphorlin, Jaire A Ferreira-Filho, Celisa C C Tonoli, Mario T Murakami, Paul Dupree, Anete P Souza
β-glucosidases play a critical role among the enzymes in enzymatic cocktails designed for plant biomass deconstruction. By catalysing the breakdown of β-1, 4-glycosidic linkages, β-glucosidases produce free fermentable glucose and alleviate the inhibition of other cellulases by cellobiose during saccharification. Despite this benefit, most characterised fungal β-glucosidases show weak activity at high glucose concentrations, limiting enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass in industrial settings. In this study, structural analyses combined with site-directed mutagenesis efficiently improved the functional properties of a GH1 β-glucosidase highly expressed by Trichoderma harzianum (ThBgl) under biomass degradation conditions...
March 20, 2019: Scientific Reports
Bárbara Della Noce, Marcelle Vianna de Carvalho Uhl, Josias Machado, Camila Fernanda Waltero, Leonardo Araujo de Abreu, Renato Martins da Silva, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Cintia Monteiro de Barros, Gabriela Sabadin, Satoru Konnai, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Kazuhiko Ohashi, Carlos Logullo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are natural byproducts of metabolism that have toxic effects well documented in mammals. In hematophagous arthropods, however, these processes are not largely understood. Here, we describe that Rhipicephalus microplus ticks and embryonic cell line (BME26) employ an adaptive metabolic compensation mechanism that confers tolerance to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) at concentrations too high for others organisms. Tick survival and reproduction are not affected by H2 O2 exposure, while BME26 cells morphology was only mildly altered by the treatment...
March 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Seung Ho Lee, Yong Chan Cho, Young Bin Choy
We propose a noninvasive, self-diagnostic device that enables safe tear collection and glucose measurement. The device described herein was manufactured by tight assembly of a lid for tear collection in conjunction with a strip-type glucose sensor. The lid was designed to be in contact with the inferior palpebral conjunctiva for tear collection and was thus designed to possess a proper contact area and rounded boundaries to avoid eye tissue damage. For the strip-type glucose sensor, we employed a commercially available electrochemical sensor (Accu-Chek test strips), which was modified to reduce the volume of the reaction chamber (0...
March 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yujie Zhang, Mingxin Wu, Wubin Dai, Yinping Li, Xin Wang, Di Tan, Zhilu Yang, Sheng Liu, Longjian Xue, Yifeng Lei
Diabetes has become the third threat to public health worldwide. Traditional treatments of diabetes require frequent blood glucose testing and insulin injections, which not only bring great pain to patients but also exhibit difficulty in controlling the blood glucose accurately. In order to solve these problems, we developed a smart glucose-responsive insulin delivery system responding to the environmental glucose concentration based on gold nanoclusters (GNCs). First, we prepared GNCs as high drug-loading nanocarriers, and we decorated GNCs with phenylboronic acid molecules (4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (PBA) and 4-carboxy-3-fluorophenylboronic acid (FPBA)) as responsive ligands; then, we grafted insulin on the surface to form glucose-responsive insulin-release nanocomplexes GNC-PBA-Ins and GNC-FPBA-Ins, respectively...
March 20, 2019: Nanoscale
Shahlizah Sahul Hamid, Masataka Wakayama, Kensuke Ichihara, Katsutoshi Sakurai, Yujin Ashino, Rie Kadowaki, Tomoyoshi Soga, Masaru Tomita
Among seaweed groups, brown algae had characteristically high concentrations of mannitol, and green algae were characterised by fructose. In red algae, metabolite profiles of individual species should be evaluated. Seaweeds are metabolically different from terrestrial plants. However, general metabolite profiles of the three major seaweed groups, the brown, red, and green algae, and the effect of various extraction methods on metabolite profiling results have not been comprehensively explored. In this study, we evaluated the water-soluble metabolites in four brown, five red, and two green algae species collected from two sites in northern Japan, located in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean...
March 19, 2019: Planta
Krithiga Shridhar, Sanjay Kinra, Ruby Gupta, Shweta Khandelwal, Prabhakaran D, Sharon E Cox, Preet K Dhillon
Background: Evidence suggests a role for elevated serum calcium in dysregulated glucose metabolism, linked through low-level chronic inflammation. Objectives: We investigated the association of elevated serum calcium concentrations (corrected for albumin) with markers of dysregulated glucose metabolism and type II diabetes and tested if these associations were accounted for by chronic inflammation in a rural Indian population. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of participants aged 40-84 y from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCaPS; n  = 2699, 52...
March 2019: Current Developments in Nutrition
Xingyu Chen, Zhaoji Liu, Jiayin Miao, Weihong Zheng, Qingwei Yang, Xiaowen Ye, Xiaorong Zhuang, Feng Peng
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between stress hyperglycemia ratio (SHR) and outcome at 3 months after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute occlusion in the anterior circulation. METHODS: Data from 160 consecutive patients with large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation who underwent MT from May 2013 to March 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. SHR was calculated as the fasting glucose concentration divided by the estimated average glucose concentration (derived from the glycosylated hemoglobin level)...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Mousa Younesi, Anna Akkus, Ozan Akkus
Among a vast array of biomaterials investigated for tissue engineering applications, bacterial cellulose (BC) has not been evaluated in depth, despite the material's strong potential of applicability in the field of biotechnology. In this study we investigate the effect of sugar concentration and culture duration on physical and mechanical properties of BC. BC was grown in culture media with different glucose concentrations (weight percent) of 1.25%, 2.50%, 5.00%, 10.00%, 15.00% and also in media with fructose concentration of 5...
June 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Rukiye Ayranci, Buse Demirkan, Betul Sen, Aysun Şavk, Metin Ak, Fatih Şen
An electrochemical non-enzymatic sensor was developed for the detection of glucose based on an electrode modified with monodisperse platinum-nickel nanocomposites-decorated on reduced graphene oxide (Pt/Ni@rGO) which was synthesized using a new ultrasonic hydroxide assisted reduction method. Because the nanocomposites prepared by using NaOH (OH- ligands) are much smaller nanocomposites on the supports compared to the ones without OH- ligands. Such a monodisperse Pt/Ni@rGO nanocomposites-based electrode exhibited a high electrochemical activity for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution...
June 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Meilin Zhao, Dingchang Shi, Xinyao Lu, Hong Zong, Bin Zhuge
The aim of this work was to realize 1,2,4-butantriol (BT) production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by microbial fermentation, and obtain co-production of BT and ethanol. Candida glycerinogenes UG21 was utilized to reduce the effect of osmolality resulting from high glucose concentration and furfural in hydrolysates on cell growth of BT-producing strains, and produced 54.1 g/L ethanol from glucose. After ethanol recovering, xylose containing stillage was obtained and used for BT production. 1.3 g/L BT was generated by a BT-producing strain...
March 12, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Marilyn S Campbell, An Ouyang, Krishnakumar I M, Richard J Charnigo, Philip M Westgate, Bradley S Fleenor
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether an enhanced bioavailable curcumin formulation, CurQfen®, would improve circulating cardiovascular disease-related blood biomarkers and arterial function in young (age 18-35 y), obese (body mass index ≥ 30.0 kg/m2 ) men. METHODS: This double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial evaluated 22 men. The participants were matched based on body mass index and randomized to the intervention (curcumin formulated with fenugreek soluble fiber, for enhanced absorption) or control (fenugreek soluble fiber) group for 12 wk at 500mg/d without dietary modification or exercise...
January 11, 2019: Nutrition
Dongmei Yao, Chongning Li, Aihui Liang, Zhiliang Jiang
Highly stable, SERS active and catalytic nanosilver sol (AgNP) was synthesized under the exposure of light wave, using AgNO3 as precursor and sodium citrate as reducer. Under the conditions of pH 7.0 NaH2 PO4 -Na2 HPO4 buffer solution (PBS), the glucose can be catalyzed by glucose oxidase to produce H2 O2 specifically. Based on the nanocatalyst and SERS substrate of AgNP, H2 O2 can oxidize the 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) quickly to form a blue oxidation product (TMBox ) that induced the AgNPs aggregation, which exhibited a strong SERS signal at 1606 cm-1 ...
March 12, 2019: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Vitor F Martins, Jessica R Dent, Kristoffer Svensson, Shahriar Tahvilian, Maedha Begur, Shivani Lakkaraju, Elisa H Buckner, Samuel A LaBarge, Byron Hetrick, Carrie E McCurdy, Simon Schenk
INTRODUCTION: Akt is a critical mediator of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The acetyltransferases, E1A binding protein p300 (p300) and cAMP response element-binding protein binding protein (CBP) are phosphorylated and activated by Akt, and p300/CBP can acetylate and inactivate Akt, thus giving rise to a possible Akt-p300/CBP axis. Our objective was to determine the importance of p300 and CBP to skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. METHODS: We used Cre-LoxP methodology to generate mice with germline (muscle creatine kinase promoter [P-MCK and C-MCK]) or inducible (tamoxifen-activated, human skeletal actin promoter [P-iHSA and C-iHSA]) knockout of p300 or CBP...
March 19, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hanna Komarowska, Barbara Bromińska, Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj, Magdalena Jaskula-Świtek, Ryszard Waśko, Marek Ruchała, Gabriel Bromiński, Małgorzata Kotwicka
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a hormone that occurs in acylated (AG) or unacylated (UG) form. Ghrelin strongly stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion from anterior pituitary, as well as regulates the energy balance and various metabolic parameters. Increased consideration is given to UG, thought to be inactive. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the levels of total ghrelin, AG and UG in medically naive and treated patients with biochemically active acromegaly, with respect to variables of lipid and glucose metabolism...
March 19, 2019: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Haocheng Ao, Bingqian Liu, Haichun Li, Lin Lu
OBJECTIVES: This study focused on investigating the expression and underlying molecular mechanism of early growth response 1 (Egr1) in diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: A microarray assay was applied to examine differentially expressed genes in the retina tissues of normal rats, as well as in those of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Human retinal vascular endothelial cells (HRVECs) transfected with sh-NC, sh-Egr1 or sh-Egr1+ pVax1-p53 were cultured under high-glucose conditions and then used to explore the role of Egr1 in vitro...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Carmen Menéndez, Duniesky Martínez, Enrique R Pérez, Alexis Musacchio, Ricardo Ramírez, Agustín López-Munguía, Lázaro Hernández
The thermostable β-fructosidase (BfrA) from the bacterium Thermotoga maritima converts sucrose into glucose, fructose, and low levels of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS) at high substrate concentration (1.75 M) and elevated temperatures (60-70 °C). In this research, FOS produced by BfrA were characterized by HPAE-PAD analysis as a mixture of 1-kestotriose, 6G -kestotriose (neokestose), and to a major extent 6-kestotriose. In order to increase the FOS yield, three BfrA mutants (W14Y, W14Y-N16S and W14Y-W256Y), designed from sequence divergence between hydrolases and transferases, were constructed and constitutively expressed in the non-saccharolytic yeast Pichia pastoris...
June 2019: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
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