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A2 Milk

Daniela Küllenberg de Gaudry, Szimonetta Lohner, Christine Schmucker, Philipp Kapp, Edith Motschall, Simone Hörrlein, Christine Röger, Jörg J Meerpohl
Context: Various epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between exposure to cow's milk A1 β-casein protein and risk for noncommunicable chronic diseases. The consumption of A2 cow's milk is increasing, likely because A2 milk is postulated to have positive effects on digestive health. Objective: A systematic review was conducted to investigate associations between A1 β-casein and health-related outcomes in humans. Data Sources: Five electronic databases, 3 clinical trial registries, and the internet were searched systematically...
February 5, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Wolfgang Bernhard, Christian F Poets, Axel R Franz
BACKGROUND: Choline is an essential nutrient, with increased requirements during development. It forms the headgroup of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in all membranes and many secretions. Phosphatidylcholine is linked to cell signaling as a phosphocholine donor to synthesize sphingomyelin from ceramide, a trigger of apoptosis, and is the major carrier of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma. Acetylcholine is important for neurodevelopment and the placental storage form for fetal choline supply...
October 8, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Sanjay Kalra, Mudita Dhingra
This review describes the epidemiology of childhood diabetes in India. It focuses on the incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes and its complications and comorbid conditions. The review also covers data related to type 2 diabetes, glucose intolerance, and monogenic diabetes from India. A brief discussion regarding unique contributions from India to the world literature is included. The topics discussed include use of camel milk as adjuvant therapy in type 1 diabetes, relevance of the A1/A2 hypothesis, and comprehensive clinico-etiopathological classification of type 1 diabetes...
September 2018: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Joanne S J Chia, Jennifer L McRae, Ashwantha Kumar Enjapoori, Christophe M Lefèvre, Sonja Kukuljan, Karen M Dwyer
The contribution of cows' milk containing beta-casein protein A1 variant to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been controversial for decades. Despite epidemiological data demonstrating a relationship between A1 beta-casein consumption and T1D incidence, direct evidence is limited. We demonstrate that early life exposure to A1 beta-casein through the diet can modify progression to diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, with the effect apparent in later generations. Adult NOD mice from the F0 generation and all subsequent generations (F1 to F4) were fed either A1 or A2 beta-casein supplemented diets...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Eyal Seroussi, Shlomo E Blum, Oleg Krifucks, Yaniv Lavon, Gabriel Leitner
Recent findings have indicated that secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) have anti-inflammatory functions, including relief of symptoms in a mouse model of mastitis. This prompted us to investigate the therapeutic application of sPLA2, PLA2G1B, for bovine mastitis. Initial testing of PLA2G1B's effect on bovine mammary epithelial cell (bMEC) line PS revealed no changes in cell viability or cytokine-secretion pattern. However, when cells were first treated with lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) or live bacteria (Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus), incubation with PLA2G1B significantly improved cell viability, suggesting involvement of sPLA2s in protecting membranes from lipid-peroxidation damage, rather than a bactericidal action...
2018: PloS One
Hanh T H Nguyen, Heike Schwendel, Duane Harland, Li Day
β-casein (β-CN) comprises a major portion of milk caseins and are present as several genetic variants. In this study, we investigated the effects of the β-CN A2 variant versus the A1 variant on the calcium distribution, acid gelation and foaming properties of milk, and the microstructure of acid milk gels. The results showed that milk containing the β-CN phenotype A2 A2 had a higher proportion of free ionic calcium, enhanced foam formation capability and required a longer time for gelation to occur. The storage modulus at the end of fermentation was significantly lower for β-CN A2 A2 milk gel compared with that from β-CN A1 A1 milk...
October 2018: Food Research International
Xiaotian Xu, Aiwu Zhang, Yingting Zhu, Wen He, Wei Di, Yannan Fang, Xiaolei Shi
Recent evidence have suggested that neuroinflammation and ischemia induce the activation of two different types of reactive astrocytes, termed A1 and A2. Additionally, A1 astrocytes contribute to the death of neurons and oligodendrocytes in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the current study, we constructed an Aβ42-activated microglia-conditioned medium to induce A1 astrocytic activation via secretion of interleukin 1α, tumor necrosis factor, and complement component 1q in vitro, and indicated the regulatory role of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) on A1/A2 astrocytic alteration through the downregulation of nuclear factor-κB and the upregulation of PI3K-Akt...
January 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jitka Kyselová, Kateřina Ječmínková, Jitka Matějíčková, Oto Hanuš, Tomáš Kott, Miloslava Štípková, Michaela Krejčová
Objective: The aim of the study was to find a possible association between the β- and κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genotypes and important milk physiochemical and technological characteristics such as acidity, alcohol stability, the contents of some minerals and the parameters of acid fermentation ability (FEA) in Czech Fleckvieh Cattle. Methods: Milk and blood samples were collected from 338 primiparous Czech Fleckvieh cows at the same stage of lactation. The genotypes of individual cows for κ-casein (alleles A, B and E) and β-lactoglobulin (alleles A and B) were ascertained by PCR-RFLP, while their β-casein (alleles A1, A2, A3 and B) genotype was determined using melting curve genotyping analysis...
July 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
N Misra, T F Wines, C L Knopp, R Hermann, L Bond, B Mitchell, M A McGuire, J K Tinker
Staphylococcus aureus causes a chronic, contagious disease of the udder, or mastitis, in dairy cows. This infection is often refractory to antibiotic treatment, and has a significant economic impact on milk production worldwide. An effective vaccine to prevent S. aureus mastitis would improve animal health, reduce antibiotic dependence and inform human vaccine approaches. The iron-regulated surface determinant A (IsdA) and clumping factor A (ClfA) are conserved S. aureus extracellular-matrix adhesins and target vaccine antigens...
June 7, 2018: Vaccine
P G Eusebi, O Cortés, C Carleos, S Dunner, J Cañon
The identification of genomic regions including signatures of selection produced by domestication and its subsequent artificial selection processes allows the understanding of the evolution of bovine breeds. Although several studies describe the genomic variability among meat or milk production cattle breeds, there are limited studies orientated towards bovine behavioural features. This study is focused on mapping genomic signatures of selection which may provide insights of differentiation between neutral and selected polymorphisms...
June 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
Miguel Angel Duarte-Vázquez, Carlos Raúl García-Ugalde, Blanca Erika Álvarez, Laura Mariana Villegas, Blanca Estela García-Almendárez, Jorge Luis Rosado, Carlos Regalado
Beta-casein (BC) in cow's milk occurs in several genetic variants, where BC A1 (BCA1) and BC A2 (BCA2) are the most frequent. This work deals with a method based on modified polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using urea PAGE to discriminate BCA1 and BCA2 variants from Holstein Friesian (HF) and genetically selected Jersey A2/A2 (JA2) cow's milk. Two well defined bands were obtained from BC fraction of HF milk, while that of JA2 showed a single band. Proteins from these bands were sequenced by HPLC-quadrupole linear ion trap/mass spectrometry, resulting in BCA1 and BCA2 separation from the BC fraction of HF milk, whereas BCA2 was the only constituent of JA2 fraction...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Hanh T H Nguyen, Lydia Ong, Christelle Lopez, Sandra E Kentish, Sally L Gras
Mozzarella cheese is a classical dairy product but most research to date has focused on low moisture products. In this study, the microstructure and physicochemical properties of both laboratory and commercially produced high moisture buffalo Mozzarella cheeses were investigated and compared to high moisture bovine products. Buffalo and bovine Mozzarella cheeses were found to significantly differ in their microstructure, chemical composition, organic acid and proteolytic profiles but had similar hardness and meltability...
December 2017: Food Research International
Elisa Massella, Silvia Piva, Federica Giacometti, Gaetano Liuzzo, Angelo Vittorio Zambrini, Andrea Serraino
Bovine beta casein A1 is one of the most common variants in dairy cattle breeds; it is considered a risk factor in milk intolerance and in other important human diseases, because of the bioactive peptide beta casomorphin-7 (BCM7) produced by raw or processed A1-milk, but not by A2-milk, during digestion. The aim of this study was to perform a cheap and rapid method to investigate beta casein polymorphism in copious animals. The study included 2 dairy farms with a totally of 1230 cows. Beta casein genotypes were estimated evaluating Exon 7 region of bovine beta casein gene (CSN2) by sequences analysis...
August 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Mei He, Jianqin Sun, Zhuo Qin Jiang, Yue Xin Yang
BACKGROUND: A major protein component of cow's milk is β-casein. The most frequent variants in dairy herds are A1 and A2. Recent studies showed that milk containing A1 β-casein promoted intestinal inflammation and exacerbated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, the acute gastrointestinal effects of A1 β-casein have not been investigated. This study compared the gastrointestinal effects of milk containing A1 and A2 β-casein versus A2 β-casein alone in Chinese adults with self-reported lactose intolerance...
October 25, 2017: Nutrition Journal
Simon Brooke-Taylor, Karen Dwyer, Keith Woodford, Natalya Kost
This is the first systematic review, to our knowledge, of published studies investigating the gastrointestinal effects of A1-type bovine β-casein (A1) compared with A2-type bovine β-casein (A2). The review is relevant to nutrition practice given the increasing availability and promotion in a range of countries of dairy products free of A1 for both infant and adult nutrition. In vitro and in vivo studies (all species) were included. In vivo studies were limited to oral consumption. Inclusion criteria encompassed all English-language primary research studies, but not reviews, involving milk, fresh-milk products, β-casein, and β-casomorphins published through 12 April 2017...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
Michal Bijak, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid metabolism by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a major pathway for blood platelets' activation, which is associated with pro-thrombotic platelet activity and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Inhibition of COX activity is one of the major means of anti-platelet pharmacotherapy preventing arterial thrombosis and reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events. Recent studies have presented that a silymarin (standardized extract of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum)) can inhibit the COX pathway...
August 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Minghui Zhang, Dongying Chen, Zhen Zhen, Jinxia Ao, Xiaohan Yuan, Xuejun Gao
Annexin A2 (AnxA2) has been shown to play multiple roles in growth, development, and metabolism, but the functions of AnxA2 and the signaling pathways associated with AnxA2 are still not fully understood. In this study, we aim to reveal whether and how AnxA2 could be involved in milk synthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Using gene function study approaches, we found that AnxA2 positively regulates PIP3 level, phosphorylation of mTOR, and protein levels of SREBP-1c and Cyclin D1 leading to milk synthesis and cell proliferation...
March 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Miguel Á Duarte-Vázquez, Carlos García-Ugalde, Laura M Villegas-Gutiérrez, Blanca E García-Almendárez, Jorge L Rosado
Beta-casein (BC) is frequently expressed as BC A2 and BC A1 in cow's milk. Gastrointestinal digestion of BC A1 results in the release of the opioid peptide beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) which is less likely to occur from BC A2. This work was aimed to produce milk containing BC A2 with no BC A1 (BC A2 milk) using genetically selected CSN2 A2A2 Jersey cows. Additionally, we aimed to develop an infant formula (IF) suitable for healthy full-term infants during the first six months of life based on BC A2 milk. The concentration of BCM7 released from BC A2 IF, from commercially available IFs as well as from human milk and raw cow's milk was evaluated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID)...
July 12, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Jérémie Bruno, Aurélie Nicolas, Sandra Pesenti, Jessica Schwarz, Jean-Luc Simon, Joëlle Léonil, Pascale Plaisancié
β-Casofensin is a bioactive milk peptide that modulates the intestinal barrier, particularly through its action on goblet cells. β-Casofensin corresponds to fragment (f) 94-123 of the bovine β-casein (β-CN) A2 variant. Fifteen genetic variants of bovine β-CN (A1-3, B-G, H1-2, I-L) are known, of which the A2, A1, and B forms are the most common. These variants differ from each other by the substitution of one or more amino acids, some of which are localized in f94 to 123. The aim of our study was to compare the intestinal effects of β-casofensin A2 and its 3 main variants: A1, A3, and B...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Nicolas Bedere, Henk Bovenhuis
BACKGROUND: Milk β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) content is of interest as it is associated with nutritional and manufacturing properties. It is known that milk β-LG content is strongly affected by genetic factors. In cattle, most of the genetic differences are associated with a chromosomal region on BTA11, which contains the β-LG gene. The aim of this study was to characterize this region using 777 k SNP data (BovineHDbeadChip) and perform a haplotype-based association study. A statistical approach was developed to build haplotypes that capture the genetic variation associated with this genomic region...
February 22, 2017: BMC Genetics
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