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Streptococcus during pregnancy

Thomas F Rice, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Gaby P Smits, Pieter van Gageldonk, Guy Berbers, Fiona van der Klis, George Vamvakas, Beverly Donaldson, Marielle Bouqueau, Beth Holder, Beate Kampmann
The maternal Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis) vaccination program in the UK has successfully reduced cases of pertussis in young infants. In addition to prevention of pertussis cases, it is also important to investigate persistence of maternal antibody during infancy and possible interference of maternal antibodies with infant responses to vaccines. We recruited mother-infant pairs from vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnancies and measured concentrations of IgG against pertussis toxin (PTx), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), diphtheria toxin (DTx), tetanus toxoid (TTx) Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae in mothers and infants at birth, and in infants at 7 weeks and at 5 months...
February 13, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Blair Armistead, Elizabeth Oler, Kristina Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a β-hemolytic Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes the lower genital tract of approximately 18% of women globally as an asymptomatic member of the gastrointestinal and/or vaginal flora. If established in other host niches, however, GBS is highly pathogenic. During pregnancy, ascending GBS infection from the vagina to the intrauterine space is associated with preterm birth, stillbirth, and fetal injury. In addition, vertical transmission of GBS during or after birth results in life-threatening neonatal infections, including pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Molecular Biology
Fábio Siqueira, Eli Mendes Ferreira, Iracema de Matos Calderon, Adriano Dias
PROPOSE: Group B streptococcus is responsible for severe infections in neonates resulting from vertical transmission from pregnant women colonized in the anal, perineal or vaginal regions. The identification of colonized patients and use of intrapartum prophylaxis may reduce the risk of neonatal infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women of gestational age between 35 and 37 weeks was conducted. Material was collected from patients for laboratory identification of group B streptococcus...
January 17, 2019: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Richard G Brown, Maya Al-Memar, Julian R Marchesi, Yun S Lee, Ann Smith, Denise Chan, Holly Lewis, Lindsay Kindinger, Vasso Terzidou, Tom Bourne, Phillip R Bennett, David A MacIntyre
Vaginal bacterial community composition influences pregnancy outcome. Preterm prelabor rupture of the fetal membranes (PPROM), which precedes 30% of all spontaneous preterm births, is associated with high vaginal bacterial diversity prior to rupture. The point at which vaginal bacterial diversity is established before PPROM is unknown. In this study, we use metataxonomics to longitudinally characterize the vaginal bacterial composition from as early as 6 weeks of gestation in women at high (n = 38) and low (n = 22) risk of preterm birth who subsequently experience PPROM and in women delivering at term without complications (n = 36)...
December 27, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Jin Xiao, Naemah Alkhers, Dorota T Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Ronald J Billings, Tong Tong Wu, Daniel A Castillo, Linda Rasubala, Hans Malmstrom, Yanfang Ren, Eli Eliav
Despite the advancement of early childhood caries (ECC) prediction and treatment, ECC remains a significant public health burden in need of more effective preventive strategies. Pregnancy is an ideal period to promote ECC prevention given the profound influence of maternal oral health and behaviors on children's oral health. However, studies have shown debatable results with respect to the effectiveness of ECC prevention by means of prenatal intervention. Therefore, this study systematically reviewed the scientific evidence relating to the association between prenatal oral health care, ECC incidence, and Streptococcus mutans carriage in children...
January 10, 2019: Caries Research
Nicolas Dauby, Catherine Adler, Veronique Y Miendje Deyi, Rosalie Sacheli, Laurent Busson, Mustapha Chamekh, Arnaud Marchant, Patricia Barlow, Stéphane De Wit, Jack Levy, Pierrette Melin, Tessa Goetghebuer
Background: Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection is a leading cause of severe neonatal infection. Maternal GBS carriage during pregnancy is the main risk factor for both early-onset and late-onset GBS disease. High incidence of GBS infection has been reported in HIV-exposed but -uninfected infants (HEU). We aimed to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors for GBS colonization in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women living in Belgium. Methods: Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, HIV-infected (n = 125) and -uninfected (n = 120) pregnant women had recto-vaginal swabs at 35-37 weeks of gestation and at delivery for GBS detection...
December 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Misgav Rottenstreich, Reut Rotem, Naama Srebnik, Rivka Farkash, Arnon Samueloff, Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky
BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a significant cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. GBS maternal colonization status was found to be transient, intermittent, or chronic and screening during each subsequent pregnancy was advised. Recent studies showed that GBS colonization rate was higher among women with history of GBS positive in prior pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To establish the cumulative risk of group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization in consecutive subsequent term deliveries as referred to the first delivery GBS colonization status...
January 6, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Jessica A Sutton, Lisa M Rogers, Beverly Dixon, Leslie Kirk, Ryan Doster, Holly M Algood, Jennifer A Gaddy, Rebecca Flaherty, Shannon D Manning, David M Aronoff
PROBLEM: During pregnancy, Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can infect fetal membranes to cause chorioamnionitis, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Macrophages are the primary resident phagocyte in extraplacental membranes. Protein kinase D (PKD) was recently implicated in mediating pro-inflammatory macrophage responses to GBS outside of the reproductive system. This work aimed to characterize the human placental macrophage inflammatory response to GBS and address the extent to which PKD mediates such effects...
December 24, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Charlene W J Africa, Eveline Kaambo
Background: Maternal colonization of Group B streptococci (GBS) during pregnancy is an important risk factor for neonatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of GBS isolated from a cohort of pregnant women in the Western Cape, South Africa. Methods: Two ano-vaginal swabs were collected from 301 women at 28-37 weeks of gestation. Participants were recruited from four different antenatal clinics in the Western Cape, South Africa. GBS were detected by culture and PCR and serotypes confirmed by latex agglutination tests...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Hana Rac, Alyssa P Gould, Lea S Eiland, Brooke Griffin, Milena McLaughlin, Kayla R Stover, Christopher M Bland, P Brandon Bookstaver
OBJECTIVE: To review the treatment of common bacterial and viral infections occurring in the pregnant patient. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of MEDLINE was performed (inception to October 2018). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website was utilized for additional information. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant English-language studies and those conducted in humans were considered. DATA SYNTHESIS: β-Lactams alone or in combination are the preferred treatment for many common infections in pregnancy, such as urinary tract infections, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), gonococcal infections, syphilis, chancroid, upper- and lower-respiratory-tract infections, certain gastrointestinal infections, Group B Streptococcus, listeriosis, and intrauterine inflammation or infection...
December 17, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Silvina E Cocucci, Mirtha G Santacruz Silvero, Mirta O Losada, María S Touzón, Hilda RudaVega, Manuel Vazquez Blanco, Sergio L Provenzano, Carlos A Vay, Ángela M R Famiglietti, Beatriz E Perazzi
The etiology leading to neonatal damage is multifactorial, being genital infections one of the causes. The objective of the study was to identify microorganisms of the maternal genital tract that are associated with neonatal damage, in order to prevent future perinatal complications. Seven hundred and eleven pregnant patients attended their prenatal control during the period January 2010-July 2013. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis presence was investigated in umbilical cord blood by metabolic substrates (Micofast-Biomerieux) and that of T...
December 9, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Ryan S Doster, Jessica A Sutton, Lisa M Rogers, David M Aronoff, Jennifer A Gaddy
Streptococcus agalactiae , or group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a common perinatal pathogen. GBS colonization of the vaginal mucosa during pregnancy is a risk factor for invasive infection of the fetal membranes (chorioamnionitis) and its consequences such as membrane rupture, preterm labor, stillbirth, and neonatal sepsis. Placental macrophages, or Hofbauer cells, are fetally derived macrophages present within placental and fetal membrane tissues that perform vital functions for fetal and placental development, including supporting angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and regulation of maternal-fetal tolerance...
November 20, 2018: MBio
A Frega, M Santomauro, F Sesti, J Di Giuseppe, C Colombrino, R Marziani, A Catalano, M Pavone, C Leone, M Mallozzi, E D'Adamo, A Ciavattini, D Caserta
OBJECTIVE: In the last years, the mean age of women who underwent cervical treatment for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2-3) is similar to the age of women having their first pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of preterm birth in subsequent pregnancies after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2013 to January 2016 the study identified a total of 1435 women, nulliparous, who underwent LEEP for CIN 2-3, and who wished to have their first pregnancy...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Alexis Panzer, Sarah Dotters-Katz, Marcela Smid, Kim Boggess, Tracy Manuck
OBJECTIVE:  To identify factors associated with previable delivery in second trimester preterm rupture of membranes (PROM). MATERIALS AND METHODS:  We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of women with pregnancies complicated by second trimester PROM (14.0-21.9 weeks' gestation) from 2000 to 2015 who elected expectant pregnancy management and achieved at least 24 hours latency. Maternal characteristics and clinical factors were compared among pregnancies that reached viability (≥ 23...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Andrew P Brown, Fiona C Denison
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in many countries and responsible for significant perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has been the mainstay of efforts to prevent early-onset GBS disease in recent decades, however it is unclear if women should be targeted based on the presence of clinical risk factors or by screening for GBS colonisation during pregnancy. Universal bacteriological screening of women in late pregnancy has been widely adopted but questions remain regarding its benefits and potential harms...
November 2018: Early Human Development
Koichi Kyono, Tomoko Hashimoto, Yoko Nagai, Yoshiyuki Sakuraba
Purpose: The present study aimed to analyze the endometrial and vaginal microbiome among a Japanese infertile population by sequencing and the impact of the endometrial and vaginal environment on implantation. Methods: In total, 102 infertile (79 in vitro fertilization [IVF] and 23 non-IVF) patients and seven healthy volunteers were recruited from August to December, 2017. Endometrial fluid and vaginal discharge samples for sequencing were collected by using an intrauterine insemination catheter...
July 2018: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
J A Carrillo-Ávila, J Gutiérrez-Fernández, A I González-Espín, E García-Triviño, L G Giménez-Lirola
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus Group B (GBS) colonization in pregnant women is the most important risk factor for newborn disease due to vertical transmission during delivery. GBS colonization during pregnancy has been implicated as a leading cause of perinatal infections. Traditionally, pregnant women are screened for GBS between 35 and 37 weeks of gestation. However, antenatal culture-based screening yields no information on GBS colonization status and offers low predictive value for GBS colonization at delivery...
July 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
M Jaalama, O Palomäki, R Vuento, A Jokinen, J Uotila
Objectives: Little is known about the significance of Streptococcus G or C colonization in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to assess whether vaginal Streptococcus group G or C colonization detected in late pregnancy increases the infectious morbidity of the mother or newborn. Methods: A total of 15,114 rectovaginal cultures taken at 35-37 weeks of pregnancy were analyzed at Tampere University Hospital, Finland, between 2012 and 2014. From this laboratory data, all Streptococcus G or C-positive cultures were included to study maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity after delivery...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Sara N Lundgren, Juliette C Madan, Jennifer A Emond, Hilary G Morrison, Brock C Christensen, Margaret R Karagas, Anne G Hoen
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has an important role in infant health and immune development and may be affected by early-life exposures. Maternal diet may influence the infant gut microbiome through vertical transfer of maternal microbes to infants during vaginal delivery and breastfeeding. We aimed to examine the association of maternal diet during pregnancy with the infant gut microbiome 6 weeks post-delivery in mother-infant dyads enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study...
July 5, 2018: Microbiome
Sonwabile Dzanibe, Shabir A Madhi
Vaccination against group B Streptococcus (GBS) during pregnancy could provide protection against disease in the mother, fetus, and newborn. Immunity through transplacental acquired antibodies in the newborns could persist through early infancy, reducing the risk of early-onset (<7 days age) and late-onset (7-89 days age) disease. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials on GBS capsular polysaccharide (CPS) vaccine to assess its safety and immunogenicity in pregnant and nonpregnant adults. Areas covered: We searched literature databases PubMed (Medline), Scopus, and the Cochrane library and identified 25 unique records on GBS CPS vaccines with or without conjugant protein...
July 13, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
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