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Microbiology space

Stuart D Dowall, Victoria A Graham, Tom Fletcher, Roger Hewson
In the UK, research on hazard group 4 (HG4) pathogens requires specialised Containment Level 4 (CL4) facilities. These differ from Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4) conditions in that work is conducted in class III microbiological safety cabinets for primary containment instead of using positive pressure suits. This presents unique challenges associated with the physical restrictions of working in a limited space, and prohibits the use of many techniques and specialist equipment. In consequence, detailed studies on the biology of HG4 pathogens and in particular their immunological relationships with the host are understudied in the UK; for example, the majority of immunological assays with which the immune system is interrogated require specialist equipment that is unsuitable for CL4...
February 13, 2019: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Zuzana Čermáková, Jan Wipler, Tomáš Hanzálek, Hana Horáková, Vladimír Buchta
INTRODUCTION: The microbiological aspect of a relationship between pets (dogs/cats) and their owners is mainly concerned with the incidence of the shared fungal species that can be potential pathogens. Since sharing homes with pets is very popular in the Czech Republic, there is an increased possibility of communication between microbiota of the two macroorganisms (the pet and the owner). The aim of the study was to determine, based on the close relationship between pets and humans, the biodiversity of shared fungi, also with respect to previous antimicrobial therapy...
June 2018: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
George G Zhanel, Alyssa R Golden, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Karyn Wiebe, Courtney K Lawrence, Heather J Adam, Temilolu Idowu, Ronald Domalaon, Frank Schweizer, Michael A Zhanel, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew J Walkty, Ayman Noreddin, Joseph P Lynch Iii, James A Karlowsky
Cefiderocol is an injectable siderophore cephalosporin discovered and being developed by Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Japan. As with other β-lactam antibiotics, the principal antibacterial/bactericidal activity of cefiderocol occurs by inhibition of Gram-negative bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin binding proteins; however, it is unique in that it enters the bacterial periplasmic space as a result of its siderophore-like property and has enhanced stability to β-lactamases. The chemical structure of cefiderocol is similar to both ceftazidime and cefepime, which are third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, respectively, but with high stability to a variety of β-lactamases, including AmpC and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)...
February 2, 2019: Drugs
Dustin L Williams, Richard T Epperson, Nicholas N Ashton, Nicholas B Taylor, Brooke Kawaguchi, Raymond E Olsen, Travis J Haussener, Paul R Sebahar, Gina Allyn, Ryan E Looper
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a well-known and persisting problem. Active release coatings have promise to provide early protection to an implant by eradicating small colony biofilm contaminants or planktonic bacteria that can form biofilm. Traditional antibiotics can be limited as active release agents in that they have limited effect against biofilms and develop resistance at sub-lethal concentrations. A unique first-in-class compound (CZ-01127) was assessed as the active release agent in a silicone (Si)-based coating to prevent PJI in a sheep model of joint space infection...
January 30, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Eihab O Bedawi, Maged Hassan, David McCracken, Najib M Rahman
INTRODUCTION: Pleural infection is a condition that continues to pose a significant challenge to respiratory physicians. We hypothesize that the main barriers to progress include limited understanding of the etiopathogenesis, microbiology and role of antibiotics in the pleural space. AREAS COVERED: PubMed was searched for articles related to adult pleural infection using the terms 'pleural infection', 'empyema' and 'parapneumonic'. The search focused on relevant literature within the last ten years, with any older citations used only to display context or lack of progress...
February 1, 2019: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Ryan C Johnson, Clay Deming, Sean Conlan, Caroline J Zellmer, Angela V Michelin, ShihQueen Lee-Lin, Pamela J Thomas, Morgan Park, Rebecca A Weingarten, John Less, John P Dekker, Karen M Frank, Kimberlee A Musser, John R McQuiston, David K Henderson, Anna F Lau, Tara N Palmore, Julia A Segre
BACKGROUND: Plumbing systems are an infrequent but known reservoir for opportunistic microbial pathogens that can infect hospitalized patients. In 2016, a cluster of clinical sphingomonas infections prompted an investigation. METHODS: We performed whole-genome DNA sequencing on clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Sphingomonas koreensis identified from 2006 through 2016 at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center. We cultured S. koreensis from the sinks in patient rooms and performed both whole-genome and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to identify a reservoir within the infrastructure of the hospital...
December 27, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Brian T Bucher, Jeffrey P Ferraro, Samuel R G Finlayson, Wendy W Chapman, Adi V Gundlapalli
Importance: Conventional approaches for tracking postoperative adverse events requires manual medical record review, thus limiting the scalability of such efforts. Objective: To determine if a surveillance system using computerized provider order entry (CPOE) events for selected medications as well as laboratory, microbiologic, and radiologic orders can decrease the manual medical record review burden for surveillance of postoperative complications. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study reviewed the medical records of 21 775 patients who underwent surgical procedures at a university-based tertiary referral center (University of Utah, Salt Lake City) from July 1, 2007, to August 31, 2017...
December 26, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Stefano Amalfitano, Caterina Levantesi, Laurent Garrelly, Donatella Giacosa, Francesca Bersani, Simona Rossetti
During longer-lasting future space missions, water renewal by ground-loaded supplies will become increasingly expensive and unmanageable for months. Space exploration by self-sufficient spacecrafts is thus demanding the development of culture-independent microbiological methods for in-flight water monitoring to counteract possible contamination risks. In this study, we aimed at evaluating total microbial load data assessed by selected early-warning techniques with current or promising perspectives for space applications (i...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
John E Moore, John McCaughan, Jonathan Stirling, Jane Bell, B Cherie Millar
The frequency of seasonal snowfall results in the transient covering of gardens/amenity sites/open public spaces, which encourages recreational interaction mainly with children. No data is available demonstrating the microbiological composition of such fallen snow and therefore a study was undertaken to examine the microbiology of snow from 37 sites, estimating (i) total viable count (TVC), (ii) identification of bacteria, and (iii) the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mean TVC count of 8.3 colony-forming units (cfu)/ml snow melt water, 51...
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Hui Zen Hee, Chun-Ku Chen, Yi-Chen Yeh, Chien-Sheng Huang
Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice for mature mediastinal teratoma, and the operation itself is sometimes complicated or life-threatening, especially when it ruptures into adjacent vital structures. We describe a rare case of unanticipatedly delayed complete resection of a symptomatic teratoma with simultaneous Haemophilus influenzae infection, followed by extended rupture into the pleural space, lung, and bronchus. The clinical presentation and the microbiological and radiologic features may lead to the impression of a lung abscess until it can be proven otherwise pathologically after an initial thoracic aspiration...
February 2019: Respirology Case Reports
Yoann Perrin, Didier Bouchon, Vincent Delafont, Laurent Moulin, Yann Héchard
The microbiological water quality of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) is of primary importance for human health. High-throughput sequencing has gained more and more attention in the last decade to describe this microbial diversity in water networks. However, there are few studies describing this approach on large drinking water distribution systems and for extended periods of time. To fill this gap and observe the potential subtle variation in microbiota of a water network through time and space, we aimed to apply high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene approach to characterize bacterial communities of the Paris' DWDS over a one-year period...
November 12, 2018: Water Research
Avi Shemesh, Avraham Yitzhak, Joe Ben Itzhak, Hadas Azizi, Michael Solomonov
Ludwig angina is a life-threatening type of soft tissue cellulitis involving 3 compartments on the floor of the mouth including the submental, sublingual, and submandibular spaces bilaterally. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment of Ludwig angina are critical because this is a clinical diagnosis with unpredictable progression. This article describes a rare case of Ludwig angina that evolved from an odontogenic infection and the specific microbiology and clinical course and discusses possible etiologies and prevention...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Barbara Speranza, Daniela Campaniello, Antonio Bevilacqua, Clelia Altieri, Milena Sinigaglia, Maria Rosaria Corbo
There is an increasing trend toward foods with probiotics; the awareness of healthy diet and wellbeing is the leading cause of this increase. As a result, food producers and stakeholders require new probiotic products. The increased incidence of lactose intolerance and the new lifestyles (vegan and vegetarian styles) have led to a renewed interest in non-dairy probiotic carriers. The use of biopolymeric matrices to develop active food packaging carrying probiotics has been studied and proposed as an alternative method to design new solutions...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Noel S Ha, Saman Sadeghi, R Michael van Dam
Radiopharmaceuticals labeled with short-lived positron-emitting or gamma-emitting isotopes are injected into patients just prior to performing positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission tomography (SPECT) scans, respectively. These imaging modalities are widely used in clinical care, as well as in the development and evaluation of new therapies in clinical research. Prior to injection, these radiopharmaceuticals (tracers) must undergo quality control (QC) testing to ensure product purity, identity, and safety for human use...
November 21, 2017: Micromachines
Ning A Rosenthal, Kirstin H Heinrich, Jessica Chung, Holly Yu
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To assess hospital resource utilization and costs associated with Staphylococcus aureus infection within 180 days post elective posterior instrumented spinal fusion surgeries (index surgery) between 2010-2015. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical site infections (SSIs) and blood stream infections (BSIs) post spinal fusion surgeries are associated with worse clinical outcomes and increased costs...
October 15, 2018: Spine
Vincenzo Zammuto, Felix M Fuchs, Marcel Fiebrandt, Katharina Stapelmann, Nikea J Ulrich, Teresa L Maugeri, Rüdiger Pukall, Concetta Gugliandolo, Ralf Moeller
Submarine hydrothermal vents are inhabited by a variety of microorganisms capable of tolerating environmental extremes, making them ideal candidates to further expand our knowledge of the limitations for terrestrial life, including their ability to survive the exposure of spaceflight-relevant conditions. The spore resistance of two Bacillus spp. strains, APA and SBP3, isolated from two shallow vents off Panarea Island (Aeolian Islands, Italy), to artificial and environmental stressors (i.e., UVC radiation, X-rays, heat, space vacuum, hydrogen peroxide [H2 O2 ], and low-pressure plasma), was compared with that of two close phylogenetic relatives (Bacillus horneckiae and Bacillus oceanisediminis)...
November 2018: Astrobiology
Ayodele Sasegbon, Laura O'Shea, Shaheen Hamdy
Introduction: Elderly people are recognised to be at increased risk of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD), the causes of which are multifactorial. Our aim was to identify if sepsis is associated with OPD in the elderly during hospitalisation in the absence of known other risk factors for OPD. Methods: A hospital electronic database was searched for elderly patients (≥65 years) referred for assessment for suspected dysphagia between March 2013 and 2014. Exclusion criteria were age <65 years, pre-existing OPD or acute OPD secondary to acute intracranial event, space-occupying lesion or trauma...
October 2018: Frontline Gastroenterology
F Riechelmann, P Kaiser, R Arora
OBJECTIVE: Debridement of soft tissue and bone in an open fracture situation to minimize infection risk and achieve primary skin closure, or to provide conditions for early soft tissue coverage. INDICATIONS: Indications are Gustilo-Anderson grade I-III A-C open fractures. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Contraindications are injuries requiring amputation, burns, and life-threatening injuries which make appropriate treatment temporarily impossible. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: Removal of gross contamination and macroscopic contaminants; debridement of the wound; complete resection of contaminated and dirty tissue; sparse step-by-step resection of contaminated or non-vital wound and bone margins until vital, bleeding tissue begins; low-pressure irrigation with isotonic irrigation fluid; diagnostic biopsies for microbiological testing; reduction of dead space by interpositioning of muscle or cement spacers loaded with local antibiotics; primary wound closure if tension-free closure possible; otherwise, if resources and knowhow permit and satisfactory clean debridement was achieved, local flap; if flap impossible, debridement not satisfactory, secondary tissue necrosis likely, potential remaining contamination or contamination with fecal matter, then vacuum-assisted closure therapy...
October 2018: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
Anette McLeod, Kristian Hovde Liland, John-Erik Haugen, Oddvin Sørheim, Kristine S Myhrer, Askild L Holck
We have compared the efficacy of continuous ultraviolet (UV-C) (254 nm) and pulsed UV light in reducing the viability of Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes , Staphylococcus aureus , enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermospacta, Carnobacterium divergens , and extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli inoculated on chicken fillet surface. Fluences from 0.05 to 3.0 J/cm2 (10 mW/cm2 , from 5 to 300 s) used for UV-C light resulted in average reductions from 1...
February 2018: Journal of Food Safety
Adrian Caceres, Maria Luisa Avila, Marco Luis Herrera
INTRODUCTION: Invasive mycosis of the central nervous system represent a diverse group of diseases that have gradually emerged as not only opportunistic infections in patients with immune susceptibility due to congenital and acquired deficiency, immunomodulation, solid organ and stem cell transplantation, hematological malignancies, and chronic steroid use but also in selected risk populations such as low weight preterm infants, patients with shunted hydrocephalus and external ventricular drainages, skull base surgery, and head injury...
October 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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