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Arousal AND Disorder

Markus Jansson-Fröjmark, Allison G Harvey, Ida K Flink
The purpose was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Insomnia Catastrophizing Scale (ICS) including factorial validity and internal consistency as well as discriminative and convergent validity. Associations with sleep parameters and daytime impairment are also examined. Drawn from a randomly selected sample of the general population, 1615 participants completed a survey on insomnia-related nighttime and daytime symptoms, health outcomes and psychological processes, including the ICS. A one-factor solution was supported for both the nighttime catastrophizing (11 items) and daytime catastrophizing (6 items) subscales...
March 21, 2019: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Yuchen Wang, Zijie Li, Zemin Tian, Xuejiao Wang, Yingzhuo Li, Ling Qin
Emotional state has been shown to influence cognitive performance. However, the influence of mood on auditory processing is not fully understood. The auditory steady state response (ASSR) is the entrainment of neural activities elicited by periodic auditory stimulation, which is commonly used to evaluate the sensory and cognitive functions of brain. It has been shown that ASSR at 40 Hz is impaired at some psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional arousal on ASSR...
March 21, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Liqa N Athamneh, William B DeHart, Derek Pope, Alexandra M Mellis, Sarah E Snider, Brent A Kaplan, Warren K Bickel
Abstinence self-efficacy (ASE) and delay discounting predict treatment outcomes and risk of relapse. Associations between delay discounting and ASE among individuals in recovery from substance use have not been investigated. Data from 216 individuals in recovery from substance abuse recruited from The International Quit & Recovery Registry, an ongoing online data collection program used to understand addiction and how people succeed in recovery, were included in the analysis. Discounting rates were assessed using an adjusting-delay task, and ASE was assessed using the Relapse Situation Efficacy Questionnaire (RSEQ)...
March 21, 2019: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Emma K Baker, Amanda L Richdale, Agnes Hazi, Luke A Prendergast
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep, psychopathology (anxiety, depression and presleep arousal) symptoms, and cortisol in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sample composed of 29 adults with ASD (51.7% males) and 29 control adults (51.7% males) aged 21-44 years. Thirteen adults with ASD were medicated for a comorbid diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression (ASD-Med), while the remaining 16 adults with ASD were not medicated for such diagnoses (ASD-Only). Participants completed a questionnaire battery, 14-day sleep/wake diary and 14-day actigraphy assessment...
March 21, 2019: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Xiang-Hui Liu, Rong-Ting Zhu, Bo Hao, Yan-Wei Shi, Xiao-Guang Wang, Li Xue, Hu Zhao
Glucocorticoids (GCs) can modulate the memory enhancement process during stressful events, and this modulation requires arousal-induced norepinephrine (NE) activation in the basolateral amygdale (BLA). Our previous study found that an intrahippocampal infusion of propranolol dose-dependently induced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like memory impairments. To explore the role of the noradrenergic system of the BLA in PTSD-like memory impairment, we injected various doses of NE into the BLA. We found that only a specific quantity of NE (0...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Ping Mu, Yanhua H Huang
Sleep profoundly regulates our emotional and motivational state of mind. Human brain imaging and animal model studies are providing initial insights on the underlying neural mechanisms. Here, we focus on the brain cholinergic system, including cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, ventral striatum, habenula, and brain stem. Although much is learned about cholinergic regulations of emotion and motivation, less is known on their interactions with sleep. Specifically, we present an anatomical framework that highlights cholinergic signaling in the integrated reward-arousal/sleep circuitry, and identify the knowledge gaps on the potential roles of cholinergic system in sleep-mediated regulation of emotion and motivation...
March 17, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Sebastian Olbrich, Ina Jahn, Katarina Stengler
BACKGROUND: Kleptomania is a disease that shares features with obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders (OCD) and with substance abuse disorders (SAD). This is underlined by therapeutic approaches in kleptomania ranging from cognitive behavioural therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors that are effective in OCD, and opioid antagonists that are currently being used in SAD. However, almost no literature exists about exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy in kleptomania...
March 21, 2019: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Valeria Rytova, Despina E Ganella, David Hawkes, Ross A D Bathgate, Sherie Ma, Andrew L Gundlach
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in modern society and better treatments are required. Key brain areas and signaling systems underlying anxiety include prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala, and monoaminergic and peptidergic systems, respectively. Hindbrain GABAergic projection neurons that express the peptide, relaxin-3, broadly innervate the forebrain, particularly the septum and hippocampus, and relaxin-3 acts via a Gi/o -protein-coupled receptor known as the relaxin-family peptide 3 receptor (RXFP3)...
March 19, 2019: Hippocampus
Eduardo E Benarroch
Sleep and arousal from sleep are associated with profound changes in cardiovascular and respiratory functions. Fluctuations of arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), and respiration occur both during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep and during transitions between sleep and behavioral arousal. These changes reflect complex, state-dependent interactions among several neuronal groups in the hypothalamus and brainstem. These neurons utilize the excitatory amino-acid L-glutamate or the inhibitory amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and are modulated in a state-dependent manner by inputs from cholinergic, monoaminergic, and hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons...
May 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Edgar Garcia-Rill, Alan J Tackett, Stephanie D Byrum, Renny S Lan, Samuel G Mackintosh, James R Hyde, Veronica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
Our discovery of low-threshold stimulation-induced locomotion in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) led to the clinical use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) that manifest gait and postural disorders. Three additional major discoveries on the properties of PPN neurons have opened new areas of research for the treatment of motor and arousal disorders. The description of (a) electrical coupling, (b) intrinsic gamma oscillations, and (c) gene regulation in the PPN has identified a number of novel therapeutic targets and methods for the treatment of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders...
March 18, 2019: Brain Sciences
Narun Pornpattananangkul, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Argyris Stringaris
Importance: Anhedonia can present in children and predict detrimental clinical outcomes. Objective: To map anhedonia in children onto changes in intrinsic large-scale connectivity and task-evoked activation and to probe the specificity of these changes in anhedonia against other clinical phenotypes (low mood, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]). Design, Setting, and Participants: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were from the first annual release of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, collected between September 2016 and September 2017 and analyzed between April and September 2018...
March 13, 2019: JAMA Psychiatry
P Ahumada-Pascual, Daniel García Gañán, Yasmina El Berdei Montero, Ana Velasco
Multiple sclerosis is a high-frequency neurological disorder in young adults. Although there are some genetic and environmental factors that have been related to the onset of the disease, these are not still completely understood and nowadays multiple sclerosis can neither be prevented, nor its symptom effectively treated due to disease heterogeneity. For this reason, the search of prognostic factors and new therapeutic compounds for MS has long aroused among clinicians and researchers. Among these therapeutic compounds, GEMSP, which consists of a mixture of functional constituents as fatty acids, antioxidants, free radical scavengers and amino acids linked individually to poly-L-Lysine (PL), is emerging as a promising drug for MS treatment...
March 11, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Nicola Sambuco, Margaret Bradley, David Herring, Katja Hillbrandt, Peter J Lang
Exposure to traumatic events is not unique to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and is a significant factor in the development of physical and mental disease across the diagnostic spectrum. Using fMRI, this study assesses functional activation in the amygdala and visual cortex during emotional scene processing in a sample of anxiety and mood disorder patients (N = 162). Replicating previous studies with healthy young participants, a strong covariation was found between functional activity in the amygdala and ventral visual cortex, with blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity overall significantly enhanced in both regions when viewing emotionally arousing, compared to neutral, scenes...
March 12, 2019: Psychophysiology
Jose B Contreras, Jarrett Richardson, Suresh Kotagal
Sexsomnia has been reported and is well described in 115 prior cases in the literature. There have been associations with other sleep disorders serving as triggers for confusional arousals, thereby worsening sexsomnia episodes. We present a case of an adolescent boy with a history of resected and treated pineoblastoma who later developed sexsomnia marked by multiple episodes of masturbatory events per night. He had additional suspicions of obstructive sleep apnea. Polysomnography confirmed severe obstructive sleep apnea and captured multiple episodes of sexsomnia from both REM and NREM sleep...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Sharon J Parish, Cindy M Meston, Stanley E Althof, Anita H Clayton, Irwin Goldstein, Sue W Goldstein, Julia R Heiman, Marita P McCabe, R Taylor Segraves, James A Simon
INTRODUCTION: In 2016 the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health (ISSWSH) published an expert consensus report on new nomenclature that addressed the need for comprehensive, evidence-based criteria for new diagnoses in desire, arousal, and orgasm, with the definition on arousal focusing exclusively on female genital arousal disorder (FGAD). AIM: A new expert panel solely focused on mechanisms of arousal disorders convened to revise the nomenclature to include female cognitive arousal disorder (FCAD) and FGAD...
March 2019: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Zrinka Sosic-Vasic, Julia Eberhardt, Julia E Bosch, Lisa Dommes, Karin Labek, Anna Buchheim, Roberto Viviani
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by pronounced emotional instability in interpersonal relations. Previous studies have shown increased activity in the amygdala, an imaging phenotype of negative affect. However, clinical accounts of BPD have drawn attention to deficits in social cognition and their likely role in engendering emotional instability. BPD patients show enhanced sensitivity to other people's emotions, while being less proficient in reading motives and reasons. In the present functional imaging study, we exposed BPD participants to stylized scenes of individuals affected by loss or separation, an issue to which these patients are particularly sensitive...
February 28, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Eunjin Hwang, Ritchie E Brown, Bernat Kocsis, Tae Kim, James T McKenna, James M McNally, Hio-Been Han, Jee Hyun Choi
High-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings are widely used in human studies to determine spatio-temporal patterns of cortical electrical activity. How these patterns of activity are modulated by subcortical arousal systems is poorly understood. Here, we couple selective optogenetic stimulation of a defined subcortical cell-type, basal forebrain (BF) parvalbumin (PV) neurons, with hdEEG recordings in mice (Opto-hdEEG). Stimulation of BF PV projection neurons preferentially generated time-locked gamma oscillations in frontal cortices...
March 2, 2019: Brain Structure & Function
Mark B Norman, Henley C Harrison, Karen A Waters, Colin E Sullivan
PURPOSE: Polysomnography is not recommended for children at home and does not adequately capture partial upper airway obstruction (snoring and stertor), the dominant pathology in pediatric sleep-disordered breathing. New methods are required for assessment. Aims were to assess sleep disruption linked to partial upper airway obstruction and to evaluate unattended Sonomat use in a large group of children at home. METHODS: Children with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) had a single home-based Sonomat recording (n = 231)...
March 1, 2019: Sleep & Breathing
Ask Elklit, Lene Annie Gregers Vangsgaard, Anne Sophie Witt Olsen, Sara Al Ali
There is a lack of research examining secondary stalking and its effect on children who, in many cases, can be direct targets, or secondary survivors, of the stalking of their parent. The present study examines trauma reactions in children of stalking survivors in a Danish sample. It investigates the differences and similarities of such reactions across three age groups. Fifty-seven children were divided into groups depending on their age. The symptoms of the youngest group, 0⁻6-year-olds, were investigated by way of a maternal diagnostic interview...
February 28, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Taichi Kurayama, Daisuke Matsuzawa, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Eiji Shimizu
The relationship between auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and the neural cognitive processes of fear has been suggested in both healthy participants and patients with fear-related mental disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder. The present study sought to confirm whether the MMN is affected by classical fear conditioning in healthy participants. MMN amplitude, N1 amplitude, and skin conductance level (SCL) in 20 healthy volunteers during a fear-conditioning paradigm consisting of three phases (habituation, fear acquisition, and fear extinction) were recorded...
February 26, 2019: Neuroreport
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